Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide Hist
Northwest Missouri State University
Popular in US History to 1877
Popular in 33155-01
PHYS 1101 - B02
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Morse on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist at Northwest Missouri State University taught by Dr. Ford in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 195 views. For similar materials see US History to 1877 in 33155-01 at Northwest Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Bering Strait A land bridge connecting northeast Siberia and Alaska. Megafauna This became extinct at the end of the ice age, included mammoths, and other giant animals. Impact of farming on the indigenous They became sedentary, began people. accumulating stuff (food and homes), population grew, couldn't move as easily in a drought, increase in warfare (expansion, valuable land), disease, governments and hierarchies. Ancient American Societies Incans and Aztecs. Tenochtitlán One of the largest cities in the world at the time, 100k-200k people, very developed, located in the middle of a swamp, disease killed 90% of population when taken over. Matrilineal Mother's side, mother to daughter, elevated, man lives with woman's family. Patrilineal Father's side, father to son, elevated, woman lives with man's family. Push and Pull Factors Push people out of the country, pull them to the new country. Push: war and disease, Pull: opportunity. Renaissance 14th-17th century, prior was black death, revived interest in discovering, curiosity. Enclosure Movement The closing of common land, England needed workers, the common land was initially free ground to plant, was a cause for settlement. Reformation Protestant, another cause for settlement, most countries remained catholic, some became protestant. Martin Luther Said that the Catholic church is wrong and that they needed to practice Christianity differently. Portuguese Exploration First major explorers, wanted trade with Asia and attempted to get there around the tip of Africa, created Triangle Trade. Triangle Trade Starts in Europe with manufactured goods, goes to Africa for slaves, over to America for raw materials, back to Europe. More detailed maps show complexity. Spanish Involvement was very limited and led to the end of the empire, Florida was mainly tactical, New Mexico and California were spreading Catholicism, forced conversion of Indians, Conquest model, frontier of inclusion. Christopher Columbus Believed that he reached India, finds gold and silver, dies before realizing it wasn't India. French Searched for trade routes, goes North, rich fur trade, commerce model, frontier of inclusion. English Religious persecution, settling societies, frontier of exclusion. Dutch Focus on fur trade and commerce, frontier of exclusion. John Cabot First english explorer, in search of northwest passage, Newfoundland. Michael Lok and Martin Frobisner In search of northwest passage, they think that they found it and gold, wasn't gold, only a slightly shiny rock. Henry Hudson In search of northwest passage, found the Hudson Bay, eventually crew mutinied. Humphrey Gilbert Takes people to Newfoundland to settle, stay for one year, didn't think it was worth it. Sir Walter Raleigh Settlement and exploration, looked south instead of north, plenty of fore planning, lasted one year then failed. John White Settlement, takes 100 families, drops off at Roanoke, heads back to London for supplies, doesn't return for three years due to war, when he returns everyone is gone. Joint-Stock Company Many companies funded the settlement and exploration of the colonies. Paid for their passage and also the land. Had to pay it back off. Jamestown Initially couldn't counter the powerful natives, 80% of the people died within the first 10 years, John Smith instituted military rule, the initial settlers wanted to abandon, but the company sent more over so it wouldn't fail. Virginia Massacre The English didn't want to share land, hundreds were killed, almost led to end of colony. Virginia Servant supply drops, moved to slave labor, settled, Church of England was the designated religion. Maryland Proprietary colony, George Calvert aka Lord Baltimore, Catholic haven. Plymouth Plymouth Company funded, persecuted Pilgrims, wrote the Mayflower Compact. Massachusetts Bay Massachusetts Bay Company funded, Puritans. Great Migration 40k Puritans to Massachusetts area, stopped after the English Civil War when the Puritans weren't persecuted anymore. Boston, Massachusetts Believed in predestination, extremely intense pressure to act right, settlers, small family farms. Massachusetts Royal Colony Crown believed Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay have too much power, charters were revoked and they were combined. Roger Williams Separation of church and state, believed that when church and state were together it led to corruption, banished from Massachusetts, got a charter and created Rhode Island. Dutch and Swedish Dutch had New Netherlands (New York), took over New Sweden (Delaware). Duke of York Brother of the king, took over the land of the Dutch (New York and Delaware), all land becomes New York. New Jersey Given to two people, was a mess, East and West Jersey, merged by crown. Pennsylvania William Penn tried to get New Jersey, got Pennsylvania instead, wanted to holy experience, also bought Delaware (Later became own colony) Restoration Colonies After English Civil War when the throne was restored, people who were loyal to the crown received land, all proprietary colonies. Georgia Supposed to be a utopian community (failed), place for the poor and destitute, James Oglethorpe was creator, served as a buffer between the other "important" colonies (Carolinas) and Spanish Florida. Carolina Proprietary colony, remote scattering of farms and plantations, divided into north and south. The Affect of Slavery on Africa The slaves were not the people on coast, inland people were brought to the coasts, coastal tribes conducted the trade, large population loss, warfare increased. Indentured Servitude v. Slavery Servitude was 4-7 years, company shipped workers over, promised lands and goods to get started (hardly happened). Slaves worked for the rest of their lives, were forced onto ships. Glorious Revolution and the King James II reorganized all the Dominion of New England New England colonies into one colony. James II was overthrown, replaced with William of Orange and Mary. Puritans v. Dissidents Puritans wanted to purify their church, very radical. Dissidents were everyone not Catholic. Bacon's Rebellion Tension with lands between colonists and natives, Berkeley refused to assist because he wanted to maintain trade, Bacon revolted and failed. Mercantilism Crown implemented laws to colonies. Pequot War Massacre, Puritans seized lands, led to dissolution of tribe. Witch Trials Salem, idea of witchcraft, led to hangings. English Civil War King Charles was executed, he had disbanded Parliament, and he was Catholic, Oliver Cromwell was a puritan. Stono Rebellion Slave uprising in South Carolina, strict slave code. Great Awakening Religious revival movement. Salutary Neglect The crown and Parliament was no enforcing taxes or laws. Navigation Acts Wasn't enforced, many colonists smuggled cheaper goods. Age of Enlightenment People were thinking differently about rights, government, and specific freedoms of people. John Locke Life, liberty, and property, men set up government to protect property, men have a natural right of rebellion. The Great Awakening Religious revival. George Whitefield Believed each person could connect to God, not predestined, everyone can repent and be saved. Seven Years' War French and Indian War, colonists and natives helped during war, British won. Proclamation of 1763 Colonists could not move west of the Appalachian mountains, British did not want further conflict with natives, Colonists were angered that the Indians got land and they didn't, British left 10k soldiers in colonies. Currency Act Prevents colonists from printing money, had to pay taxes in gold or silver, was ineffective in raising money. Sugar Acts Enforced navigation acts, lowered the original tax that the colonists didn't pay in the first place, also enforced admiralty courts in Canada. Quartering Acts Required the colonies to provide food and housing for British troops, only in certain colonies, not problematic at first. Stamp Act Attempt at raising revenue for war and pay for troops, all printed items were required to have a stamp purchased for them, direct tax. Virginia Resolves Stated that the tax violated their rights as Englishmen, instated a policy of nonimportation. Policy of Nonimportation Boycott, forced Parliament to change minds, usually doesn't work. Virtual Representation All the representatives in Parliament are supposed to be generally thinking of colonists. Stamp Act Congress First time the colonies come together as a unit to speak of an issue, nine of thirteen colonies, created a statement of rights and list of grievances, demanded that the government rescinds the stamp act, instated a colony wide boycott of British goods. Sons of Liberty Threatened stamp collectors, extremely effective, stamps only sold in Georgia. Townshend Act To pay the salaries of royally appointed governors and judges in colonies, moved admiralty courts to within the colonies, taxed luxury goods. Massachusetts Circular Letter Circulate amongst colonies, states that they want to boycott the act and encourages other colonies to do the same, Britain sent thousands of troops to the colonies, threaten to dissolve anyone who enforced this. Boston Massacre Colonists were taunting the British soldiers, British fire on colonists, eleven colonists dead and injured. Tea Act British East India Company was going bankrupt, British gave them total control over American tea trade, price of tea goes down (cuts out middle man), colonists viewed as trap, tried to prevent any tea from getting into Boston Harbor. Boston Tea Party A ship got into Boston Harbor, colonists dumped 90k lbs of tea overboard, hundreds of people were present. Coercive Acts Intolerable Acts, meant to punish Boston, closes harbor until damages are paid, no more town meetings, instated quartering act within the colonists homes. Quebec Act Canadian colony, authoritarian government instated by British, concerned the other colonies. First Continental Congress Almost all colonies show up (except Georgia), protest what was happening to Massachusetts. Suffolk Resolves From Massachusetts, denounced intolerable acts, called for the other colonies to organize militias for defense (not independence), and to suspend ALL trade with Britain and stop paying taxes. Humble Petition Restated allegiance to king. Lexington and Concord Goal was to arrest the leaders of rebellion and take their weaponry, 700 troops head to Concord, Paul Revere did midnight ride, Militias met the troops in Lexington, shots fired and 8 were killed and more wounded. Troops reach Concord, more militias waiting, British killed, retreated back to Boston. Troops were stuck and surrounded in Boston for one year, in total there were 270 British casualties, and 95 American Casualties. Second Continental Congress Georgia absent again, focus was on defense, created the Continental Army. Continental Army Washington was leader. Olive Branch Petition Sent to king, still addressed as their king, reverence but also unhappy, want salutary neglect again, still preparing armies. Common Sense Thomas Paine, problem was Parliament and King (corruption), said they needed democracy, bought by 1/16 of population. Declaration of Independence Mostly written by Thomas Jefferson, created from ideas from Enlightenment, justification for rebellion, not a governing document. Articles of Confederation Continental Congress became ruling body, could not impose taxes, conduct trade, or instate a national draft. British strengths during the war Navy, money, government, experience, access, population. American strengths during war Homeland advantage, guerrilla warfare, the French, motive. American weaknesses Militias deserted often, no draft power. British weaknesses Distance. Betsy Ross Worked as an upholsterer, her company created most of the flags. British Strategy 1 Target North, attack New York and cut off New England. Saratoga In New York, British surrendered 6k troops, America might be able to win, initiated French involvement. Valley Forge Winter encampment in Pennsylvania, 6 months, 12k men suffering, spring was mainly training. British Strategy 2 Target South, gain support of loyalists. Charleston, South Carolina Wanted the Harbor, 5k American troops, 8k British, colonies didn't send help, British take Charleston. Yorktown, Virginia Americans won because of French, end of war. Treaty of Paris 1 year to negotiate, takes long time to officially end. Northwest Ordinance Then northwest territory. Shays's Rebellion Daniel Shays was a farmer, gathered 1500 farmers, prevent government from take land, government crushed the rebellion. Constitutional Convention Balancing power, checks and balances, making a plan. Virginia Plan 2 houses, both based on population. New Jersey Plan Each state gets 1 vote. Connecticut Plan Great Compromise, two houses, Senate: each state has 2 representatives, House of Representatives: Based on population. Federalists Wanted the constitution to be passed. Anti-Federalists Wanted a stronger state government, didn't suggest another solution. Bill of Rights Rights weren't written in England so they were easy to take away.
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