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CHE 152 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Tiffany Matyja

CHE 152 Exam 2 Study Guide CHE 152

Marketplace > University of Tampa > CHE > CHE 152 > CHE 152 Exam 2 Study Guide
Tiffany Matyja
GPA 4.0

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Here is a study guide covering the material for the second exam
General Chemistry 1
Thomas Jackman
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tiffany Matyja on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHE 152 at University of Tampa taught by Thomas Jackman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in CHE at University of Tampa.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Thursday, October 13, 2016 Exam 2 Study Guide CHE 152 - Definitions to Know • formula weight: the sum of the atomic weight (from periodic table) for each atom in a formula unit • molar mass: the mass of one mole of a substance. It is the formula weight expressed in grams • limiting reactant: the reactant is completely consumed in a reaction and limits the amount of product formed • reactant in excess: any reactant present in a larger quantity than is needed to react with the limiting reactant • theoretical yield: the quantity (usually mass) of product made when the limiting reactant is consumed (calculated value) actual yield: the amount of product formed. This is given in the question. • percent yield: [(actual yield)/(theoretical yield)]*100 • dilution: M1V1=M 2 2 • - does not change number of moles present • electrolyte: a substance whose aqueous solution conducts electricity and ions are dissolved in the solution - acids and bases • non electrolyte: substances whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity - most molecular substances • solution: a homogenous mixture of two or more substances • solvent: the component present in the largest quantity • solute: the other things present in the solution (the thing that gets dissolved) aqueous solution: water is the solvent • 1 Thursday, October 13, 2016 • concentration: a higher concentration implies more solute, a lower concentration implies less solute • molarity (M): (moles of solute)/(total volume of solution(Liters)) • strong electrolyte: the solute is completely dissociated in an aqueous solution - all ionic substances are strong electrolytes - strong acids to know: HI, HCl, HBr, HClO , HCl4 HNO H 3O 3 2 4 - weak electrolytes are partially ionized in solution • molecular equation: write the formula for all species as molecules - NaCl (aq)+ AgNO 3 (aq)> NaNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) • total ionic equation: separate soluble/strong electrolytes into their respective ions - Na + Cl + Ag + NO —> Na3+ NO + AgCl 3 (s) • net ionic equation: only shows the ions/species undergoing change. - spectator ions: ions that appear on both sides of the equation but are unchanged - Cl + Ag —> AgCl (s) • acid: substance that forms hydrogen ion when dissolved in water • base: substance that forms hydroxide ion when dissolved in water • monoatomic acid: has one ionizable hydrogen ion • diatomic acid: has two ionizable hydrogen ions • oxidation: the loss of electrons • reduction: the gain of electrons - Problem Solving • Balancing chemical equations - write the unbalanced equation - balance the equation by inspection (it can be useful to keep little tallies on the side to keep track of how many moles of each substance there are) - include phase information (gas, liquid, solid, aqueous) 2 Thursday, October 13, 2016 • Stoichiometric calculations - balance the chemical equation - convert grams of react or product to moles - compare moles of the known to moles of the desired substance - convert from moles back to grams if required • Determining the limiting reactant - write the balanced chemical equation - calculate the moles for each reactant - systematically calculate the moles of product formed if each react is consumed (use mole ratio) • choose one product to calculate for. It doesn’t matter which one - the reactant that, when consumed, forms the fewest moles of product is the limiting reactant • the limiting reactant determines the amount of product that could be formed (theoretical yield) - answer the question (calculate the theoretical yield for a certain reactant in grams) - Rules to Know • solubility rules - most nitrate and acetate salts are soluble - most salts containing alkali metal ions and the ammonium ion are soluble - most chloride, bromide, and iodide salts are soluble, expect when they contain Ag , Pb , and Hg 2+ - most sulfate salts are soluble except BaSO , PbS4 , HgSO 4 and CaS4 4 - most hydroxide salts are only slightly soluble. KOH and NaOH are soluble - most sulfide, carbonate, chromate, ad phosphate ions are only slightly soluble • assigning oxidation numbers 3 Thursday, October 13, 2016 - the oxidation number of the atom of a free element is 0 - the oxidation number of a monoatomic ion equals its charge - in compounds, oxygen has an oxidation number of -2, except in peroxides (the charge is then -1) - in compounds containing hydrogen, hydrogen always has an oxidation number of +1 - in compounds, flooring is ALWAYS assigned an oxidation number of -1 - the sum of the oxidation states for an electrically neutral compound must be zero - Concepts to Know • chemical formulas have quantitative significance. The subscripts represent precise quantities • types of reactions - precipitation reaction: two solutions are mixed together and a solid (precipitate) forms from the exchange of cations and anions - acid-base reaction/neutralization reaction: when an acid and a base react, a salt (formed from the cation from the base and the anion from the acid) and water are formed - oxidation-reduction reaction: characterized by electron transfer • LEO says GER: Loss of Electrons Oxidation, Gain of Electrons Reduction 4


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