Biology Exam 1 Study Guide
Biology Exam 1 Study Guide BIO 101
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eve A. on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 101 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Lesley Blair and Mark Lavery in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity, Ecology, and Environmental Science in Biology at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
BIO 101 – Exam 1 Study Guide Week 0: Science is Knowledge, Inquiry, Connection, and Community The Sciences: Formal Science is abstract thought, logic, and reasoning Physical Science studies nonliving nature Life Science studies living nature Social Science studies human relationships, culture, and society Applied Science is the application of the information Interdisciplinary Science combines different fields of study to get a new perspective Biodiversity: The variety of species on Earth Ecology: Species interacting with each other and the environment Environmental Science: Human interactions with species and the environment Biological Hierarchy: 1) Species – unique 2) Population – more than one member of the same species 3) Community – the species and community and its interactions 4) Ecosystem – different species and communities interacting with each other and the greater environment Flowers and Pollination Flower Structure: The “male” part of the flower is the stamen. The stamen is made of the anther that holds the pollen and the filament that holds up the anther so that the pollen is exposed to a pollinator. The “female” part is called the pistil (or carpel). It is made of the stigma which receives the pollen, and style, a tubelike structure that carries the pollen to the ovary. The corolla of a flower is a group of all the petals that attract a pollinator. The calyx is a group of all the sepals that covered and protected the bud before it opened. Animal Pollination: Most species of flowering plants sexually reproduce with the help of animal pollinators. These plants typically use less energy on pollen production than those that are pollinated by wind. These flowers have specific shapes, colors, odors, that attracts unique pollinators. Bees like: large colorful petals Flies like: odorous, bright (white/yellow) petals Butterflies like: large bundles of flowers/petals for them to land on Moths like: heavy fragrances, green/white petals Bats like: large, heavyscented, pale colored petals Beetles like: heavy scented bright flowers Hummingbirds like: red, tubeshaped flowers with lots of nectar Wind Pollination: Windpollinated plants produce a large amount of pollen, and only some of it travels to another flower for successful pollination. These flowers are typically green, small, odorless, and do not produce nectar because they do not need to attract pollinators. Bees: Bees are classified under Order Hymenoptera along with wasps and ants because they share common features like a membranous wing. Many also have venomous stingers used for defense or immobilizing prey. The life cycle of a bee begins with eggs, then moves to larva, pupa, worker, drone, and queen. Bees are important because they do most of the pollinating. Without them, we would have no food, so they are crucial to our survival, as well as the survival of many other species. Week 1: Millions of species have still not been identified or classified. Taxonomic Classification means putting organisms into groups. th Carl Linnaeus (18 Century) created a classification scheme: Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species The Genus and Species together are the scientific name of the organism. th Microscopes were developed in the 17 Century. In the 18 Century Tardigrades were found using microscopes. As microscopes became more advanced, smaller and smaller organisms were discovered: 1) They discovered that Fungi was not the same structure as plants, did not use photosynthesis, and instead absorbed decaying elements. 2) They found Protista, single cell microscopic organisms with complex structures. 3) Monera was also discovered, a microscopic “simple” structure that over time were discovered to actually be very complex and diverse. Monera split into two categories: Bacteria and Archaea A new classification was added before Kingdom called Domain. Domain Eukaryota includes Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, and Kingdom Animalia. There is also Domain Bacteria and Domain Archaea. Lichens are comprised of Fungi, Protista, and sometimes Bacteria. There are lots of living things inside of it. We have identified roughly 1.7 million species, but there are roughly 7 million unidentified species in Domain Eukaryota, and even more in Domains Bacteria and Archaea. Plants Nonvascular: Mosses, do not carry fluids Seedless vascular: Ferns, spores instead of seeds so a different was of reproducing. Gymnosperms: seeds in cones (pinecones), Pines, Firs, Sequoia Angiosperms: seeds from flowers, huge biodiversity Monocot – wind pollinated, Family Poaceae (corn, wheat, grass) Dicot – animal pollinated, Family Fabaceae (legumes, beans) Functional Classification: organization by what they do Producers: produce and consume energyrich sugars, photosynthesis, Plants, Protists, Bacteria, Archaea Consumers: receive energy by eating producers and other organisms, Animals, Protists, Bacteria Decomposers: break down dead/decaying organisms, Fungi, Bacteria We have many more producers on Earth than Consumers. Producers also called autotrophs (selffeeding) Consumers and Decomposers also called heterotrophs (not selffeeding, eat other organisms) Photoautotrophs: get energy from sunlight, photosynthesis Chemoautotrophs: no sunlight, in oceans and caves Photosynthesis and Respiration Only some organisms produce with photosynthesis, all organisms respire Photosynthesis takes CO2 + H2O + sunlight = O2 and sugar Some O2 and Sugar used for respiration Extra O2 and Sugar stored and used for growth Respiration takes O2 + sugar = H2O and CO2 and heat Trophic Levels 1 Level – Producers nd 2 Level – Consumers (Herbivores) 3 Level – Consumers (Carnivores) Biomass Pyramid: There are more producers than herbivores, and more herbivores than carnivores because the energy from photosynthesis is lost at each level, and herbivores cannot consume every producer. There are usually no more than 5 trophic levels Energy is consumed by the lowest level All levels respire and give off heat (lose energy) We all go to the decomposers who convert the remaining sugar to heat and give if off Nutrients go to the decomposers when we die too, get cycled and recycled, producers pick up nutrients from soil or water, pass them back through the trophic levels and food webs. There would be more energy available if we consumed as herbivores. Food Chain: who eats who in a community Food Webs are multiple food chains together There are key species in each food web that are critical to life. Lichens: Domain Bacteria: Prokaryotic, Unicellular, Autotrophic or Heterotrophic, Sessile or Motile Domain Archaea: Prokaryotic, Unicellular, Autotrophic or Heterotrophic, Sessile or Motile Domain Eukaryota, Kingdom Protists: Eukaryotic, Unicellular, Autotrophic or Heterotrophic, Sessile or Motile Domain Eukaryota, Kingdom Fungi: Eukaryotic, Multicellular, Heterotrophic, Sessile Domain Eukaryota, Kingdom Plantae: Eukaryotic, Multicellular, Autotrophic, Sessile Domain Eukaryota, Kingdom Animalia: Eukaryotic, Multicellular, Heterotrophic, Motile Primary structure of Lichen is fungus (mycosymbiont), and the bluegreen color is from the small organisms living inside that are either green algae or bluegreen cyanobacteria (photosymbionts) which remove the CO2 from the atmosphere during photosynthesis. Crustose: crusty, flat on branch, yellowish Foliose: leafy, gray/green/brown, flatish Fruticose: shrubby, mosslike, gray/green, stringy At 20% water there is about the same amount of photosynthesis as respiration, so no extra sugars are being produced. At 75% water photosynthesis exceeds respiration, so extra sugars are produced. Lichens may benefit from growing towards water or sunlight. Lichens are extremely sensitive to acidic precipitation; some will not even grow on bark that has acid on it. Lobaria is one of these lichens. It is used as a biotic indicator of acid precipitation in a given environment. Fruits and Seeds: Monocots have 1 cotyledon (embryonic seed leaf) and Dicots have 2 cotyledons, emerging from a germinating seed. The seed coat (testa) protects the embryo, the endosperm stores the nutrients, the cotyledon is the embryonic seed leaf, the hypocotyl will become the shoot/stem, and the radicle will become the root. Germination is the process of a seed breaking dormancy, the embryo becoming a seedling, and eventually a developed plant. The cotyledons contain a lot of starch to provide energy for the growth process. The factors that initiate germination are usually temperature and water. It may be hard for a seed to germinate if there is not enough warm sunlight and water. Economically Important Monocots: Grains (bran, whole wheat and white flour), Semolina flour, Field corn, sweet corn, popcorn, brown rice, white rice, barley, sorghum, oats, millet Economically Important Dicots: Soybeans, cotton, oilseed sunflowers Ways of Dispersal: wind – Dandelion, Cattail gravity – Apple, Sweet Gum water – Coconut, Mangrove animal (“burs and stickseeds”) Xanthium animal (“fleshy fruits”) Cherry animal (“stored nuts”) – Oak propulsion (“ballistics” or “twisting”) – Mustard, Jewelweed Dry Fruits Indehiscent (does not split open at maturity): Achene – oneseeded fruit, one point of attachment, Sunflower Samara – winged achene, Maple Caryopsis – single seed fused with fruit wall, Corn Nut – one seed surrounded by hard wall, Acorn Dehiscent (split open at maturity to release seed): Follicle – split along 1 side, Milkweed Legume – split along 2 sides, Locust Silique – split along 2 sides, Mustard Family Capsule – split along multiple sides, Poppy Fleshy Fruits Berry: multiseeded, entire fruit wall is fleshy, Blueberries Hesperidium: berries with a leathery skin containing oils, Lemon Pepo: berries with a leathery rind, Watermelon Drupe: a single seed in a pit, Cherry Pome: surrounded by papery tissue, flesh comes from accessory fruit, Pear Aggregate: many small fruits, single flower with many pistils, Raspberry Multiple: formed from the ovaries of several flowers on same plant, Pineapple An accessory fruit is a “false fruit” that gets an animal to eat and disperse the real fruit which are the small seedlooking structure on the outside of the accessory structure (ex. Strawberry). The real strawberry fruits are actually tiny dry structures called achenes. Week 2: Community Interactions Competition: Different species compete for the same resource. Intraspecific Competition is between members of the same species. Interspecific Competition is between different species. Predation: When a consumer kills prey Predator Strategies – camouflage, maneuvers, speed, strength, weapons, intelligence Prey Strategies fight, flight, freeze/camouflage, schooling, “play possum” Herbivory: When a consumer eats a producer Producer Defenses – thorns, nettles, Poison Oak surface oil Parasitism: When a species eats another, but does not kill it. Endoparasitism is eating from the inside, Ectoparasitism is eating from the outside. Mutualism: This is when both species benefit from the relationship. A good example of this is Pollination as the relationship between flowers and pollinators. Commensalism: This is where one species benefits, and the other is unaffected. Nutrient Cycles Nutrient cycling depends on decomposers. Also called Biochemical cycles; elements spend part of the time in living things and part of the time not in living things. Water Cycle: Primary location (Sink) of water is the oceans. Transpiration is the evaporation of water from plants to leaves for respiration. Percolation is water moving through topsoil to groundwater. Carbon Cycle: Sink is Lithosphere (crust of Earth). Fossil fuels made of carbon; coal, oil, gas. Nitrogen Cycle: Sink is the Atmosphere. Nitrogen Fixation is when bacteria remove Nitrogen from the air. Nitrogen Conversion is when bacteria convert it further for human consumption. Scavengers & Detritivores Scavengers break down dead organisms into detritus (pieces of a corpse of an organism), ex: Blow Fly and Carrion Beetle. Detritivores break down detritus into organic matter, ex: Earthworms, Millipedes, Sowbugs, Springtails, Mites. Decomposers break down organic matter into nutrients, ex: Fungus and Bacteria. The nutrients (very small) return to the soil and water and are recycled through the plants/producers. Fungi, Bacteria, Slime Molds Fungi: Kingdom Fungi. Mushrooms are the reproductive structures that produce spores for reproduction. The Hyphae is the actual fungi. They are hairlike structures that live in decomposing material and process those nutrients. They can be very huge. They use Enzymes to break down dead organisms. Some are parasites. Mycorrhizae is a fungus endosymbiont that lives in plant roots They increase the nutrients available to plants, and the plants provide them a place to live, so it is Mutualism. Bacteria: Domain Bacteria. Single cell organisms. Greater biomass on Earth than plants and animals combined. Structural shapes are Coccus, Rod, and Spiral. Some are parasites. Rhizobium is a bacteria endosymbiont that lives in legume roots. Like the fungi, they increase nutrients available to the plant, and in turn get a place to live: Mutualism. Slime Molds: Kingdom Protista. Single celled organisms come together to feed, very slowly. Eat and decompose everything in their path. Species Interactions: Ants Ants have 3 main body regions (head, thorax, abdomen), antennae, and 3 pairs of legs. The petiole connects the thorax to the abdomen. The Queen is the large female who reproduces with the Male Drones, and the Workers are sterile females who do most of the labor. In ant habitats there is an egg chamber, a food chamber, a chamber for pupae, and a chamber for larva. Ants have a special relationship with “Nectar” Caterpillars. The ants build a shelter for and protect the caterpillar, and the caterpillar produces a sweet nectar that the ants feed on. This is a form of Mutualism. Interactions Deer and Egrets: Commensalism – deer carry egrets and egrets eat bugs off deer, deer is unaffected Monkeys and Deer: Mutualism – monkeys drop leaves for deer to eat, deer alert monkeys of danger Goby Fish and Shrimp: Mutualism – the shrimp makes a home for himself and the fish, and the fish guides the shrimp who is blind Hermit Crab and Worm: Commensalism – the worm is protected and gets food, the crab is unaffected Hermit Crab and Octopus: Predation – the octopus kills and eats the crab. Hermit Crab and Anemone: Mutualism – the crab is protected by the anemone and the anemone gets food from the crab “Nectar” Caterpillar and Ants: Mutualism – ants eat the nectar from the caterpillar, and ants build a shelter for and protect the caterpillar “Armored” Caterpillar and Ants: Parasitism – the caterpillar eats ant grubs, turns into a butterfly and goes free while the ants have lost some grubs Types of Symbiosis Parasitism: Cat + Flea – flea benefits, cat is harmed Tree + Mistletoe – mistletoe benefits, tree is harmed Human + Liver Fluke – liver fluke benefits, liver fluke is harmed Commensalism: Whale + Barnacle – barnacle benefits, whale unaffected Clownfish + Anemone – clownfish benefits, anemone unaffected Tree + Spanish Moss – Spanish moss benefits, tree unaffected Mutualism: Bee + Flower – both benefit Sloth + Algae – both benefit Rhinoceros + Tick Bird – both benefit Cooperative mutualism is when species both benefit from each other, but can live independently. Obligatory mutualism is when species who benefit from each other cannot live without each other. Neutralism is when neither species is affected by their interactions, they do not compete. Epiphytes are organisms that grow on plants. Plant Anatomy: Taxonomy Plants are broken down into phyla, or divisions. Some plants do not have a vascular system such as moss. Seedforming vascular plants are broken into two categories: gymnosperms and angiosperms. Gymnosperms, “naked seeds,” have seeds that come from cones instead of fruits, ex: Pine, Yew, Juniper, Ginkgo. Angiosperms are broken into two categories: monocots that have one cotyledon, and dicots that have cotyledons. Cotyledons are the embryonic seed leaves that emerge from a germinating seed. Monocots: one cotyledon, number of petals in multiples of 3, parallel leaf venation, stem arrangement: bundles complexly arranged Dicots: two cotyledons, number of petals in multiples of four or five, netlike leaf venation, stem arrangement: bundles in a ring Plant Cells Cell Theory says that the cell is the basic unit of a structure of every living thing. In the cell, chloroplasts provide food production (photosynthesis) and vacuoles store substances. The central vacuole if full of water and enzymes, the nucleus directs cell activity, and the mitochondria is where respiration happens. Cellulose in the plant cell wall acts as a structural protein that provides strength. Palisade cells make sugar through photosynthesis, epidermis cells are a layer of waterproof skin around the plant. Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane from an area of low solute (high water) to an area of high solute (low water). Leaves Dicot leaves have much more air space in them. The epidermis is the protective covering, the palisade and spongy cells carry out photosynthesis, the vascular bundle transport fluids and nutrients, and the stoma is the opening where gasses enter and leave the leaf. To conduct photosynthesis, plants take in CO2 through the stoma. During respiration, oxygen and hydrogen leave through the stoma. Each stoma is lined with guard cells to prevent water from escaping on dry days. During transpiration, water evaporates from the surface of plants and draws water in from the roots through the stem to the leaves and flowers. Identification: Compound leaves have more than one leaf on the same stem source, and simples leaves have only one. Arrangement: Alternate – one leaf per node Opposite – two leaves per node Whorled – three or more leaves per node Venation: The vein pattern of leaves. Most monocots have parallel venation. Dicots can also have parallel venation. Other angiosperm types are pinnate and palmate. Stems Vascular bundles contain two tubeshaped cells. Phloem cells transport sugars created in photosynthesis from the leaves to the roots. Xylem cells transport water from the roots to the leaves. Dicots have bundles that line the perimeter, and monocots have more bundles that are spread out. Bundles in dicots have three “layers,” the phloem, the xylem, and the cambium in between. Adaptations: Bulb to Onion – the leaves grow around the bulb Rhizome to Fern – the leaves grow out of it Runner/Stolon to Strawberry – the leaves grow out of it Tuber to Potato – the tuber stays underground and leaves grow above ground Roots Plants take in water and nutrients through their roots. The vascular cylinder is much bigger in the monocot than the dicot. Primary absorption is done through root hairs that often form symbiotic relationships with other organisms such as fungi and bacteria. Type: Tap Root – Single, large root that humans eat, Carrot Adventitious Root – small hairlike roots, Onion Aerial Root – a few stringy roots, Orchid Mangrove – lots of thick rots above ground Week 3: Environmental Science: Actors, organisms (biodiversity) Roles, interactions (ecology) Setting, ecosystems (ecology) Story, human interactions with environment (environmental science) Sustainability: The capacity to survive and adapt. Synthesizing earth’s natural systems and human culture (keeping nature and culture sustained). We are not living sustainably. Environmental degradation; pollution, depletion, climate change. Culture at risk; 900+ million people in extreme poverty. Uneven ecological footprints (per capita consumption). 3 Principles of Sustainability from Nature 1) Dependence on solar energy 2) Chemical and nutrient cycling and recycling 3) Biodiversity (species and ecosystems) capture and convert energy and nutrients Resource Management: Nonrenewable – fossil fuels Renewable – air, water, topsoil, organisms (how to keep them renewable?) Perpetual – sunlight, wind Natural Resource Management: Draw on multiple fields for generational stewardship. Ethics: responsibility and justification Politics: beyond who wins and who loses Economics: full cost pricing, all environmental costs associated with product Personal Impact: Calculate own ecological footprint. REFUSE, reduce, reuse, recycle (select sustainable products and services, or refuse others). Interact with nature instead of collecting material stuff as a way to foster stewardship. Community as a solution; shared resources and social economy. Atmosphere and Air Pollution: Common gases in atmosphere: Nitrogen is #1, followed by oxygen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water. Atmosphere layers: 1) Troposphere, what we breath in, where weather happens 2) Stratosphere, lots of Ozone (Ozone Layer) 3) Mesosphere, enough gas that particles that enter it from space burn up 4) Thermosphere, temperature drops dramatically, space shuttle is here 5) Exosphere, satellites located here, very few particles, low gravitationalpull Air Pollution: The Industrial Revolution (17601870) increased our burning of fossil fuels. Lichens which indicated air quality, started disappearing, and human health in Europe was decreasing. In 1963 Congress passed the Clean Air Act to regulated the emission of pollutants that are harmful to human health. When we learned that Acid Deposition was harming ecosystems, Congress passed the Acid Deposition Act in 1980 to regulate the emission of those pollutants (Sulfuric acid and Nitric acid) as well. We also learned that Ozone in the Stratosphere was being depleted due to chlorofluorocarbons and more Ultraviolet light was reaching the earth, causing harm to humans, so in 1989 the Montreal Protocol was instituted as the first international effort to reduce CFC emissions, and the Ozone layer began to recover. Greenhouse Effect: Our atmosphere retains heat from the sun and keeps us at a good temperature. Carbon dioxide helps keep the heat in, but if we emit too much of it our planet can get too warm. Greenhouse gases also create our climate. Climate Change: Earth’s climate has changed in the past and is likely to change in the future, and we know this because of historical records, and records in tree rings and ice cores. Currently, the surface temperature is increasing, but some areas are getting much warmer than others. Land ice and Arctic ice are both decreasing, so the sea level is rising, and ocean water is acidifying. But how much of this is caused by humans? There is a direct correlation between carbon dioxide emissions and temperature, and human activities are adding CO2 to the atmosphere. The Paris talks in 2015 set an international goal of keeping warming below 2 degrees Celsius. Gardens and Soil Organisms: Attracting Wildlife: Gardens need a variety of things to help attract good animals, such as water sources like ponds and bird baths, places for habitat like compost, rock, and wood piles, food sources like feeders, and flowers and fruits for pollinators. Beneficial Animals: Honey Bees – pollinate plants for food output Lady Beetles – eat harmful bugs life aphids Garter Snakes – eat slugs, mice, and other garden pests Earthworms: Phylum Annelidia. Have segmented bodies. The clitellum is a lightcolored band near the worm’s front end which separates a thick fluid that cocoons the fertilized eggs. They are hermaphrodites, but they need to mate in order to reproduce. They eat dead organic material. Bullfrogs and Crayfish eat them. Slugs: Phylum Mollusca. They have one set of tentacles for optical uses and one set for sensory uses. Behind the head is a large mantle that covers the reproductive opening. Next to that is a hole called pneumostome used for respiratory purposes. They secrete mucus “slime” to keep them moist, help them move, and repel predators. They eat green leaves and are eaten by Shrews. Soil Bacteria: Domain Bacteria. Three common shapes; rods, spheres, spirals. Some from endosymbiotic relationships with the roots of legume plants. Rhizobium can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it to ammonium. Soil Fungi: Kingdom Fungi. Classified in different phyla based on how they reproduce. Phylum Basidomycota contains many mushroomproducing fungi; Shell Fungus, Gill Fungus, Jelly Fungus, Coral Fungus, Bird’s Nest Fungus. Phylum Ascomycota includes a wide range of species including antibioticproducing Penicillium, diseasecausing Aspergillus, and budding yeast. These reproduce by creating a structure called apothecium. Phylum Zygomycota from symbiotic relationships with plant roots called mycorrhiza (myco for fungus and –rhiza for root). Life Cycle: It begins with a spore, which is a reproductive structure but does not store food resources. Sporeproducing organisms produce a large number of spores, and just a few survive. If a spore is in the right environmental conditions, it will grow hyphae out of it, which weave together to form the mycelium which is the actual body of the fungus. We do not see the actual body of the fungus, which is hidden in soil, log, or tree. When the mycelium produces a fruiting body, that is the mushroom that we see. Mushrooms are comprised of a cap (protects and helps distribute spores), gills (where the spores are located), veil (on the stalk), stalk (raises spores above the ground), and a base.
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