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Exam #2 Study guide

by: THeller97

Exam #2 Study guide ART 225-02


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About this Document

This study guide is for our second exam. This covers chapters 8,9,11,12,14,15, and 16. For those who do purchase, I will send the remainder of chapter 14 notes as we are finishing them tomorrow! Th...
Overview of Western Art
Pitluga, Kurt W
Study Guide
WesternArt, Art
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by THeller97 on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ART 225-02 at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania taught by Pitluga, Kurt W in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Overview of Western Art in Art History at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
OVERVIEW TO WESTERN ART EXAM #2 STUDY GUIDE TEST DATE: MONDAY OCTOBER 17, 2016 ***MAKE SURE TO BE FAMILIAR WITH ALL TERMS, ARTWORKS, PEOPLE, ETC.*** Terms are in bold, works of art or building structures are highlighted in yellow, important people are in blue ***STUDY THE POWERPOINT WITH PICTURES FROM DR. PITLUGA AS WELL*** GOOD LUCK! :) Chapters to be covered: Chapter 8: Early Christian and Byzantine Art ● Pgs.156-185 Chapter 9: Islamic Art ● Pgs. 186-199 Chapter 11: Romanesque Art ● Pgs.220-245 Chapter 12: Gothic Art ● Pgs.246-271 Chapter 14:​ rtistic Innovations In Fiftheenth Century Europe ● Pgs. 287-309 Chapter 15: The Early Renaissance in Fifteenth-Century Italy ● Pgs. 310-335 Chapter 16: The High Renaissance in Italy, 1495-1520 ● Pgs. 336-351 CHAPTER 8: EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART Chapter Outline Early Christian Art ● Art before Constantine ○ Period of Persecution ■ First century to 325 CE ■ Catacombs ● Rome’s underground cemetery ● Christians dug passageways to store bodies rather than cremate like romans did. ● Loculi ○ Horizontal slots in walls of the catacombs where early christians placed the dead ● Cubicula ○ Family burial chapel in catacombs ○ Decorated with christian paintings ■ Usually done poorly and quickly ○ Impressionistic style used ○ Christ image is humble and young to show humility ● Art after the the official recognition of Christianity ○ Period of Recognition 325-500 ■ Emperor Constantine legalized christianity ■ “Edict of Milan” 313 CE ● Built 5 churches ○ Only three survive today ○ Old St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome 333-390 BCE ■ Plain exterior, extremely decorative interior ● Symbolizes christian attitude to represent that outside features do not matter and what is on the inside and soul is what matters. ■ Basilica ● Large gathering place for public ■ Basilica type plan ● Nave ○ Main aisle of church ○ Rood is much higher than others ● Transept ○ Aisle that runs perpendicular to nave ● Crossing ○ Where transept and nave intersect ● Apse ○ Semicircular vaulted space ○ Only one to mark where altar is located ● Clerestory ○ Area between two different roof stories ■ Bring light and illumination into nave ■ Mosaic decoration ● Tesserae ○ Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, Prefect of Rome 359 CE ■ Decorative relief sculpture ■ Prefect ● Government official ■ Roman pagan naturism Byzantine Art ● Golden Age of the Emperor Justinian 527-565 ● Emperor is essentially christ represented on earth ● Ravenna, Italy ○ Capital of western empire ● San Vitale, Italy 526-547 ○ Plain exterior, lavish interior ○ Domed structure ○ Centralized plan ○ “Basket capitals” ■ Drilling into stone creating a basket texture ○ Apse ■ Area where altar is located ■ Mosaics commonly had golden backgrounds ■ 3 mosaics ● Image of Christ with youthful appearance ○ Wears purple robe to represent royalty of the emperor ​ ● Justinian and Attendants, c.547 ○ Elongated figures ○ Flattened quality with no volume of body under robes ​ ■ Theodora and Attendants, c. 547 ● She wears purple robes and has halo along with Justinian ● Holds golden goblet for ceremony ● Elaborate decoration of crown ● Align herself with the Virgin Mary ● Hagia Sofia ○ Istanbul, Turkey ○ “Church of Holy Wisdom” ○ Biggest dome interior space in the world (Until rebuilding of New St. Peter’s) ○ Unlike pantheon, did not have rotunda ○ “Pendentives” ■ Spherical triangles ■ Create circular opening between arches in dome ○ Basket capitols to created pocketed designs ● Icon Painting ○ Greek for image ○ “Pantokrater” ■ Almighty or all powerful ○ Encaustic ■ Painting with hot wax ○ Egg tempera ■ Egg and paint powders 1453 - Conquest of Constantinople by Ottoman Turk Empire ● “Great Schism” ​ ● St. Basil’s Church Moscow, Russia ○ Designed for Ivan the Terrible ○ Onion domes CHAPTER 9: ISLAMIC ART Chapter Outline ● Religion ○ Allah = God ■ Forbidden to depict Allah as a human ○ Muhammad ■ Prophet or messenger ○ Qur’an or Koran ■ Islamic bibble ○ Sunni ■ Believe legitimacy of original four caliphs ■ Majority ○ Shiites ■ Believe in legitimacy of Ali, the fourth caliph ■ Minority ● “Islam” ○ Submission to God ● “Muslim” ○ Those who submit ● Five pillars of Faith ○ Declaration of Faith ○ Prayer: five times a day ■ Friday is congregational day of prayer ○ Charity ■ Give 10% of what they earn, or give back in any other way ○ Ramadan ■ 9th month of the lunar calendar ■ Demonstration and loyalty to God ■ Fast of food, drink, and sex during daylight ○ Pilgrimage to Mecca-Saudi Arabia Formation of Islamic Art ● Religious architecture ○ ​Kabba ■ Arabic for cube ○ Development of Islamic Style ● Luxury Arts ○ Calligraphy ■ “Beautiful writing” ■ Kufic script ● First type of script developed ■ Used to write messages from Muhammad that he received from angel, Gabriel ○ Islamic art and Persian Inheritance ● Architecture ○ Umayyad Empire 661-749 ● Capital in Damascus, Syria ● First islamic architectural structure ● Creating emphasizing education in culture ● “Dome of the Rock” ​687-692, Jerusalem ○ Koran ■ Abraham’s sacrifice of Issac ● Proves loyalty to God ○ Muhammad’s ascent to heaven ■ Muhammad usually had a blank face when in images ○ Located where Temple of Solomon was previously ○ Possibly inspired by San Vitale ○ Exterior mosaic replaced with glazed tiles in 15th century ● No animals or humans depicted within mosaic design ○ Plants and floral prints are common ■ Symbolize paradise for muslim culture ○ Arabesques ■ Flowing, curving lines ● “Great Mosques at Cordoba”​ , Spain ○ After muslims were expelled, christians built church in center ○ Elaborate Hypostyle Hall ■ Dual colored arches of islamic culture ■ Two tiers of arches to lift ceiling ○ Sahn ○ Horseshoe arch ○ Maqsura ■ Built by Caliph al-Hakam II ■ Elaborate design of arches and dome marking mihrab ■ Rich mosaic floral designs ● Abbasid Empire 750-1258 ● Claimed to be descendant of Muhammad ○ Abbas ● Capital: ​Baghdad ○ “City of Peace” ● Arabic becomes official language of islamic people ● “Original Plan of Baghdad” ○ Circular city ○ Ruler’s palace located in very center of city ○ Huge emphasis on knowledge and education ■ Ancient translation into arabic ● ex.) Plato, mathematics, medicine ○ Home to​ “House of Wisdom” ● Empire spreads to Tunisia, Africa ○ “Great Mosque” 836-875 Kairouan, Tunisia ■ First mosque ■ All mosques have big open courtyard for public ● Sahn ■ Always facing Mecca when praying ■ Quibla Wall ● Always faces Mecca (Direction to pray in) ■ Mihrab ● Recession in Quibla wall ● Marks spot where Muhammad would originally prayer ■ Imam ● Person who was selected to lead on prayer on fridays ● Volunteer ● Will lead o​ inbar ○ Platform next to mihrab ■ Large domes (2) ● 1-marks entrance to mosque ○ Washing ritual to cleanse feet is performed ○ Hypostyle hall ● 2-marks where Mihrab is located ■ Minaret ● Oldest Prayer tower ● Oriental Carpet ○ Floral designs ○ Loom ■ Warp (Vertical strings) ■ Weft (Horizontal strings) ○ Series of knots ○ Ply, or thickness, determined quality ○ “​Funerary Carpet​”​ 1540 ■ 35x18 ■ 25 million knots ■ 340 knots per sq in. ■ In Victoria & Albert Museum ○ Popular imports into western Europe and appeared in many paintings The Ottoman Empire ● Architecture ○ “Sinan the Great”​ 1491-1588 ■ Great engineer and architect of Ottoman Empire ■ “Mosque of Selim II”​ 1568-1575 Edirne, Turkey ● Modeled after Hagia Sofia, but wanted a better structure ● Had school, hospital, indoor marketplace, sahn ● Centralized plan ● Interior had many more windows and open space ● Dome had elaborate mosaic work ○ 197’ high, 108’ in diameter ■ Saz ● Complex blossom art ○ “Masjid-I Iman Complex”​ 1611-1638 Isfahan, Iran ■ ○ Sasanian:​ “Palace of Shupur I” ■ IWAN ● Mosques in Iran typically have four to depict areas within the mosque ■ Use of large arch ■ Three sided vault space ■ Decorative use of calligraphy on dome with glazed tiles ■ Extremely complex use of art in domes ■ Madrasa ● Islamic school ○ Primarily religion taught ○ CHAPTER 11: ROMANESQUE ART Chapter Outline First Impressions of Romanesque Style ● Architecture ○ Medieval Feudalism ■ Based on land ownership ■ King gives Lord pieces of land as king’s protection ● Monumental Stone Structure ○ Crenelations ■ Notch like projections on tops of towers in walls ■ Defensive feature Mature Romanesque ○ “Bayeux Tapestry​ 073-1083 ■ Bayeux cathedral, normandy ■ Deals with France’s invasion of England ■ Three principal characters ● King Edward ● Harold (noble) ● William the Conqueror ■ Harold take oath of loyalty to pass on throne to William once King Edward passes ● Harold declares himself king ● “Battle of Hastings” ○ Harold killed by William ● Medieval “Monasticism” ○ One place where peasants could raise their social status ● Monastery at Cluny, France ○ Large church, libraries, school ○ Destroyed ○ Cloister ■ Places for quiet retreat ● Pilgrimage Churches and Their Art ○ “Cult of Relics” ■ Reliquary ● Decorative container to hold remains of saints ● More reliquaries seen, the more likely one would pass into heaven ○ Pilgrimage Routes ■ Major routes that ran through europe ● Destination was “Santiago de Compestela”, Spain ○ Cathedral of Santiago de Compestela, Spain 1075-1120 ■ Church plan involved a more pronounced cross shape ■ Series of smaller chapels attached ​ ■ Notre Dame de la Belle Verrière ● Translates to “Our lady of the beautiful window” ● Elements of Gothic Construction ○ AKA: Skeletal ○ Organic architecture ■ Consistent, natural growth ○ Wanted as much stained glas as possible ○ Pointed Arch ■ Most obvious structure used in gothic architecture ■ Much more efficient arch for driving pressure of vaults down ○ Ribbed groin vault ■ Stone frame built for vault ■ Used very light brick to relieve weight ○ Flying buttress ■ Structural component that takes weight and pressure off wall and carries to exterior piers ■ placed where arch starts to bend ■ Romanesque churches DO NOT have flying buttresses ○ Rose Windows ■ Floral pattern done in stained glass ○ Traceries ■ Delicate stone bars holding glass in place ○ Royal Portals ■ Renewed interest in human form and naturalism ● Jamb Statues ○ Location of statues on side of doors ○ Depict kings and queens of heaven ○ South Transept ■ Also became major entrances to church ■ Jamb figures ● Saint Theodore ○ Knight ○ Naturalism ○ Sense of personality with facial features ○ Suggestion of contrapposto ■ Gargoyles ● Evil spirits fleeing good of the church ● Start as water spouts ● Place where carver could let imagination take over by creating demonic characters Black Death - 1348 ● Wiped out ⅔ of population of western Europe ● “The Triumph of Death” ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ■ Antonio showing off the muscular tension he had discovered ● Mantegna ○ “The Dead Christ” ​c. 1466 ○ Illusion to look directly over Christ ■ Foreshortening ● The drastic compression of a form back into space ● Difficult device ● Lorenzo Ghiberti ○ “The Gates of Paradi​ c. 1435 Baptistery, Florence ■ 10 panels ● 5 dealing with old testament ● 5 dealing with new testament ○ “Jacob and Esau” ■ Classical setting ■ Uses both low relief and very high relief ■ Incorporates linear perspective and atmospheric perspective ■ Referred to as “Painter in Bronze” ● Leon Battista Alberti ○ Jack of all trades ■ Painting ■ Sculpture ■ Architecture ○ “S. Andrea”​ c. 1470 Mantua ■ First church of the renaissance to incor​ riumphal Arch Motif ■ Pilaster ■ First church of renaissance to use large barrel vault ○ Wrote​ “Ten Books of Architecture”​ c. 1485 ■ Modeled after Vitruvius ■ Believed in circular plan for churches ○ Composite Plan ■ Combination of centralized and basilica plan ● Botticelli - “Little Barrel” ● The Birth of Venus​ 1480 ○ First work of the renaissance to deal with pagan myth ○ Most interested in decorative pattern ○ Elongates Venus to accentuate her beauty ○ Equated to Virgin Mary ○ Neoplatonism ■ Attempt to combine pagan philosophy and christian theodicy ■ To get closer to god, was through contemplation through beauty ● “The Nativity” ○ Pyramidal composition ○ Medici family within setting of painting ■ Offended many and anger grew towards the Medici Rise of Fra Savonarola 1491-1498 ● Convinced many to destroy material goods ● “Bonfire of Vanities” ○ Destroying the things that make you vain ○ Medici’s expelled from florence in 1498 ● Burned at stake CHAPTER 16: THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY, 1495-1520 Chapter Outline Leonardo DaVinci​ 1452-1519 ● Universal Man ○ ​One who is gifted and excels in many areas ● Notebooks ​ 470-1519 ○ Excelling in botany ○ Explored astronomy ○ Human dissections ○ Inventor ■ Bikes, tanks, helicopters, weapons, etc. ● Sfumato ○ Smoky or hazy ○ Incorporating atmospheric quality into paintings ● “Last Supper”​ 1498, Milan ○ Fresco painting ■ Fresh ○ Fresco experiment ■ Painted on dry plaster, but done with wax and paint ■ Failed experiment ● Flaked paint ○ Used Christ’s head as vanish point ○ Balance and symmetry ○ Selects moment where Christ states “One of you shall betray me” ■ Catches reaction of all ■ Judas is the only other to have hands on table along with money bag ● Displays that he is betrayer. ● “Mona Lisa”​ 1503-1506 ○ Oil paints ■ Render soft, warm, supple flesh ■ Questionable expression ● Catches between two expressions ○ Smile and frown ■ Stolen twice in early 20th century ○ Questions why he kept painting Michelangelo ​1475-1564 ● Good example of “Universal Man” as well ○ Left many sculptures unfinished ○ Worked from front to back of sculpture ○ Completed relief sculpture at 12 years old ● “David” ​1501-1504 ○ Florence ○ 18’ of marble done by himself ○ Male nude figure was most beautiful form created by God for artistic expression ○ Michelangelo selects moment before battle with Goliath unlike Donatello who picks moment after battle ○ Action and contemplation ■ Neoplatonic ideas used in his works of art ● “Sistine Chapel Ceiling”​ 1508-1512 ○ His first fresco painting ○ Vatican ○ Commissioned by Pope Julius II ■ Private chapel of the Pope ○ Ceiling just had stars previous to the painting ○ Used illusionistic painting to divide the ceiling into nine main paintings ■ Deals with creation, fall, and redemption of humans ■ Jeremiah ● Meloncholy ● Said to be portrait of himself ■ Female prophet ● Loved to create challenging forms ○ Creation of Adam ■ Most celebrated of nine panels ■ Stretches down center of ceiling ■ Painting of God​ inspired by “Laoc​ rom Ancient Greeks ● Ironic since this was a pagan figure ○ Rebuilding of​ “St. Peter’s Basilica” ​1546-1564, Rome ■ Pope Julius II decided to make the basilica bigger and better ● Wanted to surpass classical past ■ Michelangelo Did not want pay for rebuilding ○ His way of giving back ● Did not want assistance ■ Greek Cross Plan ● Centralized ● Heavily modified after his death by elongating design for long nave ● Two shelled dome ○ Inner shell to be seen from interior ○ Outer shell to be seen from outdoors ■ Space in between domes ■ Walk through shells leading to top of dome ● Apse ○ Much visual movement ■ Made like the “rippling muscles of a man’s body” ■ Angolating ● Wave movement ■ Drum was only made by time of death ● Left a model of the dome for architects to refernce to ○ Much movement as well ■ State capitol buildings follow two basic structures ● St. Pauls ● St. Peters Rapheal​ 1483-1520 ● Very wealthy and popular ● Child prodigy ● “School of Athens”​ 1510, Vatican ○ Most famous fresco in Vatican ○ Contains all of the great minds of the past ■ Plato, Aristotle, etc. ○ Uses linear perspective to focus on Plato and Aristotle ○ Plato’s face was created with Leonardo DaVinci ○ Michelangelo was placed as a minor greek philosopher ■ Melancholy appearance ● Pantheon ○ Requested to be buried in structure ■ ONLY person to be buried in structure CHAPTER 14: ARTISTIC INNOVATIONS IN FIFTEENTH CENTURY NORTHERN EUROPE Chapter Outline: ● Three components of Northern Renaissance Art ○ High degree of realism ○ Great attention to detail ○ Hidden or disguised symbolism ● Robert Campin ○ Merode Altarpiece ■ Triptych ● Three panelled piece ■ Oil paints ● Linseed oil, turpentine, mineral pigments ○ Thins oil paint ​ ​ ​ ■ Central Panel ● Parade of nude figures riding animals ■ Hell panel ● City burning in background ● Musicians crucified for leading to sinful ways ● Gambler’s hand severed and stabbed ● Devils appearance ○ Human form ○ Feet sitting in jars ○ Head of a bird ○ Eating human souls


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