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UO / Sociology / SOC 204 / What distinguishes a social group from a social aggregate?

What distinguishes a social group from a social aggregate?

What distinguishes a social group from a social aggregate?

Description

School: University of Oregon
Department: Sociology
Course: Introduction to Sociology
Professor: Dreiling m
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Week 3: Chapters 5+6
Description: Covering groups, networks, organizations, conformity, deviance, and crime.
Uploaded: 10/14/2016
8 Pages 46 Views 1 Unlocks
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Chapter 5 Groups, Networks, and Organizations What are social groups? 


What distinguishes a social group from a social aggregate?



Social group: a collection of people who share a  

common identity and regularly interact with one another

Social aggregate: a simple collection of people who happen to be together  in a particular place but do nit significantly interact or identify with one  another

Social category: people sharing a common characteristic without  necessarily interacting or identifying with one another

In-groups: groups towards which one feels particular loyalty and- respect Out-groups: groups towards which one feels antagonism and contempt Primary groups: made up of families, peers, and friends

∙ characterized by face to face interaction


What is the best example of a primary group?



If you want to learn more check out What is memory and the processes involved?

∙ unity, or merging of self into the group

Secondary groups: are large and impersonal, often involve fleeting  relationships

∙ rare emotional ties

∙ can't typically "be yourself" in secondary groups

∙ people join secondary groups to complete a task

Reference group: a group that provides a standard for judging one's own  attitudes or behaviors (family, peers, coworkers, etc.)

∙ you don't have to belong to the group for it to be a reference group  (e.g. Hollywood stars)

The Effects of Size

∙ Dyads: consist of two persons;

o involve both intimacy and conflict


What are the three types of reference groups?



o are both intense and unstable

o can be very fragile Don't forget about the age old question of What is an example of habituation?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the cognitive approach to problem solving?

∙ Triads: consist of three persons

∙ If you want to learn more check out What connects the pia mater to the dura mater?
If you want to learn more check out What should parents do to their child with special needs?
We also discuss several other topics like What is an example of an inductive reasoning?

o More stable than dyads

o One person can temporarily but draw without threatening triad o Dyad may form within triad causing conflict

∙ Larger groups:

o Increased ability; several people could pull away without  endangering the group

Types of leadership

∙ Leader: a person able to influence others

∙ Transformational leaders: go beyond routine, instilling in the  members of the group a sense of purpose

∙ Transactional leaders: get the job done

o Leadership is routine (e.g. teaching a class)

Conformity

∙ Psychologist Solomon Asch (1952) debonstrates the power of group influence

o When everyone else in the group clearly chose the wrong answer (as instructed to do), subject chose the wrong answer as well o Read full study on page 136

∙ Stanley Milgram's research (1963) demonstrates obidence to  authority

o Milgram told the teacher (subject) to shock the learner (who was  in on the study) every time the got an answer wrong

o The shock level increased each time (the shocks were fake and  the learner was actually just screams from pain prerecorded) o The conclusion: ordinary citizens will conform to orders given by  someone in a position of authority

∙ Irving L. Janis (1972 & 1989)

o Groupthink: a process by which the members of a group ignore  those ideas, suggestions, and plans of action that go against the  group consensus

How Do We Benefit from Social Networks? 

Networks: all the direct and indirect connections that link a person or a  group with other people or groups

∙ Direct: your friends

∙ Indirect: your friends friends

∙ We use networks to benefit ourselves

∙ World Wide Web (www) was developed in the 1990's and allows people to connect

∙ Not everyone has equal access to Internet (might be too poor to afford  it not know how to operate it)

How Do Organizations Functions 

Organization: a group with an identifiable membership that engage in  concerted collective actions to achieve a common purpose Formal organization: is rationally designed to achieve its objectives ∙ Has rules, regulations, and procedures

Theories of organization

∙ Max Weber stated organizations are ways of coordinating the activities  of human beings, or the goods they produce, in a stable manner ∙ Saw organizations as hierarchial

Bureaucracy: the rule of officials

∙ Weber argued expansion of bureaucracy is inevitable in moder  societies; only way to work at a large scale

∙ Weber created an "ideal" type of bureaucracy (ideal meaning a pure  form, not meaning most desirable)

∙ Ideal bureaucracy:

1. A clear- cut hierarchy of authority, such that test in the  organization are distributed as "official duties"

2. Written rules govern the conduct of officials at all levels of the  organization

3. Officials are full-time and salaried

4. There is a separation between the tasks of an official within the  organization in his or her life outside

5. No members of the organization on the material resources with  which they operate

∙ Bureaucrasy could be seen as dull, lacking personal creativity Formal relations: The relations between people as stated in the rules of the organization

Informal networks: develops at all levels of the organization; connections  maybe more important in the formal situations in which decisions are  supposed be made

Iron law of oligarchy: the loss of power at lower levels of a bureaucracy  because of power going to the top

∙ Term comes from Weber's student Robert Muchels (1911) Gender and organizations

∙ 1970's rise of feminist scholarship led to more gender studies ∙ Two main ways in which gender is embedded in the structure of  modern organizations:

o Bureaucracies are characterized by occupational gender  segregation; Woman in low-paying jobs involving routine work,  governed by men so never promoted

o Idea of the bureaucratic career as a male career; Woman played  supporting roles

 Is Bureaucracy an Outdated Model? 

∙ more and more organizations are turning away from Weber's idea of all the power and knowledge at the top of the chain in an organization are now allowing more people to participate in roles seen as higher up in  status. This is said to allow creativity and innovation

Two popular branches of management theory

∙ Human resource management: a style of management that regards a company's workforce as vital to its economic competitiveness ∙

o Employees must be dedicate for a company to do well, so human resource management finds ways to engage and excite workers ∙ Corporate culture: closely related to human  

resource manageable; management tries to build an organizational  culture by involving rituals and events unique to the company Technology and modern organization:

∙ Information technology: computers and electronic communication  media such as the Internet

∙ Technology has made workers more efficient and communication world wide easier

The "McDonaldization" of society

∙ four guiding principles for McDonaldization (the process by which the  principles of the fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate mroe  and more sectors of American society)

1. Efficiency

2. Calculability

3. Uniformity

4. Control through automation

How do Groups and Organizations Affect your Life?

Social capital:The social knowledge and connections that enable people to  accomplish their goals and extend their influence

∙ Broad concept that encompasses useful social networks, sense of  mutual obligation + trustworthiness, understanding of norms that  govern

∙ Men more capital than women, whites more capital than nonwhites ∙ Decline in involvement of people in organizations has resulted in less  trustworthiness in people and less social capital

∙ Trust in U.S. government has declined sharply since 1970's ∙

o June 2013 public discovered National Security Agency  

was collecting citizens private phone calls

∙ Programs today emphasis personal growth and wealth rather than  group improvement and togetherness; every man for them self now

Chapter 6 Conformity, Deviance, and Crime Norms: clearly defined and established principles or rules people are  expected to observe

Mores: Norma that are widely aherded to and have a great social and moral  significance

Folkways: norms that guide our every day actions (e.g. cutting someone in  line would be violation of a folkway)

∙ We all break rules (e.g. Speeding)

∙ We all are rule makers (what people do regularly, overtime, becomes a  "rule")

What Is Deviant Behavior? 

Deviance: nonconformity to a given set of norms that are accepted by a  significant number of people

∙ Many behaviors (such as underage drinking or speeding) are not  considered deviant because they are normative

Deviant subculture: a subculture that is separated from norms and acts  out in deviance

Sanction: any reaction from others to the behavior of an individual or group that is meant to ensure that the person or group complies with a given norm Laws: norms defined by government

Crime: breaking government laws

Why do People Commit Deviant Acts? 

Biological view of deviance

∙ 1870s, Cesare Lombroso (an Italian criminologist) believed criminal  types could be identified by the shape of the skull. (This idea is heavily  criticized and not accepted anymore.)

∙ Three types of human physique ( This idea is heavily criticized and not  accepted anymore.)

o Muscular, active types more likely to become delinquent o Thin types less likely than muscular

o Fleshy types less likely than muscular

∙ Child research in New Zealand believes that biological factors apparent at birth mixed with certain social factors leads to delinquency The psychological view of deviance

∙ Psychopaths: withdrawn, emotionless characters who delight and  violence for its own sake

o Sometimes commit violent acts, but are not inherently criminals ∙ Biological and psychological approaches to criminality presume that  deviance is a sign of something "wrong" with the individual rather than

with society. Sociology looks at social environment as a cause of  criminology.

Socialogical view on deviance

∙ Functionalist theories: see crime and deviance resulting from  structural tensions and lack of moral regulation within society ∙ Emile Durkheim: sociologist

o Saw crime and deviance as social facts; both inevitable and  necessary

o

 Deviance introduces new challenges, is a innovative factor  Deviance contributes to balance of society

o Anomie: introduced by Emile Durkheim; suggested that in  modern societies, social norms may lose their hold  

over individual behavior

o

 Exist when no clear standards exist to guide behavior in an area of life

∙ Robert K. Merton (1957) constructed a highly influential theory of  deviance that located source of crime within the very structure of  American Society

o Modified concept of anomie to refer to the strain put  

on individuals' behavior when accepted norms conflict with social reality

o Five possible reactions to tensions socially endorsed values and  the limited means of achieving

o

 Conformist: accept societal values+conventional means of  realizing them, majority of population

 Innovators: accept socially approved values but use illegal  means to follow them (e.g. criminal becoming wealthy  

illegally)

 Ritualists: conform to socially accepted standards although they've lost sight of the values behind them (e.g. remain in boring job with no career prospects

 Retreatists: abandoned competitive outlook altogether  (e.g. self supporting commune)

 Rebels: reject values+construct of social structure

o Relative deprivation: the recognition that one has less that his  or here peers

Subculture Explained

∙ Albert Cohen (1955) "Delinquent Boys"

o Argued that boys in lower class frustrated with their live join  together to create gangs

∙ Richard A. Cloward and Llyod E. Ohlin (1960) a

o Argued that gangs arise in subcultural communities where  chances of achieving success are low

Reinforcement theories:

∙ Differential association: argues that we learn deviant behavior in  precisely the same way we learn about conventional behavior; from  peers+family

∙ Control theory: argues crime occurs as a result of an imbalance  between impulses toward criminal activity and the social or physical  controls that deter it

o Crimes are results of "situational decisions" meaning someone  sees a chance and takes it

Conflict Theory

∙ Conflict theory: seeks to identify why people commit crime ∙

o deviance is deliberately chosen and often political in nature o Don't believe deviance is due to biology or anomie

∙ New criminology: analysis of crime and deviance in terms of the  structure of society and preservation of power among ruling class (e.g.  laws to preserve powerful peoples' rights)

Symbolic interactionist approach

∙ Labeling theory: persons with the greatest social  

and economical power tend to place labels on those with lesser social  power

o interpret deviance not as a set of characteristics of individuals or  groups but as a process of interaction between deviants and non deviants

o e.g. Howard s Becker's 1963 study on marijuana smokers; it is  not the marijuana smoking that makes one deviant, but rather  the way others react to marijuana smoking

∙ Primary deviance: initial act of rule breaking

∙ Secondary deviance: occurs when the individual comes to accept the label and sees himself or herself as deviant

How do we Document Crime?

Uniform Crime Reports (UCR): contains official data on crime that is  reported to law enforcement agencies across the country

∙ Focuses on index crimes which includes serious crimes such as murder  and non-negligent manslaughter, robbery, forcible rape, aggravated  assault, burglary, larceny/theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson

∙ Only 11.9% of crimes are violent

Gender and crime

∙ 2011, 93% of people in jail were males over the age of 18 ∙ Gender contract: the implicit contrast between men and women  whereby to be a woman is to be erratic and impulsive, on the one  hand, and in need of protection on the other

Youth and Crime

∙ 2012, 28% of all offenders arrested for criminal offenses were age  twenty-one or younger

∙ youthful deviants can still go on to live a crime free life Crimes of the powerful

∙ White collar crime: crime typically carried out by people in the more  affluent sectors of society

∙ Corporate crime: refers to criminal offenses committed by  large corporations  

Organized Crime: refers to forms of activity that have some of the  characteristics of orthodox business but that are illegal

∙ The narcotic trade is one of the most rapidly  

expanding international criminal industries (annual growth rate over  10%)

How can Crime be Reduced?

Are prisons the answer?

∙ Surveys suggest Americans in favor of prisons

∙ 2011, it cost $28,893 per year to keep a prisoner in federal prison  system

∙ U.S. locks up more people than any other country per capita ∙ 2012, 63% of Americans surveyed were in favor of death penalty Community policing: implies not only drawing in citizens themselves but  changing the characteristic outlook of police forces (crime prevention rather  than law enforcement)

Target hardening: a practice that makes it more difficult for criminals to  commit crimes by minimizing their opportunities to do so

Shaming: a form of punishing criminal and deviant behavior

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