PSY Exam 3
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Meinzer on Friday October 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1010 at Ohio University taught by Mark Alicke in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Exam 3 • Conditioning and Associative Learning ◦ Learning ‣ Relatively permanent change in an organisms behavior due to experience ‣ Three main types: • Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Observational Learning ◦ Classical Conditioning ‣ Complex behavior is based on learned modifications of reflexes as a result of association ‣ Pavlov device for recording salvation ‣ Terminology • Neutral Stimulus (NS)- Initially irrelevant stimulus (orienting resposes) • Unconditioned Stimulus(UCS)- An innate reinforcer (ex, food) • Unconditioned Response(UCR)- An innate response (ex, salivation) • Conditioned Stimulus(CS)- Stimulus that triggers conditioned response • Conditioned Response(CR)- Response that occurs due to repeated pairing of NS-UCS ‣ Applications of Classical Conditioning ‣ Classically Conditioned Preferences • Meeting people in pleasant versus unpleasant circumstances • Advertisers create positive association with their product • Music videos ◦ Operant Conditioning ‣ Skinner • Distinguishes between respondent and operant behavior • Respondent behavior occurs in direct response to stimulus ◦ Reflexive ◦ Classical conditioning • Operant behavior is controlled by its consequences • The crucial connection is operant conditioning is between a response and reinforcement ‣ Skinners law of effect • A reinforcer is a stimulus which when produced by a response makes the response more likely to occur in the future • Skinner elaborated Thorndike's Law of Effect ‣ Typical Experiment • Baseline level ◦ For example, number of bar presses in free exploration • Measure rate of response when reinforcement is provided ‣ Operant Chamber • Skinner Box ◦ Chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer ◦ Contains devices to record responses ‣ Schedules of Reinforcement • Continuous Reinforcement ◦ Reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs • Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement ◦ Reinforcing a response only part of the time • Fixed Ratio (FR) ◦ Reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses ◦ Faster you respond the more rewards you get ◦ Very high rate of responding ◦ Like piecework pay • Variable ratio (VR) ◦ Reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses, averaging out to a particular value ◦ Like gambling, fighting • Fixed Interval (FI) ◦ Reinforces a response only after a specified tim has elapsed ◦ Responses occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for award draws near • Variable Interval (VI) ◦ Reinforces a response a unpredictable time intervals ◦ Produces slow steady responding ◦ Pop quiz ‣ Shaping • Shaping is the operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations • Superstitious behavior ◦ Reinforce random behavior ‣ Pirouette ‣ Swing head in pendulum ‣ Witch doctor bring rain ‣ Coincidence ‣ General Conditioning Principles ‣ Primary and Secondary Reinforcers • Primary Reinforcer ◦ An innately reinforcing stimulus like for or drink • Conditioning Reinforcer ◦ A learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer ‣ Extinction • In classical Conditioning, CR will gradually diaper if CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS • In operant conditioning, response will gradually disappear if reinforcement does not follow the response • Extinction is much slower on partial than on full reinforcement schedule • This is because there is less difference between the new (no reinforcement) and old (reinforcement) situations on a partial reinforcement schedule • After extinction occurs, animal can be reconditioned with fewer trials • After an extinction period, the response sometimes reappears ◦ Spontaneous recovery • Extinction teaches lack of contingency ‣ Generalization • In the real world we respond to a class of CS ◦ For example, a child who gets burned leans to respond with fear and avoidance to all S that can burn • Discrimination ◦ It would be maladaptive to overgeneralize ‣ For example, mistake alligator for lizard • Escape Learning ◦ Learning how to get out of unpleasant and uncomfortable situations ◦ Place a rat in shuttle box ◦ 2 compartments separated by hurdle ◦ Floor electrified ◦ Animal eventually learns to jump over the hurdle ◦ After a number of trials, the animal jumps as soon as the electricity comes on ◦ The emetic shock is a negative reinforcer ‣ A stimulus or event which increases the likelihood of a response when it terminates following he response • Avoidance Learning ◦ Luckily, we can offer lard to avoid a bad situation before escape becomes necessary ◦ Same as escape paradigm but animal is provided with a warning signal ◦ If an animal jumps during (5-sec) warning period it till avoid shock ◦ Animal first learns to escape the shock, then eventually to avoid it ◦ Avoidance responses are very difficult to extinguish ◦ In making the avoid response, the animal leaves the situation ◦ Has no opportunity to see that the stimulus us nit forthcoming ‣ Phobias, irrational fears • Punishment ◦ Punishment is an aversive stimulus which is introduced if a response is preformed ‣ For example, yelling at someone for cutting you off in a car ◦ In contrast to negative reinforcer the response does not escape or avoid the aversive stimulus, but instead brings on the aversive stimulus ◦ A negative reinforcer is an aversive stimulus which terminates if a response is performed ◦ Negative reinforcement increases the probability of a response (avoidance or escape) ◦ Punishment is an aversive stimulus that decreases the probability os he response that produces it ◦ Punishment is learning what not to do ◦ For punishment to work it should be: ‣ Relatively intense ‣ Administered soon after that response ‣ The punishment response should not be reinforced in any way ‣ Consistent • Pros and Cons of Punishment ◦ Pros ‣ Can eliminate undesirable response if: • An alternative behavior is available • Punishment is immediately contingent upon the response ‣ Punishment us sometimes the only effective behavior modification technique available ‣ For example: • Self-abuse children • Consistence criminal behavior ◦ Cons ‣ If no alternative behavior is provided, more undesirable behavior can appear ‣ Often administered inconsistently ‣ Recipient may respond with anxiety, fear, or rage ‣ Effects are often temporary ‣ Misbehavior is often hard to punish immediately ‣ Punishment carries little information ‣ Inadvertently brings attention ‣ Cognitive Influences on Operant Conditioning • Latent Learning ◦ Group A explores maze--reinforced ◦ Group B explores maze in wagon--not reinforced ◦ Group C--no exploration ◦ When food was introduced, B caught up to A much quicker than C ◦ Rat Carried around in wagon seems to construct a cognitive map of the maze • Insight ◦ Kohlers Apes ◦ Paradigm ‣ Put chimp enclosed play area ‣ Place banana out of reach ◦ Various objects were available and used ‣ Stick to club down ‣ Stick to pole vault ‣ Box as footstool ‣ Pile boxes ‣ Put one stick into another • Once solution found, performance was smooth • Solution often came after pause with no action • Evidence of Transfer ◦ When box was removed, the chimp substituted a ladder ◦ When ladder was removed, he climbed up Kohler's back • Overjustification ◦ Reduction of intrinsic interest in a task by providing external justification ◦ Reward is effective if it enhanced perceived competence ◦ Social-Cognitive Learning Theory ‣ Fortunately, we don't learn to avoid oncoming cars by walking into traffic ‣ People, and other animals, learn by watching what others do, and what happens to them as a consequence • Bandura's Bobo Doll experiments ‣ Most important application has been with media violence
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