Biology 2313 Study Guide for Exam 2
Biology 2313 Study Guide for Exam 2 Biology 2313
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ednjon Parilla on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 2313 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Zaineb Al-Dahwi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
A&P II: Exam 2 Study Guide VOCABULARY TERMS 1. Pericardium a. double-wall covering of the heart 2. Fibrous Pericardium a. superficial, outer wall b. tough tissue (connective tissue) 3. Serous Pericardium a. deeper, inner wall b. serous membrane c. double layered 4. Parietal Layer of Serous Pericardium a. first layer of the Serous Pericardium b. lines the walls of the ventral body cavity 5. Visceral Layer of Serous Pericardium a. aka Epicardium b. second layer of Serous Pericardium c. comes in with the heart 6. Pericardial Cavity a. gap between the 2 layers of the serous pericardium 7. Autorhytmic Cells a. aka Pace-maker Cells b. non-contractile muscle cells (1% of muscle cells) 8. Interatrial Septum a. portion of the wall that separates the atriums b. extends down into Interventricular Septum 9. Interventricular Septum a. portion of the wall that separates the ventricles b. extends upward into Interatrial Septum 10.Auricles a. structures shaped an ear b. “enlargement” that provides an additional compartment for holding more blood c. found in Atriums 11.Muscular Ridges a. found inside the anterior wall of the Right Atria b. not on posterior wall c. ridges that look like teeth of a comb d. aka Pectilate Muscles 12.Pectinate Muscles a. aka Muscular Ridges 13.Fossa Ovalis a. a depression in the right atrium of the heart b. at the level of the interatrial septum c. remnant of a thin fibrous sheet that covered the foramen ovale during fetal development 14.Superior Vena Cava a. large vein carrying oxygen poor into the heart b. carries blood from the lower body into the heart 15.Inferior Vena Cava a. large vein carrying oxygen poor into the heart b. carries blood from the upper body, head, and arms, into the heart 16.Pulmonary Veins a. blood vessels that return blood from lungs into the heart b. 4 pulmonary veins c. visible from the back of the heart 17.Trabeculae Carneae a. “meaty ridges” that project form inner surface of both ventricles b. different from pectinate muscles 18.Papillary Muscle a. “finger projection muscle” out of endocardium b. has cord-like structures at the tip called Chordae Tendineae c. found in ventricles 19.Chordae Tendineae a. on the papillary muscle in ventricle b. cord-like structures c. made of very tough collagen fibers d. link Papillary Muscle with edges of flaps of the Atrioventricular Valves 20.Atrioventricular Valves a. 2 valves (right + left) b. located between the atria and ventricle on each side 21.Tri-Cuspid Valve a. Right Atrioventricular Valve b. 3 flaps 22.Bi-Cuspid Valve a. Left Atrioventricular Valve b. 2 flaps c. aka Mitral Valve (when closed looks like a certain hat) 23.Aorta a. largest artery in the body b. leads oxygenated blood into the Left Ventricle 24.Pulmonary Trunk a. leads oxygen poor blood into Right Ventricle 25.Aortic Semilunar Valve a. base of the aorta 26.Pulmonary Semilunar Valve a. base of the pulmonary trunk b. not associated to papillary muscles c. prevents backflow of blood during ventricular relaxation 27.Systemic Circulation a. associated with the left b. returns blood back from lungs into left atrium c. provides oxygen needed for the whole body d. faces 5x more resistance than the pulmonary circulation e. has higher blood pressure than the pulmonary circulation 28.Pulmonary Circulation a. associated with the right b. pumps blood from the heart to lungs and back to the heart c. has equal blood volume as the systemic circulation 29.Pressure Gradient a. difference in blood pressure b. moves from high to low c. driving force of blood flow (moves the blood from chamber to chamber) 30.Endomysium a. connective tissue b. connected to the fibrous cardiac skeleton (between the branches) 31.Desmosomes a. type of cellular junction b. found in cardiac muscles c. prevents separation during contraction of heart 32.Gap Junctions a. type of cellular junction b. found in cardiac muscles c. protein channels that connect 2 cells d. work as a bridge where ions can go from one cell to another 33.Myocytes a. aka cardiac muscle cells b. 2 types 34.Self-Excitable Cells a. cardiac muscles b. capable of generating own depolarization c. “pacemaker cells” = autorhythmic d. 1% of muscle cells in the heart e. non-contractile 35.Slow Calcium Channels a. on the plasma membrane on contractile cardiac muscle cells b. depolarization leads to the opening of this channel c. 20% of calcium is provided (needed for contraction) from this channel 36.Calcium Sensitive Channels a. found on cytoplasmic reticulum of myocytes b. releases the rest of calcium needed for contraction 37.Absolute Refractory Period a. period when second action potential that cannot be generated i. longer in cardiac muscles than skeletal muscles 38.Unstable Resting Membrane Potential a. allows depolarization 39.Funny Channel a. specific sodium channel in pacemaker cells b. allows the unstable resting membrane potential 40.Node a. collection of cardiac muscle cells (non-contractile) 41.Sinoatrial Node a. called SA Node b. known as the Pacemaker of the heart c. has the highest beat rate (75 bpm) d. located in the Right Atrium e. electrical impulse transmitted into both atria though gap junctions 42.Internodal Pathway a. responsible for conduction electrical impulses through certain areas of the heart 43.Atrioventricular Node a. called AV Node b. 50 bpm c. located below atria and above the ventricle d. smaller diameter in the muscle fibers e. increase in resistance f. delays the passage of electrical impulse g. ensures the contraction of ventricle doesn’t match the contraction of the atrium 44.Atrioventricular Bundle a. location b. 30 bpm c. responsible for excitation in septum between ventricles 45.Purkinje Fibers a. most important portion responsible for excitation of septum cells b. found in both sides i. left side = start at apex of the heart and up ii. right side = start from bundle branches and up 46.Cardiovascular Center a. collection of nerve cells b. 3 centers c. found in the Medulla Obglata (in brainstem) 47.Cardio-excitatory Center a. in medulla obglata b. sympathetic NS 48.Cardio-inhibitory Center a. in medulla obglata b. sends impulses through the Vagus Nerve c. parasympathetic NS d. sends electrical impulse through the SA Node and AV node 49.Conduction System a. cardiac muscles cells and conducting fibers that initiate impulses and conduct them rapidly thought the heart 50.Plateau Phase a. prolonged depolarization of ventricles 51.EKG a. measures the electrical activity of the heart throughout the body of both contractile and nodes b. represents electrical markers 52.P-Q Interval a. beginning of Atrial Depolarization to Ventricular Depolarization 53.Q-T Interval a. beginning of Ventricular Depolarization and end of Ventricular Repolarization 54.S-T Segment a. within the Q-T interval b. prolonged depolarization = plateau phase 55.P Wave a. atrial depolarization b. initiated by SA Node 56.Between P Wave + QRS Complex a. atrial depolarization is completed b. impulse is delayed at AV Node 57.QRS Complex a. ventricular depolarization begins at apex and upward b. blood is pumped out and into arteries c. electrical impulse (depolarization) is delayed at AV Node 58.Between QRS Complex + T Wave a. ventricular depolarization is complete 59.T Wave a. ventricular repolarization 60.Systole a. contraction in the heart 61.Diastole a. relaxation in the heart 62.Endiastolic Volume (EDV) a. the volume of blood at the end of ventricular relaxation 63.Endsystolic Volum (ESV) a. volume of blood remaining in heart after ventricular contraction 64.Stroke Volume (SV) a. blood ejected form ventricle during one heartbeat 65.Cardiac Output a. Heart Rate times SV 66.Norepinephrine a. binds to beta-Adrenergic Receptor b. promotes the activation of the Sympathetic NS c. allows more calcium channels to open 67.Epinephrine a. released by the adrenal glands b. increases contractility c. increases cardiac output 68.Afterload a. process that takes place in people with hypertension b. pressure in aorta is exceeding the ventricle longer than it should c. decreases cardiac output 69.Hypertension a. disease in which pressure in aorta is always higher than in the ventricle 70.Tunica Intima a. innermost layer of blood vessels b. in contact with the blood c. lumen of blood vessels d. made of endothelium 71.Endothelium a. single layer of simple squamous epithelial cells 72.Sub-endothelial a. layer in the endothelium of blood vessels b. only in blood vessels larger than 1 __ c. made of basal membrane and loose _____ tissue 73.Tunica Media a. middle layer b. made of circular arranged smooth muscle cells (ability to contract) c. made of elastic fibers call External Elastic Lamina 74.Vassal Constriction a. blood vessel contraction b. causes smaller diameter of blood vessel (lumen) 75.Vassal Dilation a. blood vessel relaxation 76.External Elastic Lamina a. elastic fibers in Tunica Media in blood vessels 77.Tunica Externa a. outermost layer in blood vessels b. made of bundles of collagen fibers 78.Elastic Lamina a. sheets of elastic fibers that sandwich Tunica Media both on the internal and external sides b. in muscular arteries 79.Capillary Beds a. network of capillaries b. exchange materials to supple nutrients and carry away waste products 80.Intercellular Clefts a. gaps between epithelial cells in capillary beds b. allow the passage of water-soluble substances 81.Pericyte a. located on top of continuous capillary b. stabilizes the continuous capillary 82.Continuous Capillary a. least permeable type of capillary b. complete basement membrane c. has a pericyte d. located in skin, muscles, CNS e. contain complete tight junctions 83.Blood Brain Barrier a. continuous capillary in CNS in brain b. no intercellular clefts 84.Fenestrations a. holes present in epithelial cells b. helps in exchange of gases in Fenestrated Capillary c. located in kidneys, digestive system, and endocrine glands 85. Fenestrated Capillary a. intercellular clefts are discontinuous b. completed basement membrane c. no pericyte 86.Sinusoidal Capillary a. most permeable capillary b. large size of lumen, intercellular cleft, and fenestrations c. associated with liver, bone marrow, and spleen 87.True Capillary a. 10 to 100 per capillary bed 88.Terminal Arteriole a. part of mircro-circulation b. arteriole feeding capillary beds 89.Vascular Shunt a. mechanism that redistribution of blood flow during exercise b. during rest muscles receive a small amount of blood c. during exercise the distribution of blood changes and more blood is needed 90.Thoroughfare Channel a. blood vessel that leads blood into post-capillary venule 91.Microcirculation a. blood flow from terminal arteriole to post-capillary venule 92.Pre-capillary Sphincters a. made of smooth muscle cells surrounding the root of each true capillary at the metatreriole 93.Diastolic Pressure a. lowest level of blood pressure during ventricular relaxation b. aorta recoiled after blood has been pushed out c. pressure is still higher than the rest of circulation 94.Pulse a. difference between systolic and diastolic pressure 95.Mean Arterial Pressure a. diastolic pressure + one-third pulse pressure 96.Skeletal Muscle Pump a. contraction of skeletal muscle help push blood in veins up into the heart 97.Proximal Valve a. found in veins b. opened by the pulling of the flaps towards the wall of the vein 98.Distal Valve a. found in veins b. backflows and cause the closing of this valve 99.Blood Flow a. volume or amount that is passing through a blood vessel, an organ, or the entire circulation during a given time period 100. Blood Pressure a. CO x R b. varies directly with cardiac output and peripheral resistance 101. Blood Resistance a. friction that is going to be faced by the blood in circulation 102. Peripheral Resistance a. resistance in the tissues 103. Blood Viscosity a. thickness of the blood 104. Anemia a. disease where there is a decreases in RBCs b. decrease in thickness; reduces resistance 105. Polycythemia a. disease where there is an increase in RBCs b. increasing thickness; more resistance 106. Vasal Motor Center 107. Vasal Motor Tone a. steady constriction state in arterioles 108. Baroreceptors a. mechanical receptors b. pressure sensitive c. monitors the stretch mechanism d. found in wall of major arteries 109. Circulatory Shock a. inadequate blood supple to the tissues b. could lead to the death of tissues 110. Hypovolemic Shock a. drastic drop in blood volume b. all loss of fluid/blood c. treat with IV fluid 111. Vascular Shock a. extreme vasodilation b. drastic drop in resistance 112. Anaphylactic Shock a. type of vascular shock b. allergic reaction that releases Histamine (promotes extreme vasodilation) 113. Neurogenic Shock a. type of vascular shock b. damage to the vassal motor center where steady constriction is no longer uniform 114. Septicemia a. infection of the blood due to bacteria releasing toxins that cause extreme vasodialation 115. Cardiogenic Shock a. indicates problem with pump b. death in myocardium
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