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Bio 132 - Intro to Animal Behavior - Study Guide 1

by: Emily Faulconer

Bio 132 - Intro to Animal Behavior - Study Guide 1 Bi 132

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Biology > Bi 132 > Bio 132 Intro to Animal Behavior Study Guide 1
Emily Faulconer
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This study guide is a summary of all the important information from Weeks 1-3 in the Intro to Animal Behavior class. I picked out information that was the most useful after looking at the question ...
Animal Behavior
Study Guide
Bio, 132, study, guide, intro, to, animal, behavior, Weeks, 1-3, debbie, schlenoff, Emily, faulconer, evolution, natural, selection, Biological, clocks, migration
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Faulconer on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bi 132 at University of Oregon taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Animal Behavior in Biology at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
Biology 132 – Intro to Animal Behavior Midterm 1 Study Guide Biology terms: - Direct Fitness: number of surviving offspring that an individual produces - Indirect Fitness: helping a family member pass on similar alleles with their offspring - Stabilizing Selection: when best phenotype is the average in a population. Phenotype is unlikely to shift - Negative-assortative mating v. Frequency-dependent reproduction: Frequency-dependent reproduction mating has to do with females in a population choosing males based on the rarity of their phenotype rather than males with a more familiar trait. Negative- assortative mating has to do with females choosing males that have different phenotypes from their own traits, whether or not those traits are common or rare. - “Pure” evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS): an adaptive strategy that has been nearly adopted by all members of the population and cannot be beaten in survival and reproductive efficiency - “Mixed” ESS: Several different successful adaptive behavior strategies that combat each other and form an equilibrium in behaviors in a population - Heritability: Ratio of the variation in a population to the total amount of variability in the trait. Can very 0-1, 0.5 = 50%. - Genomics: The study of an organism’s entire genome - Proteomics: Study of the proteins that the gene codes for, and how these proteins produce and modify traits - Cross-fostering: Giving the offspring of one mother to a different mother, and vice versa, to observe the effect of nurture v. nature. - Candidate gene: A gene known for being responsible for similar behavior in different organisms. (Eg. The foraging gene in various insects). - Quantitative trait: A trait that involves many genes - Epigenetics: a stable (usually chemical) alteration in gene expression without changing the DNA sequence. Mice example. - Habituation: waning of a response to the repeated presentation of a specific stimuli - Associative learning: creation of a mental connection between two presentations of stimuli - Extinction: The loss of a conditioned response because it was not maintained - Reinforcer: a stimulus that changes the probability that an animal will change its behavior o Positive: increases the likelihood that the animal will perform a behavior o Negative: decreases the likelihood that the animal will perform a behavior - Shaping: Gradual teaching of a behavior. o Trainer rewards for the basic performance of a task, and then gradually only gives food for the more perfect/complex performances of said task. - Continuous reinforcement schedule: each occurrence of the behavior is rewarded - Fixed reinforcement schedule: animal must respond a set number of times before the reward is given - Variable ratio schedule: number of required responses before reward is given is random - Latent learning: Learning without any obvious or immediate reward - Conspecific: animal or plant of same or similar species - Stimulus enhancement: possible attraction to a particular object because a conspecific is near it - Local enhancement: attraction to a particular location because a conspecific is there - Observational conditioning: learning a behavior by watching other conspecifics - Goal-directed emulation: animal observes the goal of the behavior, but does not repeat the exact same motions to achieve the goal - Imitation: observer copies exactly what the demonstrator does - Traditions: socially learned behaviors that are spread through a group and remain stable over time Two main categories of behavioral explanation - Proximate explanation – How it does that? - Ultimate Explanation -- Why it does that? Four sub-categories of behavioral explanation Proximate Sub-categories - Immediate Causation: Anatomically explains how some behavior is happening, or presents some environmentally triggering reason. - Developmental: Change with age or experience? Learning and age questions. Ultimate Sub-categories - Evolutionary History: Explanations based on shared ancestry - Functional: Beneficial reproductive consequences. The adaptive significance of a trait. Natural Selection! - The Concepts of Natural Selection o Ob. 1: There is diversity among indivs. In a population. o Ob. 2: Among those traits are some that are more useful than others. o Ob. 3: Those traits are genetically based and get passed down from parent to offspring Sources of Variation - Mutation o Changes in DNA - Changes in formation of gametes (sex cells) - Recombination - Survival and reproduction are not random, but variation is - Natural variation as (typically) a bell curve Environmental factors for natural selection - Invasive species - Predators - Environmental disasters - Sexual Selection - Chain of ecosystem failures - Food - Disease How DNA Works (A basic explanation): - Composed of nucleotides - Consists of phosphate, nitrogenous base, and deoxyribose - 4 main bases o Adenine (A) o Thymine (T) - Must pair o Cytosine (C) o Guanine (G) - Must pair - To create/code proteins o Transcribe DNA into RNA (specifically messenger RNA or mRNA) o Translate the order of bases into proteins  1 protein = group of 3 bases/amino acids - mRNA o messenger RNA o single-stranded o uracil (U) instead of thymine o sugar is ribose, not deoxyribose Functions of Proteins - Enzymes control chemical reactions - Create structures (muscle, tissue, etc) - Hormones and neuro-transmitters - Sensory receptors - Regulates the genome Traits - Mendelian trait: 1 gene  1 trait - Polygenic (quantitative) trait: affected by several genes - Pleitropy: One gene has multiple affects o Eg. The PER gene is responsible for:  Circadian rhythm  Courtship songs  Hatching times Testing for genetic basis - Artificial Selection o Breed behavioral differences by selecting favorable traits  Silver fox example, breeding for tolerance to humans - Cross-fostering o To deal with questions about the effect of parental care - Manipulating genes o 1. Genetic engineering: Add a gene o 2. Knock-out genes: Deactivate a gene - Examples: o Genetic engineering  Meadow voles  Put a monogamous neuropeptide receptor from prairie voles into notoriously promiscuous meadow voles to see if they would start being monogamous  They did. True love. o Knock-out genes  Mice  Mice with no fosB gene were disinterested in pups which was abnormal maternal behavior. - ESS and mixed ESS (evolutionary stable strategy) o ESS: one strategy works and is mostly unchallenged in its effectiveness o Mixed ESS: Multiple working strategies at play that cancel each other out. No particular winning strategy Learning! - Habituation considered the simplest form of learning o Specific to a particular stimulus - Classical conditioning o Pavlov’s dog o Pair a stimulus to an action – bell and food powder – and get a reaction associated with the action – saliva and food powder – from the stimuli – bell.  Most effective when the CS precedes the US  The two stimuli must occur in association with each other aka close together.  CS must precede US more often than other stimuli  A conditioned response must be maintained or it will become extinct. - Operant conditioning: The animal operates on the environment to produce consequences o Trial and error - Latent learning o Gathering information for later use o Extremely important - Social learning o Stimulus enhancement o Local enhancement o Observational conditioning o Goal-directed emulation o Imitation o Traditions Epigenetics - Worker and queen bees have very different behavior. Genetic basis? - Identified over 550 genes differently marked in brain o Difference may be molecular - The environment affects which genes are expressed through chemical modification of chromosomes o Rats in enriched environments perform better in learning tasks - Different environments  molecular changes to the chromosome  change in gene expression  difference in brain structures  difference in learning ability - Not all traits actually appear to be adaptations Maintenance of non-adaptive behaviors - 1. Differing environmental conditions - 2. Genetic hitchhiking o One gene affects multiple traits (pleitropy) so if one gene is particularly useful or artificially selected then it inherits other genes with it. o One gene selected for, but many traits affected  We wanted tame foxes but we also got them colorful fur Imprinting - First thing seen when hatched becomes the mother - Geese followed after first moving object they see - Affects sexual behavior o Zebra finches fostered by Bengalese finches court Bengalese finches Song Development - White-crowned sparrow studies o 1. Song acquisition  Hears a song during a critical period in development o 2. Practice: Adds element o 3. Crystallization: Sings full song - Learning a song o Sung abnormal songs when reared alone o Must here the correct song in a critical period of development o Song presented earlier or later – no good o Auditory self-feed back o # of neutrons in song control center increases rapidly - Movement away from the home range that does not stop at the first suitable location o Keep moving until responsive to the presence of resources o Some are a round trip, others one-way  Round trip = long-lived species  One-way = short-lived species - Types of migration o Obligate: Invididual always migrates o Facultative: individual migrates if local conditions degrade o Differential: Migratory patterns of individuals differ by age, class, or gender - Costs o Mortality rate during migration can be very high o Requires huge amount of energy o Risk of starvation o Weary migrants at risk from predators o Bad weather o Obstacles  Man made - Benefits o Trading a less-hospitable environment for a better one o Permits exploitation of temporary or moving food sources o Reproductive benefit of being in a summer habitat o Leaving highly competitive zones o Reduction in predation and parasitism Orientation Cues - 1. Chemical olfaction o Salmon and pidgeons - 2. Sound o Whales and bats - 3. Electrical o Dogfish sharkes - 4. Magnetic cues - 5. Visual cues Climate change on migration - Pied Flycatcher o Spring is coming earlier so catepillars are hatching earlier o When flycatchers arrive, catepillars are already gone o Not good for fly catchers


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