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Test 2 study guide

by: Jordan Guerrero

Test 2 study guide

Marketplace > San Francisco State University > > Test 2 study guide
Jordan Guerrero

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PSYCH 200 Gen Psychology
Study Guide
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan Guerrero on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at San Francisco State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 10/13/16
1. Addiction: drug use that remains compulsive despite its negative consequences  2. Change threshold: difference threshold? the smallest difference between two stimuli that  you can notice  3. Circadian rhythms: brain activity and other physiological processes are regulated into  patterns’ circadian= “about a day” 4. Consciousness: moment­by­moment subjective experiences  5. insomnia: sleep disorder in which people’s mental health and ability to function are  compromised by their inability to sleep  6. hypnosis: a social interaction during which a person, responding to suggestions,  experiences change in memory, perception, and/or voluntary action  7. dreams: products of an altered state of consciousness  8. meditation: mental procedure that focuses attention on an external object or a sense of  awareness  9. narcolepsy: excessive sleepiness during normal waking hours; person may experience  muscle paralysis; genetic condition hat affects the neural transmission of a specific  neurotransmitter in the hypothalamus  10. obstructive sleep apnea: person stops breathing for a short period of time  11. REM sleep: paradoxical sleep; brain is active during REM episodes but the body;s muscles  are paralyzed  1. sleep walking: somnambulism, this relatively common behavior occurs during slow­wave  sleep, typically within the first hour or two after falling asleep 2. change blindness: because we cannot attend to everything, we are often “blind” to large  changes in our environments; it illustrates that we can attend to a limited amount of  information  3.  selective attention: ???? 4. persistent vegetative state: ??? 12. minimally conscious state: people with brain injuries are able to make some deliberate  movements  5. sleep deprivation: ??? 13. tolerance: ???/ 14. withdrawal: physiological/psychological state characterized by feelings of anxiety, tension,  and craving for addictive substance  15. sensation: the detection of physical stimuli and transmission of that information to the brain  16. perception: brain’s further processing, organization, and interpretation of sensory  information  17. absolute threshold: level of intensity at which participants (correctly) detect a stimulus on  50% of the trials in which it is presented  18. convergence: refers to the way that the eye muscle turns the eyes inward when we view  nearby objects  19. binocular vision: ??? 20. gustation: our sense of taste; keeps poisons out of our systems while allowing food in 21. olfaction: sense of smell; has most direct route to brain 22. sensory adaption: a decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation  23. sound waves: pattern of the changes in air pressure during a period of time  24. taste buds: found on tongue, tiny structures called papillae; taste receptors are part of taste buds  25. top­down processing: how knowledge, expectations, or past experiences shape the  interpretation of sensory information  26. transduction: translation of stimuli into signals that the brain can interpret  27. vestibular sense: uses information from receptors in the semicircular canals of the inner  ear; canals contain liquid that moves when the head moves  6. color blindness: ??? 7. hue: the distinctive characteristics that place a particular color in the spectrum  8. saturation: purity of the color  9. brightness: color’s perceived intensity  10. facial perception: ??? 11. depth perception: dorsal stream­ specialized for spatial perception, determining where an  object is and where it is in relation to other objects  12. supertasters: more tastebuds that normal; highly aware of flavors and textures and more  likely to feel pain when tasting food  13. unami: savory, yummy, MSG 14. Continuous reinforcement: when behavior is reinforced each time it happens  15. extinction: the conditioned response is extinguished when the CS no longer predicts the US  16. habituation: decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a stimulus  17. latent learning: learning that takes place without reinforcement  18. modeling: imitation of observed behavior  19. negative punishment: decrease in the behavior’s probability through the removal of a usually pleasant stimulus  20. negative reinforcement: increase in behavior through the removal of an unpleasant stimulus  21. partial reinforcement: intermittent reinforcement of behavior  22. phobia: an acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object or situation  23. observational learning: learning by watching how others behave  24. positive punishment: decrease in the behavior’s probability through administration of a  stimulus; stimulus in positive punishment is unpleasant  25. positive reinforcement: increase in the probability of a behavior being repeated with  administration of a stimulus after  26. sensitization: increase in behavioral response after exposure to a stimulus; least to  heightened responsiveness to other stimulus  27. spontaneous recovery: the extinguished CS again produces a CR; recovery is temporary  28. stimulus discrimination: learning to differentiate between 2 similar stimuli if one is  consistently associated with the US and the other is not  29. stimulus generalization: occurs when stimuli are similar but not identical to the CS that  produced the CR; generalizations are adaptive  30. vicarious learning: learning about an action’s consequences by watching others being  rewarded or punished for performing the action 


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