Intro to Telecom Exam 2 study guide
Intro to Telecom Exam 2 study guide RTV 3001
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rae Knopik on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to RTV 3001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. William A. Renkus in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 112 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Media Industries in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
RTV 3001 ● Study Guide ● Second Exam The exam will consist of 50 multiple choice questions Material reviewed during class and/or in Chapters 6 & 7 Highlighted content denotes information that has not yet been covered in lecture. Technology 1. Facsimile technology and fidelity Basic principles of media technology a. Facsimile Technology: all modes of mass communication are based on this process of copying. i. Videotaping the real world b. Fidelity: a way to describe how faithfully a facsimile represents the original i. How well can we copy the real world ii. High fidelity is reproduction that closely approximates the original signal c. Radio waves can be used to transmit facsimiles of pictures and sounds. i. Send it from place to place 2. What is transduction? Give some examples of mechanical and electronic transduction Transduction: the process of changing one form of energy into another form a. Converting one type of wave into another type of wave: einstein says everything you experience in this world is a wave b. Digital technology reduces loss of fidelity in the transduction process i. Technology is key. ii. Transduce one wave into another and then digitize it (assign a number to it.) c. All industries use transduction to change the original into a facsimile d. Reduces the loss of fidelity (the signal) e. Examples: i. Capturing sound of a bird chirping on a microphone 1. Sound waves into electricity ii. Transmitting the sound of the chirping involves transducing the electrical energy into electromagnetic energy iii. Our brains transduce the image 3. Signal to noise ratio Signal to noise ratio: the amount of signal present compared to the amount of noise a. You want a high signal to noise ratio b. Can be measured by recording devices 4. Oscillation and the waveform Fundamental characteristics of waves a. Radiant: they move from one place to another through surrounding space b. Constant velocity: 186,000 miles per second (speed of light) c. Wavelike motion: waves oscillate - they change and vibrate d. Amplitude: strength/ power of the wave - how high it is e. Frequency: wave length - how many waves per second (in time) i. How long it takes to get back to the original point, when you go completely through one cycle ii. Can modulate: number of waves that pass a given point in a given time iii. Usually measured in hertz (Hz) iv. The higher the frequency the shorter the wavelength. 1. Soprano is a higher frequency than base 2. Traffic: if you commute down 34th street to the intersection with archer, it’s a nightmare kind of place at rush hour - bumper to bumper: that’s high frequency. v. Number of wave motions or Cycles per second (CPS) = Hertz (Hz) 5. What are the three characteristics of electromagnetic energy? radiant, constant velocity, wavelike motion Human beings are limited in our sight on the electromagnetic spectrum All industries negotiate with the FCC and gov’t of the US for placement on the electromagnetic spectrum. a. Radio has a seat, tv has a seat, your cellphone has a seat on the electromagnetic spectrum 6. Velocity of electromagnetic energy – speed of light 186,000 miles per second; it is a constant velocity 7. What is a cycle of a radio wave? A radio wave may be described in terms of frequency and amplitude, a. Energy past a given point b. Measured in Decibels (named after alexander Graham bell) c. Higher decibel reading the louder the sound 8. What is frequency, what is frequency response? Frequency: wave length - how many waves per second (in time) Frequency Response: a measure of quality (best fidelity possible) a. How well a receiver reproduces a range of audio frequencies is an example of describing its frequency response b. The human ear can hear frequencies 20-20,000 Hertz c. Frequency response matters in these industries so that you can properly capture media. 9. What does Hertz measure? Frequency 10. What is the threshold of pain ? Threshold of pain is around 135 dB 11. What is pulse code modulation? A method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. a. standard form of digital audio in computers, CDs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications. b. In a PCM stream, the amplitude of the analog signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, and each sample is quantized to the nearest value within a range of digital steps. 12. What are the differences between amplitude and frequency modulation? AM (Amplitude Modulation) and FM (Frequency Modulation) are ways of broadcasting radio signals. a. Both: transmit info over electromagnetic waves. b. AM: modulates/varies the amplitude of the signal or carrier transmitted according to the information being sent, while the frequency remains constant. i. Older technology, had a lot of interference c. FM: sound is encoded by varying the frequency of the wave and the amplitude is kept constant. i. Newer technology that made AM obsolete. 13. Why is FM superior to AM in sound quality? AM: has poorer sound quality compared with FM, but is cheaper and can be transmitted over long distances. It has a lower bandwidth so it can have more stations available in any frequency range a. FM has less static interference, but is impacted by physical barriers. Also, FM has better sound quality because it has a higher bandwidth. 14. What is the function of a switcher? which camera needs to be online for the home audience; it permits instantaneous coverage/editing of live events: used for sports and debates 15. What is the difference between Dynamic and Condenser microphones? Dynamic microphone: a magnet produces a magnetic field which surrounds the coil, and motion of the coil within this field causes current to flow a. Used for hard news out on the street Condenser Microphone/Copasser b. Its diaphragm consists of a light flexible membrane that vibrates with sound pressure towards a fixed back condenser plate c. Not as rugged d. Recording music/symphony/orchestra 16. What is pick up pattern? Microphone pickup patterns: where the microphone can best hear/record sound with the best fidelity 17. Omni directional vs Uni directional, Cardioid vs Supercardioid Omni directional: pickup pattern from 3 dimensional space a. The direction from which the microphone is designed to pick up sound from everywhere all at once (multiple people talking in one room/ambient sound) Unidirectional: from one area a. Cardiod: picks up a semi narrow area of sound. b. Super cardiod (as in cardiac): picks up a narrow area of sound: when filming a movie because you don’t want ambiance, maybe an interview c. Hyper cardiod would be an even tighter area picked up (a quarterback talking) 18. What are the advantages of non-linear editing? It’s a type of digital editing that is possible without plastic that has to be cut. a. you can shoot the middle of the motion picture and then go back to the beginning scenes later 19. What is the electromagnetic spectrum? the entire range of wavelengths or frequencies of electromagnetic radiation extending from gamma rays to the longest radio waves and including visible light a. shows us all forms of energy and is divided appropriately. Every type of media (AM, FM, TV, cable, phone, police radio) has its own wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum, and specific wavelengths are determined by the FCC, but no one owns their own wavelength. b. It is the electromagnetic radiation throughout the universe, it travels around us at all times, it is mostly invisible to our eyes. 20. What is bandwidth? The space (real estate) on the electromagnetic spectrum a. carrying capacity and speed 21. How does sampling work with digital technology? sampling the wave at certain points - the more often you sample the wave, the better quality of the image), bit depth (purple measurement 22. What is compression and what are some of the digital compression standards. What is the compression standard for broadcast TV? compression is the measure of the way that things are compressed during the editing process. a. MPEG 2 Broadcast Quality: Standard for US TV 23. What are the scanning rates of high definition television? 720 and 1080 lines (interlaced): HDTV 24. How does interlaced scanning work to produce one complete frame? What is the difference between a field and a frame? How many fields equal one frame? Persistence of Vision: the scientific term for reconciling still images as motion, it is traditionally at 25 frames per second ● Human Flicker Fusion Threshold = 16 FPS ● Frame Rate: how many frames are being recorded per second and how many frames you are watching per second ○ Can be very fluid ○ Different frame rates per second, you can set it to whatever you want ○ Recording nascar: higher frame rate ● How a picture is captured by a camera ● Colors used to capture and display video ● Interlaced Scanning: goes really fast ○ Odd lines, then even (called a field) = two fields = one frame Interlaced Scanning: goes really fast ○ Odd lines, then even (called a field) = two fields = one frame ● Progressive scanning: one to however many lines you have on the screen. ○ It is possible to have Interlaced/progressive scanning/ any # of frame rates and everyone has to adjust also different number of scanning lines 25. What are the colors used to capture images by a TV camera? The Beam Splitter: separates the incoming white light into a mosaic of RGB for the screen (primary colors - red, green and blue). 26. What is a CCD? A charge-coupled device (CCD) is used to digitalize information. a. achieved by "shifting" the signals between stages within the device one at a time. b. CCD is a major piece of technology in digital imaging. 27. What is the aspect ratio of SDTV? What is the aspect ratio of HDTV? Programs can be either high definition or definition a. Standard definition (4x3 aspect ratio) b. Now HD is (16x9 aspect ratio - fits big screen) 28. How much bandwidth does a TV broadcaster have to work with? (TV has 6 MHz bandwidth,) (FM = 200 KHz, 30 FM stations = 1 TV station) ( AM = 10 KHz, 600 AM stations = 1 TV station) (SDTV = 1 – 1.5 MHz, HDTV = 4 -6 MHZ) ■ AM -- 10 KHz wide channels ■ FM --200 KHZ wide channels ■ TV -- 6 MHz wide channels (biggest one) 29. Why is the DTV standard in the U.S. considered a flexible approach? Digital televison is more flexible than analog system, different definitions and options on how you telecast your information 30. Spectrum management - why does it matter? Spectrum management: the process of defining and keeping track of what frequencies will be assigned and licensed for special purposes ○ Us government went from analog system to digital and now big conglomerates are fighting for space (channel capacity) on the spectrum ○ Channel capacity “bandwidth” ○ More information = need more channel capacity 31. Bands within the electromagnetic spectrum 32. What are DVRs DVRs and TiVos allow customers to watch their programming at their leisure. 33. What is Addressability? Cable architecture makes it possible for cable system to address each consumer individually and give him or her what he or she wants. 34. What does satellite radio offer to customers? Is this entire programming commercial free? Is this entire programming commercial free? Satellite radios offer customers more national, less local satellite radio network in America and it is all commercial free because it is ordered by subscription. 35. What are the advantages of LCD & LED televisions? LED TV = LCD TV a. LED TV is just a different type of LCD TV. “LED-backlit LCD TV,” b. Both types of TV make use of a liquid crystal display (LCD) panel to control where light is displayed on your screen. These panels are typically composed of two sheets of polarizing material with a liquid crystal solution between them, so when an electric current passes through the liquid, it causes the crystals to align so that light can (or can’t) pass through. Think of each crystal as a shutter, either allowing light to pass through or blocking it out. c. LED’s are considerably smaller than CCFL tubes, which means LED TV’s can be made much thinner. d. LED’s also consume less power than their CCFL counterparts, but the most important difference between the two is a feature called local dimming – a selective lighting technique that allows for deeper blacks and better overall picture. 36. What is Streaming? Web-based technology that allows computers to receive audio and video signals over the Internet. Cable, Satellites, & Cell Phones 1. What are the three elements in cable system architecture Satellites, receivers, and fiber optic lines (all part of build out of costs). These are manually installed to receive cable services. 2. What is a “star” pattern cable distribution system? Distribution: from the head end to your house a. Plant (t runk-comes right out of the head end through the city, the eeder line comes into your housing development, the d rop line brings the signal into your house) b. The system is laid out like a star with the head in the center. 3. What is pass by rate? What is overbuild? 4. What does the headend do in terms of receiving and processing signals? How does the service get to you? a. Head-end i. Head is where it originates; Receives signals from various sources: gets tv signals off and on air television stations, microwave transmissions, and satellite transmissions. 5. What is meant by downstream? Upstream? Which of these is more predominant in cable system architecture? The signals are processed and amplified and then transmitted to the individual systems(downstream) a. Ie: cox communicating with you When the main system receives signals from the subscribers it is called upstream a. Ie: you communicating to cox. 6. What do amplifiers do in a cable distribution system? Strengthen the cable signal 7. What are trunk, feeder, and drop lines and where are they located in a cable distribution system? See question 2. 8. What do converters (set-top boxes) do? Make interactive TV possible 9. What are some of the challenges presented by cable architecture? cost of building out system and getting it to where it needs to go, using public spaces, rights of way, asking permission to send lines through a public area. 10. What are some of the advantages of fiber optics? They send lots of digital information. 11. What does Video-on-Demand allow a viewer to do? Watch what they want when they want 12. What are the characteristics of the geostationary orbit? Author Arthur Clarke first proposed a belt of geostationary orbiting satellites around earth for optimal signals. Now in a belt called "Clarke belt" located 22300 miles above the equator in a fixed location. 13. What is a satellite footprint? Satellite has a geographic area that it can beam its surface to 14. What are transponders and what do they do? Transponders receive and send units in satellites, but somewhere between 12-48 are necessary for a decent broadcast. The more transponders and the more powerful the broadcast, the larger footprint the satellite has on the planet. 15. How have satellites impacted television? Control of space and time; they defeated the need wire to the house; they are instantaneous, and have no geographic boundaries. 16. How does mobile telephone service work? Signal is passed from one tower to another as you move from one cell to another 17. What is a cell? A cell is a designated area that is shaped like a hexagon, where each space has its own frequency so that signals on cell phones can be passed from one to another- a carrier is given about 800 frequencies per city, and they are divided among the cells. 18. When did the FCC authorize the first commercial cellular service in the USA? 1981 19. Why is the Apple IPhone an example of technological convergence? Because it combined everything: maps, music, texting, and calling photos were all no in the same place Early Internet / New Media / Social Media 1. Why was the Internet originally conceived? Coming with ideas about the world of computers, the computers still couldn’t communicate with one another, and people wanted the Internet so that they could communicate under emergency situations, primarily the government. 2. How does the design of the Internet achieve the question posed by the Rand think tank? Question posed in 1963 by RAND, a cold war think tank: “how could the US communicate after a nuclear attack? a. answers: the communication network would require (theoretically): i. Intelligence should reside in the endpoints: not a top down type of structure ii. Any endpoint could talk to any other endpoint iii. Network routing be self-healing after attack (think of a network more as a spiderweb than a cable through a wall, a spider can rebuild parts to the web if you destroy part of it, but you can cut a wire). iv. No centralized control v. Messages divided into packets - 1s and 0s (lots of long numbers) - that can be sent through different streams (that could take any number of paths from source to destination.) 1. Television and music are straight lines. 3. What was the role of the Defense Department in the early creation of the Internet? Cold war struggles between the US and the former Soviet Union speeds development of the Internet (Destroy communications, to weaken the troop movements). a. SAGE project ( an early radar warning system) provides the US with advanced warning against a missile attack Transmission Control Protocol TCP a. Standardization in the internet b. Allows computers to easily communicated with each other over a network c. The actual algorithm that breaks the data down into packets. Assigns those 1s and 0s to something. d. Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn 1974 e. Defense Department adopted TCP for ARPANET in 1982 4. ARPANET and USENET ARPANET: Advanced Research Projects Agency Network is launched in the US in 1969 to build the first interactive computer network: a closed system within the defense department that are linked together. USENET: the national science foundation extended use of the system to many university researchers 5. ENIAC, UNIVAC, transistors, microchips ENIAC: developed the first practical vacuum tube computer in 1946 UNIVAC: sold the first commercially available in 1951. Transistors: replaced the vacuum tube that created the term “Silicon Valley” in 1948 The Microchip: replaced the transistor so that multiple components could be in one printed circuit (more efficient and smaller) in 1959. 6. Packet switching Paul Baran and Donald Davies develop theoretical ideas for making computer networks less susceptible to attack (independently of each other). a. Packet switching: an outgrowth that provided for small data packets to be sent over distributed communications networks. b. Usually used for the military. All of the information is encoded. 7. Tim Berners Lee and the World Wide Web 1991- Tim Berners-Lee creates Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP 8. Who is credited with the invention of email ? Ray Tomlinson (invented it) while working for ARPNET a. Sent - QWERTYUIOP (top row of the typewriter) b. Scientists could share personal messages across computers in addition to research 9. Who founded Microsoft Bill Gates 10. Apple & Macintosh Steve Jobs (not a computer tech but understands how computers and the internet revolutionized the internet) and Steve Wozniak (could write the code) a. Apple computer company 1976 b. Apple One computer 1976 c. Simplicity in design set Apple apart. d. Personal Computers: The new Mass medium: i. 1984 Apple Computer’s Macintosh revolutionized the personal computer market at the Superbowl. e. You had to have a radio, then a tv, now a personal computer 11. What are Search Engines? 1998: Google Founded a. The 90s were about people finding IPOs, holding onto them, and then selling. A lot of internet companies failed “Dot com bust” b. Now we are finding how to make money off of the internet c. Search engines provided easier ways for users to navigate around the web, superior to browsers where you needed to know an exact address i. Popularizes internet 12. Why was Mosaic an efficient internet browser? 1993, Mosaic became one of the first browsers of personal computers ○ Easy to use interface what you see is what you get ○ Incorporated text and graphics ○ Renamed netscape and then firefox 13. Development of Internet Explorer Internet Explorer launched by Microsoft in 1995 ○ Captures superior market share over Netscape. ○ Some people accuse Microsoft as violating antitrust laws because when you purchase one you purchase all 14. How did Steven Jobs revitalize Apple upon his return in 1997? 1997-Steve Jobs returns to apple as ICEO after being forced out in 1985, after stocks weren’t increasing enough. Their sales stagnated without Jobs. a. Started Pixar and another software company. b. Revitalization: i. Simplified the product line ii. Focused on excellence: elegance in the design structure. c. You are answerable to shareholders, you must always be increasing 15. What company did Sergey Brin and Larry Page develop in 1998 Google 16. What is the significance of Google ? How to make money off the internet when no one else was = advertising in a new way a. PageRank (pun) i. Analyses quality of links to a topic ii. Scores them and assigns priority b. AdWords i. Behavioral targeting: google tracks what their users are searching for ii. Advertisers bid on the rights to display next to search results based on certain key words iii. Charged when audience members click on keyword. 17. Types of video games. Popular: sports, action, racing, role-playing, simulation, and shooter MMOGs: massively Multiplayer online games MMORPGs: Massively multiplayer online roleplaying games. 18. What does it mean to “cut the cord?” To stop buying cable packages and use TV through other devices such as phones, tablets, and computers. 19. Peer-to-peer applications 20. What are the functions of Transmission Control Protocols, Internet Protocols, & Uniform Resource Locators? Transmission Control Protocols (TCPs): Internet Protocols: Uniform Resource Locators: 21. Google - What is PageRank? What is Ad Words ? PageRank (pun): a. analyses quality of links to a topic b. Scores them and assigns priority AdWords: a. Behavioral targeting: google tracks what their users are searching for b. Advertisers bid on the rights to display next to search results based on certain key words c. Charged when audience members click on keyword. 22. Internet impact on the music industry User generated content on Youtube. Musicians have various media outlets like pandora, spotify, Itunes, etc to upload their songs. a. Additionally, musicians 23. Internet impact on entertainment Video on the net a. Originally they were short promo bits, these were the first videos b. NBC provides extra 2004 summer olympics coverage i. Everyone watches the olympics ii. The rights to broadcast the olympics are very expen$ive iii. NBC put the obscure sports online, thus maximizing the package they paid for for the entire Olympics. c. Webcasting made possible by high speed broadband. d. User Generated Content: radically different from any other programing we see. e. Political impact on “aw oh” i. Comment by Mitt Romney “47% of Americans are freeloaders” was recorded by a waiter and made viral. f. Fifteen minutes of fame i. Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh ii. Everyone has the possibility of being an internet sensation g. Netflix 1997: by Marc Rudolph and Reed Hastings i. Started by mailing DVDs ii. Migrated to streaming video on demand 1. The speed of broadband rapidly increased which allowed for streaming video. iii. Revolutionized how consumers think about and view television: 1. Traditional: one episode per week 2. Netflix: binge viewing network 3. Changed the content of streamed shows: a tendency towards serialization “Cliff-hangers” iv. Emmy Nominations = artistically successful 1. Amazon prime and others are imitators 24. Internet impact on news Internet news became a competitor for traditional news media, as the internet was now a significant competitor to traditional news outlets. a. Declining audience and revenue b. Social media has become part of the reporting landscape. c. Relies on Citizen Reporters: people that see events in the real world and then post information about them d. Edward Snowden reveals National Security Agency (NSA) internet surveillance programs that mine metadata - 2013 i. Perhaps the biggest government agency that spies on us. ii. He thought it was wrong and then reported it. 25. What is augmented reality? Technology that overlays digitized info onto what we see in the real world, adding info that we would not otherwise see, including additional info about what we are viewing. Other layer upon the real world a. Pokemon go b. Google glass 26. What is the fundamental difference between traditional media and social media? Social Media: the intersection of tech, social interaction, and info sharing that will continue to transform many aspects of mass communication a. Traditional media: one to many b. Social media: Dialogic many to many 27. Wikipedia 28. E-commerce Online shopping: a. Amazon.com b. eBay c. AuctionWeb d. Pets.com 29. Why does broadband throughput (speed) matter for the downloading video clips? Webcasting made possible by high speed broadband. a. Before we had so much buffering that people were not willing to pay for the services or use them at all 30. YouTube and user generated content Youtube in 2005 by Chad Hurley and Steve Chen User Generated Content: radically different from any other programing we see 31. What is the significance of Netflix Netflix 1997: by Marc Rudolph and Reed Hastings, a. Started by mailing DVDs b. Migrated to streaming video on demand i. The speed of broadband rapidly increased which allowed for streaming video. c. Revolutionized how consumers think about and view television: i. Traditional: one episode per week ii. Netflix: binge viewing network iii. Changed the content of streamed shows: a tendency towards serialization “Cliff-hangers” d. Emmy Nominations = artistically successful i. Amazon prime and others are imitators 32. What are some of the genres of video games: see question 17. 33. What is significant about the release of Grand Theft Auto IV in 2008? More profitable than motion pictures: 2008: first two weeks revenue a. Grand Theft Auto $500M i. Video games cost a lot more than movies also though. b. ‘Iron Man; $200M i. Now motion pictures make games to compete 34. What is the significance of Graphic User Interface (GUI) ? Shows visual representation of files and apps in the form of folders, icons, and windows instead of needing to type in long codes to use a computer. a. What you see is what you get b. More power in storage c. Better results and faster Developed by Xerox in 1972 a. Others improved upon int 35. What is the significance of Blackberry In 2002, the first smartphone was introduced - the Blackberry a. A status symbol - if you were a business exec, you needed to have one. b. Combined email, mobile telephone, text messaging, audio, video, and internet access 36. Why was the iPhone successful in 2007? 2007, Apple introduced the first Iphone, took the world away from the Blackberry a. Combined everything (convergence). 37. The speed of internet connections is referred to as Bandwidth
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