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Midterm Study Guide

by: Erica Burwell

Midterm Study Guide POLSC 2623

Erica Burwell

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About this Document

This study guide is for the Intro to Political Theory Midterm. It is an extensive guide that covers the beginning lectures up to Rousseau.
Intro to Political Theory
Dr. Vaughan
Study Guide
philosophy, Political Theory, Introduction to Political Theory, Theory, political science, Locke, John Locke, rousseau, Hobbes, Aristotle, machiavelli
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Burwell on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLSC 2623 at Oklahoma City Community College taught by Dr. Vaughan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Intro to Political Theory in Political Science at Oklahoma City Community College.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Midterm Study Guide Part One: Reading Questions Euthyphro Q: Why is Socrates going to court? A: He has been charged with corrupting the youth and disrespecting the gods. Q:Why is Socrates outside of the courthouse? A: He has been indicted Q: Why is Euthyphro going to court? A: To prosecute his father for murder Q: Socrates is frustrated with Euthyphro because he will not ___________. A: provide a definition of piety itself, but instead just gives examples of pious or impious acts. Q: How does Euthyphro attempt to define piety? A: What's loved by the gods is pious. Q: If one accepts Euthyphro's argument about piety, the problem becomes that major conflicts exist among the gods and what one god thinks is pious may be at odds with what a different god may believe is pious. (T/F) A: True The Apology Q: The Apology is less of a dialogue except for an interlude when Socrates engages one of his accusers in a question and answer discussion. (T/F) A: False Q: Socrates argues ____________. A: that the gods want more than anything else that we shall be good. Q: When the verdict is read, it is clear that the jury is acting not only for the Athenian people but as the Athenian people. (T/F) A: True Q: Socrates claims a ________________ motivation for his philosophical work. A: Pious Q: Plato clearly wants the reader to_________________. A: see that the verdict reflected the failure of the Athenian people and not Socrates Q: Where does the opening scene of the Apology take place? A: In the courtroom Q: Socrates thinks that justice does not demand that he defend himself from the false accusations. (T/F) A: False Q: Socrates says that Meletus has confused him with ______________. A: the Sophists and the natural philosophers The Crito and the Phaedo Death Scene Q: Socrates rejects Crito's first argument in which he argues that __________________. A: other men who are as old as him do not accept their death penalty. Q: The execution has not take place because it is a holy day when offerings are made to the gods. (T/F) A: False Q: Crito is worried about being criticized for not being a good friend to Socrates. (T/F) A: True Q: After reading the Crito, one can safely conclude that ____________________. A: Plato speaking through Socrates does not have a high regard for democracy. Q: It is clear after reading the Crito, that Socrates and Plato both believe in the idea of "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.” (T/F) A: False Q: Socrates dies alone. (T/F) A: False Q: What explanation does Socrates provide for drinking the poison as soon as he gets it? A: It would be ridiculous to put it off and cling to life until the last minute. Q: Socrates makes an important point by having an imaginary conversation with __________________________. A: the laws and state of Athens. Q: Which of the following statements did indeed take place in Socrates' cell before he died? A: The guard who had to bring him the poison was visibly upset. The Prince — Machiavelli Q: Machiavelli argues that of the different types of principalities, ____________________ are easiest for the prince to hold onto. A: hereditary principalities Q: What, according to Machiavelli, qualifies him to give advice to leaders? A: His experiences in politics and his comprehensive study of history Q: In order to understand the behavior of the lower classes, one must be _________________ and in order to understand a ruler, one must be _________________. A: a ruler; a member of the lower class Q: Machiavelli argues that it is difficult for a new ruler to __________________________________. A: live up to the expectations of the people who put him in power. Q: When a ruler takes over a new principality, he should immediately change all the customs and make them conform to his ideas of what ought to be a "custom.” (T/F) A: False Q: While Machiavelli discusses several options for one who conquers a republic where people have been governing themselves, in the end, his final advice is to do what? A: To demolish them or go live there oneself. Q: The memory of freedom and self-rule fades quickly so a conquering leader can control the people within a short time. (T/F) A: False Q: Machiavelli argues that ________________________ must be used skillfully or it (or they) can backfire on a leader. A: Cruelty Q: A ruler, above all _____________________. A: should never change his policies. Q: Machiavelli argues that only three types of governments are possible when there are two opposing groups of people, i.e., the elite and the populace. What are those three types of government? A: rule by one man, liberty or anarchy Q: Pusillanimity (being timid) among the elite is a good thing for a prince. (T/F) A: True Q: Machiavelli argues that a prince can easily keep the support from the _________________ because all they want is _________________. A: populace; not to be oppressed Q: The condottieri are most helpful to the prince because of their loyalty to him. (T/F) A: False Q: It is better for a prince to be ___________________rather than ________________________. A: parsimonious (stingy); generous Q: The two things that great leaders ought to study are history and geography. (T/F) A: True Q: _______________ and _________________________ are the principal foundation for the power of a government. A: good laws and good armies Leviathan — Hobbes Q: Hobbes recognizes that human beings are ___________________________. A: mostly equal by nature in mind and body. Q: There are two virtues during conflict; _______________________ and ____________________. A: intelligence and bravery Q: When human beings do come into conflict, it is ________________________________. A: it is because of competition, insecurity and the desire for glory. Q: Hobbes argues that human beings' mental abilities are far from being equal when compared with their physical abilities. (T/F) A: False Q: Hobbes argues that human beings are motivated to form governments because of ______________________. A: their fear of death. Q: Hobbes agrees with Aristotle that man is a social animal. (T/F) A: False Q: One follows the covenant one has entered into because of their pride. (T/F) A: False Q: Hobbes argues that in a time of war, nothing can be unjust. (T/F) A: True Second Treatise of Government — Locke Q: Locke did not believe there was a genuine law governing behavior in the state of nature. (T/F) A: False Q: Locke argues that____________________________. A: mixing one's labor with goods from nature creates property. Q: One of the great arts of government is deciding how land will be used. (T/F) A: True Q: Locke argues that __________________________ when it comes to private property. A: one should take only what one can use before it spoils. Q: God gave the land in common and he intended it to stay that way. (T/F) A: False Q: The purpose of law is to ____________________________. A: preserve freedom Q: According to Locke, the fundamental law of nature is __________________. A: self preservation Q: Locke believes that human beings have agreed to a disproportionate and unequal possession of the earth. (T/F) A: True Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality Among Men (The Second Discourse) — Rousseau Q: One could argue that Rousseau's description of the state of nature most closely resembles________________. A: none of the authors we have read this semester. Q: Rousseau believes that all inequalities among human beings _____________________. A: are either natural or artificial. Q: One could argue that Rousseau's project in the Second Discourse involves anthropology. (T/F) A: True Q: Rousseau argues that discussions about the state of nature by political philosophers like Hobbes and Locke have been too scientific. (T/F) A: False Q: Rousseau argues that it is _______________ not __________________ that caused unpleasant characterisitics in human beings. A: society; nature Q: Original man, according to Rousseau was _________________________. A: different from beasts. Q: Rousseau sees orginal man as being economically and socially dependent on others for his well-being. (T/F) A: False Q: Rousseau argues that original man's capacity for self-improvement or pefectability ultimately leads to bad things. (T/F) A: True Q: According to Rousseau, Locke was wrong when he argued______________________________. A: that the family is natural in society. Q: According to Rousseau, Hobbes was wrong in his claim that _____________________________. A: that human beings are not solitary creatures in the state of nature Part Two: Terms Social Contract Theory: the moral obligation one has to one’s government because of their benefiting from society Tacit Consent: nonverbal consent inferred from one’s intentional actions Natural Law Theory: natural rights given to people by a "greater being"; used to create “moral law" The Golden Mean: the middle ground between excess and deficiency Prescriptive: the “ought”; what should be Descriptive: what is Statecraft: a state with its own rules; has ways and means of its own Transcendental Norms: norms that transcend time Political Realism: a theory of political philosophy that attempts to explain, model, and prescribe political relations. (Looks at the ought) Realpolitik: German; the politics of the real Universalism: in political thought, the belief in universally valid principles of gov. and individual rights Nationalism: the sentiment and ideology of attachment to a nation and its interests Nativism: a policy of protecting and prioritizing the interests of native-born individuals against those of immigrants Xenophobia: intense or irrational hatred or fear of that which is thought to be foreign, strange, or "weird" Romanticism: artistic and cultural movement in 18th century Europe; puts emphasis on emotion & gaining intelligence from emotion Societal Convention: social construct; putting value on something based on public opinion (i.e. beauty standards) Nobel Savage: Rousseau’s description of primitive man that only seeks basic needs Altruism: disregard for self-preservation in extreme circumstances Machiavellian: cunning, scheming, and unscrupulous, especially in politics or advancing one’s career Hobbesian: involving unrestrained, selfish, and uncivilized competition among participants. Sophists: earned large sums of money to instruct students in the field of rhetoric Rhetoric: the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing Moral Relativism: a belief that nothing is inherently good or bad, but saying something is good or bad makes it so Part Three: The Philosophers Pre-Socratics early Greek philosophers not influenced by Socrates emphasized the role of nature rather than Greek mythology Ex: Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes Socrates wrote down nothing we know of his works through the dialogues of his student, Plato Plato c427 — 347 BC Euthyphro, The Apology wrote dialogues came from an upperclass family Normative Ethics: how life ought to be lived “The unexamined life is not worth living." Aristotle c384 — 322 BC student of Plato Main Question: Is there a set of values that causes an individual to act wisely and flourish as a human being? first comparative-ist governments do not exist for themselves, but for the people Cicero 106 BC — 143 BC extensive attention to natural and universal basis of justice and right believed there were better and worse things Natural Law Aquinas 1226 — 1274e Natural Law theorist tried to unite Aristotle’s ideas with Christianity 4 types of law: Eternal, Natural, Human, and Divine Machiavelli secular view of state sees human nature as the same through time must study history to understand government and politics Two Forms of Hostility: Open- dividing walls, Hidden- share living space with enemy Hobbes 1588 — 1679 Natural Law Theorist Humans are naturally in conflict with each other Locke 1637 — 1704 Locke’s State of Nature: more optimistic than Hobbes people know the natural law through reason based on Christian ideals focuses on labor rather than scarcity owning and protecting private property is key everyone has the right to body autonomy 3 Problems with State of Nature: individuals lack the power to defend what is theirs laws of nature are too simple and therefore open to dispute people are unable to be objective in their own cases Uses the notion of tacit consent to make government legitimate Adam Smith 1723 — 1790 father of Capitalism Rousseau incorporates Romanticism in his political theories abused as a child personal life was messy nobel savage Two Kinds of Inequality: Natural - disabilities, birthplace Artificial - socially constructed holds that Locke and Hobbes were incorrect in their theories focus on anthropology in the Enlightenment period Three Senses of Freedom: free will anarchic freedom personal freedom (most valued) one does not need laws until living within a society humans are not naturally in a state of war holds that humans are hard wired for compassion compassion —> kindness —> generosity —> mercy —> humanness “Nothing is more simple than man in his natural state." The different between man and beast is when one is removed from the state of nature, one begins to lose her compact for compassion


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