Herbs Test 2 Complete Notes Study Guide
Herbs Test 2 Complete Notes Study Guide HORT 3440
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Week 7 Notes for HORT 3440 CRN10344 Monday: Psyllium, Plantago spp., Plantain Family • Annuals • Native to Mediterranean region • Part used: seeds and seed husk • Constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoids • Caution: relatively safe bulk laxative • It’s useful for its mechanical properties, not chemical • Used as bulk laxative; seed husks absorb water and swell in size, producing a jelly-like mucilage • Bulky mass in intestines stimulates smooth muscles, softens stool, unaffected by bacteria • Also absorbs excess water in intestines • Mucilage soothes lining of gut (demulcent) • Soluble fiber Purgatives and Cathartics (two names- same thing) • Purging has been a popular practice at various times in human history • Egyptians mixed castor oil and beer • London apothecaries encouraged purging every fortnight in their shops (diet in England was very heavy) • Today, laxative abuse is one of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa Bulk forming laxatices (e.g. Psyllium) are not digested but absorb liquid in the intestines and swell to form a soft, bulky mass. The bowel is then stimulated normally by the presence of the bulky mass Stimulent laxative (e.g. Senna) increase the waves of contraction in the intestinal muscles (peristalsis) because of the secondary plant products they contain. They are harsher than bulk-forming laxatives and should only be used occasionally A demulcent is a substance, often rich in mucilage, that can sooth and protect inflamed or irritated internal tissues Senna, Cassia senna, Pea family • Perrenial shrub • Native to tropical Africa • Part used: fruit pods and leaved (stronger) • Constipation (stimulant laxative) • Cautions: can cause cramps and diarrhea; do not give to children • The secondary compounds in Senna are anthraquinones called “sennosides” • They are activated by the natural bacteria found in the colon (the bacteria liberate the active compounds from attached sugars—another example of a glycoside) • Sennosides cause water to flow into the colon instead of out, and they stimulate more forceful contractions of the colon Aloe, Alo vera, A. barbadensis, Lily family • Perennial with succulent leaves • Native to Africa • Part used: leaves (gel and juice) • Burns and scrapes, constipation, ulcers • Cautions: don’t use if intestines obstructed or inflames (colitis) • Anthraquinone compounds are obtained from dried yellow latex in leaves, stored just below the epidermis; extremely potent laxative effect • A juice is made commercially from the interior of the leaf; this is taken internally for peptic ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome; has a cleansing, soothing, and healing effect Aloe gel promotes healing • Gel’s polysaccharides keep wounds moist by absorbing water like a sponge • Recruits white blood cells to repair and defend tissue • Promotes formation of new capillaries • Inhibits formation of free radicals • Can inhibit formation of painful prostaglandin molecules Licorice treats ulcers Peptic Ulcers • About 10% of Americans suffer from ulcers at some point in their life (perforations in lining of upper GI tract) • Previously the problem was blamed on excess stomach acid due to stress, diet, etc. • Now known that bacterial infections are present in most ulcers (Heliobacter pylori) and antibiotics are often prescribed) Licorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Pea family • Woody stemmed perennial to 3 meters • Native to Europe and Asia • Part used : root • Ulcers, upper respiratory tract congestion • Cautions: high blood pressure, heart disease, pregnancy Licorice and Ulcers • Licorice protects the walls of the gut by increasing production of protective mucous; appears to also reduce inflammation • Glycyrrhizic acid (glycyrrhizin) is an important component; 50x sweeter than table sugar; it is a saponin glycoside • Serious side effects include: fluid retention, hypertension, muscle weakness, and uterine contractions • Can use deglycyrrhizinated licorice, but is the herb still effective without this ingredient? Probably not 90% of the licorice produced today is used to flavor cigarettes Colds and Flu • Adults get an average of 4 colds per year • No cure! Colds and flu are viral respiratory infections; antibiotics are useless against them (although they can help if secondary bacterial infections are present) • Doctors prescribe antibiotics to 60% of patients that suffer form colds and flu • Herbal medicines can be used to strengthen the immune system to reduce the frequency and duration of colds and flu Echinacea, E. purpurea, E. angustifolia, Sunflower family • Herbaceous perennial • Native to the US • Part used: root and above, ground parts • Colds and flu, immune system stimulant • Cautions: allergic reactions (sunflower family) • Believed to increase the production of anti-viral substances such as interferon, and to enhance the ability of immune cells to engulf microbes • Target ailments include colds and flu, chronic infections (respiratory, urinary), and allergies (asthma) • WHO supports its use, as do many experimental studies • Should not be used continuously for more than a few weeks • If you put Echinacea extract in a test tube with bacteria, nothing happens— there is no direct antimicrobial activity • Echinacea works by stimulating the immune system- it is an “immunomodulator” University of Virginia Echinacea Trial • >400 students were treated with Echinacea then challenged with rhinovirus (virus that causes 30-50% of common colds) • Isolated in hotel rooms for 5 days for observation • Researchers tracked cold symptoms (sneezing, coughing, nasal secretions, serum antibodies) • Found no significant difference between Echinacea and placebo • Echinacea defenders say dose was too low, volunteers were all young, only one virus was tested The Greek root of Echinacea refers to a hedgehog Goldenseal, Hydrastis Canadensis, Buttercup family • Often used with Echinacea • Herbaceous perennial • Native to eastern US • Part used: rhizome and roots • Colds and flu, astringent, antibacterial • Cautions: avoid if you have heart disease, pregnancy • Berberine is a bright yellow alkaloid used for its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects • Astringent= causes the contraction or constriction of tissues; goldenseal dries up secretions of mucous membranes • Berberine can depress heart function and may stimulate uterus • Goldenseal does not mask morphine! (used to think that if you took it, it would hide drugs during drug tests) • Flower doesn’t have any petals (filaments replace) Chinese equivalent to Echinacea: Astragalus (milk Vetch), Astragalus membranaceus, Pea family • Herbaceous perennial • Native to Asia (northeast China) • Part used: root • Colds anf flu, chronic fatigue, Aids and cancer (supportive) • Cautions: if you’re pregnant, tissue rejection (getting transplants) • Used in TCM for its immune-enhancing properties • Appears to stimulate the branch of the immune system that is involved in tissue rejection, so should be avoided during pregnancy or following organ transplants or skin grafts • Some studies suggest patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy recover faster and live longer if Astragalus is given concurrently Garlic, Allium sativum, Lily family • Herbacuous perennial • Probably Asian, now a variable cultigen • Part used: bulb • Colds and flu, lowers blood pressure and cholesterol, antiseptic • Cautions: anticoagulants, heartburn The Garlic Biochemical “Cascade” • Allin is an odorless sulfur-containing amino acid derivative found in intact cells • When cells are ruptures, the enzyme allinase is released; it converts allin to allicin • Allicin is the active component and it releases the strong odor of garlic • The more finely you chop, the more allin reacts with the allinase- and the more potent the garlic • Cooking mellows garlic because it deactivates allinase; that is why roasted garlic has a much more delicate flavor Wednesday: Assigned reading: “Could ancient remedies hold the answer to the looming antibiotic crisis?” ^^Link on elc Hippocrates (460-377 BC) • The Greek “Father of Medicine” • He considered illness to be a natural rather than supernatural phenomenon; medicine should not involve ritual ceremonies or magic By today’s standards, Hippocrates had a remarkable holistic approach “It’s more important to know what sort of person has a disease than to know what sort of disease a person has” “If we could give every individual the right amount of nourishment and exercise, not too little and not to much, we would have found the safest way to health” “Natural forces within us are the true healers of disease” “Cure sometimes, treat often, comfort always” Hippocrates believed in the theory of the four humors • Four principle fluids (humors) exist within the body • The balance of these fluids determine a person’s character and health • Imbalance resulted in illness; the talk of the physician was to restore the balance • Blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile (air, water, earth, and fire) Galen (131-201 AD) developed a highly theoretical system of illness based on the Humoral Theory • Galen’s system gave physicians a theoretical framework to work within, while often ignoring pragmatic results • Galen led to the divergence between professional physicians and traditional healers; the former looked down on the latter • His system prevailed in Europe for more than 1500 years!! • Rigid- doesn’t take the person into account, just the symptoms “Heroic” Medicine • Hippocrates: “Desperate cases need the most desperate remedies” • Europe was swept by terrible plagues from Middle Ages onward • Mercury was somewhat effective against syphilis; eventually it was being prescribed for everything, indiscriminately • Illness was thought to result from over-stimulation of the blood and nervous system • Treatment consisted of draining off the excess “humors” by a variety of means Heroic Treatment Options • Bleeding: venesection (opening a vein) and cupping • Dosing with mercury (or antimony, or other heavy metal poisons) in the form of Calomel (Hg2Cl2); this was a powerful purgative (and a severe poison) • Blistering: applying hot plasters to the skin to promote blisters, which were then drained • Emetics: induced vomiting Dr. Samuel Hahnemann and Homeopathy • German physician who was appalled by Heroic medicine • Took some cinchona bark (quinine) and developed symptoms similar to malaria • Concluded “like cures like” = Law of Similars • Invented word allopathic Cinchona Bark, Cinchona spp., Coffee family • Large forest tree native to the Andes (Peru, Ecuador, Columbia) • Bark is the source of the alkaloid quinine • Interferes with metabolism of the material parasite Plasmodium Homeopathic Beliefs and Practices • Every person has energy called a vital force or self-healing response which can become disrupted • Homeopathy stimulates the body’s own healing response • Treatment involves giving very small doses of substances called “remedies” that would produce similar symptoms of illness in a healthy person if given in larger doses (like cures like) The Homeopathic Paradox • Law of Infinitesimals: the more dilute an agent, the greater its healing power • Systematically diluting a substance, with vigorous shaking at each step of dilution (succession) makes the remedy more effective by extracting the vital essence • Most remedies come from the plant, animal, or mineral sources • Clinical trials are inconclusive (placebo?) • Incorporates idea that you need to understand the individual to try to cure them Samuel Thompson (1769-1843) • American, appalled by Heroic medicine • Came from humble beginnings • “All disease is caused by cold” • Emphasized emetics, purgatives, stimulants, and steam baths • Principal herbs were Lobelia (emetic, relaxant, panacea) and cayenne pepper (stimulant); both increase body temperature and dilute blood vessels • Included about 65 herbs; drew heavily from Native American uses of medicinal plants • Thompson was empirical; regulars emphasized theory • He was a strong and determined advocate, opposed by the medical establishment; had many followers but never popular with wealthy, educated classes Dr. Wooster Beach (1794-1868) and the “Eclectics” • Came from a relatively privileged background but was appalled by Heroic medicine • Apprenticed with an herbalist in New Jersey • Earned a traditional medical degree; wanted to change the system “from within” • Considered Thomson’s theories overly simplistic • Sought to combine new scientific knowledge with best of herbal tradition (Eclectic medicine) • Developed a medical college in Ohio • Became a “festering thorn in the side of Regular American medicine” Several Eclectic medical schools were established during the mid- and late- 19 th century, primarily in the Midwestern United States th 19 Century Shakers in America- believed in living a completely clean life Shaker Herb Farms • Thriving wholesale herb business by mid 1800s • Gathered, grew, and processed more than 400 species of medicinal plants • Sold directly to physicians and pharmacists • Emphasis on quality control; known for consistent product • Relied on European introductions as well as native species Patent Medicines • Usually 25-50% alcohol • Often containined powerful drugs such as opium, senna, entimony, and ipecac (emetic) • Advertised as “blood purifiers”- good for STDs • “one dose for a man, two for a horse” Ipecac, Psychotria ipecacuanha, Coffee family • Tropical shrub native to Brazil • Dried roots are the source of the alkaloids emetine and cephaeline • Expectorant at low doses (used to treat bronchitis), strong emetic at higher doses Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound • An herbal recipe for “female complaints” that became a profitable patent medicine business • Encouraged women to take control of their own health and offered tips for healthy living • Secret recipe included Black Cohosh • Her innovative marketing strategy appealed both to women and to men Gradual Ascendancy of Organic or “Bench” Chemistry • While many medical practices remained barbaric, modern scientific medicine was gaining steam during the 19 century • Development of microscope, germ theory of disease, diagnostic x-rays • Pharmaceutical business were growing; “made in the laboratory” came to mean “more reliable, safer, and more effective” than herbal remedies • Mainstream medicine was at odds with herbal medicine at the end of the 19 century Fri day: th At the turn of the 19 Century (during the late 1800s and early 1900s) • Heroic medicine had been replaced by more scientific medicine, emphasizing the use of pharmaceutical drugs • Herbal medicine still had a strong following, led by practitioners belonging to the Eclectic School • Homeopathic medicine was practiced, and patent medicines were popular • There was very little government regulation of medicine and health care Early 1900s: The American Medical Association Gains Momentum • American herbalists were holding their own at the turn of the century: 80,000 ‘regulates’, 10,000 homeopaths, 8,000 eclectics, plus a few thousand other alternative practitioners • A.M.A. was dominant, but not in complete control of the health care landscape • In 1905, the Journal of the A.M.A. announced it would start accepting advertisements form pharmaceutical companies; revenues jumped! A Disarming Offer • In the early 1900s there were too many doctors, and (from the AMA perspective) too much competition from irregulars • 1901: “Irregulars” were welcomed to join regular medical societies as long as they gave up formal allegiance to competing schools and sects • Many accepted the offer, weakening the Irregular societies The Strategic Importance of Medical Schools • Too many badly-trained doctors were graduating from too many low-grade schools • 1902: A.M.A. formed a Council on Medical Education to address the problem • 1907: Council representatives began visiting 160+ schools throughout the country. Regular and irregular, and assigning them a number rating based on entry requirements, lab and teaching facilities, faculty research, etc. • Obstacles: no power of enforcement, couldn’t claim to be impartial, project was expensive Carnegie Endowment and the Flexner Report • Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching agreed to fund survey and provide surveyor • Abraham Flexner was an experienced educator, but not a physician • Conducted 15-month survey of 168 medical schools • Flexner moved fast “You don’t need to eat a whole sheep to know it’s tainted” Two “Thumbs-Down” for American Medical Training • The Flexnor Report, published in 1910, burst like a bombshell on the American public • Provided lurid details concerning low standards, poor equipment, non- existent clinical facilities • “For twenty five years, there has been an enormous overproduction of un- educated and ill-trained medical practitioners” • Almost all irregular schools, including eclectics and others that stressed medical plants were strongly criticized Flexner’s Principles for Modern Scientific Medical Training • Laboratory sciences are central to the curriculum (anatomy, pathology, bacteriology) • Emphasis on pharmacology • Botany no longer necessary; modern medicine “need only concern itself with the pharmaceutical side” • Focus was placed on disease rather than health, on cure rather than prevention Impact of the Report: AMA firmly in control • 29 medical schools during the four years following the report • By 1920 there was only one eclectic school left; it closed in 1938 • Total number of medical schools and their enrollment was cut in half by 1920 • Today no US medical school can operate without AMA approval Food and Drug Legislation in the 20 Century • Food and Drug Act of 1906: abolished patent medicine and meat-packing frauds in response to public outcry • Prohibited adulterated or mis-branded drugs; did not address safety and efficiency FDA Given More Authority in Response to Two Drug Tragedies • Issue: Elixir of Sulfanilamide in the 1930s (poison, like antifreeze) • Federal response: 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act: required that drugs must be proven safe Issue: Thalidomide deformities in 1960s (limbs would not form) (it was prescribed to pregnant women) Federal response: 1962 Kefauver-Harris Amendments; drugs must be proven safe and effective Frances Kelsey- stopped this drug from becoming available in the US Pharmacists Show Herbs the Door, Health Food Stores Put Out Welcome Mat • Acceptable evidence for safety and efficacy of herbal medicines as drugs did not exist • Herbs migrated to health food stores and co-ops where they were sold as teas, supplements, etc • Labels limited to common names of plants, no claims of effectiveness A Watershed Event for Herb Manufacturers and Consumers: 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) • Defines herbs as “dietary supplements” not drugs • Prior approval by FDA not required (unlike drugs) • Products can only be taken off the market after they have been proven toxic (burden of proof on FDA) • General structure and function claims OK, specific reference to medical benefits not allowed (manufacturer does not have to prove efficacy) Since the FDA does not analyze the contents of supplements, the herbs you purchase might… • Not contain the correct plant species • Contain higher or lower amounts of the active ingredient that indicated on label • Be contaminated with pesticides, other species, or pharmaceuticals FDA finally publishes Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) in 2007 • 1994 DSHEA authorized the FDA to produce GMPs for dietary supplements • Establishes rules for: handling, processing, labeling, and storing products • Includes quality control standards, record-keeping, qualifications for technical staff, handling customer complaints, etc. Examples of GMP activities necessary for dietary supplement industry compliance include: • Employing qualified staff • Having physical plants designed or built to protect against adulteration • The use of appropriate equipment and utensils • The use of master manufacturing and batch production records • Employing quality control procedures • Holding and distributing dietary supplements and manufacturing materials in ways that ensure that quality is not negatively affected • Recording each product’s GMP-related complaints and retaining these records for 1-2 years • The FDA estimated that it would cost $184,000 for small manufacturers to comply with the new regulations Adverse Event Reporting • Federal legislation passed in 2006 requires supplement manufacturers to report adverse events to the FDA • In 2008, 604 adverse events have been reported, including at least 5 deaths (anything from “isn’t working “to serious illness) • 482,154 adverse reports for prescription drugs in 2007 Independent Testing Programs to Verify the Quality of Herbal Products • Consumerlab.com: product reviews for consumers and voluntary certification program for manufacturers • U.S. Pharmacopeia: verification programs for manufacturers who choose to participate Seeing the USP Verification Mark on a dietary supplement indicates that the product • Contains the ingredients listed on the label, in the declared potency and amounts • Does not contain harmful levels of specified contaminants • Will break down and release into the body within a specified amount of time • Has been made according to FDA GMP using sanitary and well-controlled procedures German Commission E • German government accepted standard of “reasonable certainty” • German equivalent of our FDA established a panel of experts to oversee use of herbal medicines in Germany • Panel produced monographs on efficacy, side effects, precautions, medical interactions, and dose • Led to much more widespread and more effective use of medicinal plants in Europe than in the US (e.g. Valerian) Week 8 Notes for HORT 3440 CRN10344 Monday: Valerian, Valeriana officinalis, Valerian family • Herbaceous perennial • Native to Europe and western Asia • Part used: roots • Roots have a disagreeable odor, used by Pied Piper • Clinical studies support use as mild tranquilizer (restlessness, stress, insomnia) • Efforts to isolate and identify the active principle have been unsuccessful; effect may depend on interaction of several chemical components • Consumers sometimes confuse Valerian and Valium; they are unrelated • Side effects: may cause excitability if too large a dose is taken • Does not potentiate alcohol, does not affect driving ability, does not produce hangover • Scientists aren’t sure how valerian works, but they believe it increases the amount of a chemical called gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain • GABA helps regulate nerve cells and has a calming effect on anxiety • Drugs such as alprazolam (Xanax) and diazepam (Valium) also work by increasing the amount of GABA in the brain. Researchers think valerian may have a similar, but weaker effect • Horticulture: attractive perennial for sun or partial shade; vanilla scented flowers; can go dormant in summer heat, reviving in fall Passion Flower, Passiflora incarnate, Passion Flower Family • Perennial vine • Native to southeastern US; big genus of tropical vines • Part used; aerial shoots • Also known as Maypop • Ornate flowers said to symbolize events of the Crucifixion • Introduced as a medicine by a Mississippi MD in 1840; now used in many OTC preparations in Germany • Non-addictive tranquilizer for nervous unrest; reduces anxiety and induces sleep • Does not potentiate alcohol • Caution: do not take with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting (MAO) antidepressants; contains uterine stimulants so avoid during pregnancy • Called maypop because it produces a hollow green fruit that pops if you step on it • 10 petals (10 true disciples), the corona appendage (crown), 5 anthers (5 wounds) 3 branches- 3 nails • Blue Passionflower (P. caerulea, native to Brazil and Argentina) is often cultivated, but it contains cyanogenic glycosides, so don’t confuse the two species! • Horticulture: attractive vine when climbing a lattice or a fence; edible fruit, “maypop” refers to the sound the fruit makes when stomped on the ground; propagate from cuttings or divisions Kava, Piper methysticum, Pepper family • Shrub • Native to South Pacific region • Part used: root • Anxiety, stress, insomnia • 118 known cultivars in South Pacific region • Important ceremonial drink, aphrodisiac • Western use has largely evolved in Germany • Kava lactones depress CNS, so do not use with other CNS depressants (including alcohol) • Cautions: avoid during pregnancy, depression; long-term use can cause reversible yellowing of skin, hair, nails • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a warning that using kava supplements has been linked to a risk of severe liver damage • In 2007, a safety panel of the WHO reported a possible link between kava use and seven deaths and 14 liver transplants, mostly in Europe • But the WHO report suggested that the liver toxicity may be limited to keve formulations that used the whole kava plant instead of just the root, or used acetone and ethanol to extract the active ingredient instead of water • Kava has been used in the Pacific Islands where it is grown for centuries without evidence of liver problems. Keve clinical trial published in Psychopharmacology • Subjects were 37 people with GAD and depression • Week 1: all patients took placebo • Week 2: half took kava, half took placebo • Week 3: cross-over, reversing week 2 Kava results • Based on standardized questionnares, participants reported much less anxiety when taking kava • Depression levels also dropped • No serious side effects observed; formulation used was a water- extract of kava; long term safety not addressed St. John’s Wort, Hypericum, St. John’s-wort Family • Herbaceous perennial • Native to Europe and Asia and widely established as an introduced species in the US • Part used: leaves and flowering tops • Treats depression and anxiety (Nature’s Prozac) • Doctrine of Signatures: reddish juice and “pores” on leaf suggest flesh wounds • Causes photo-sensitivity • Sales skyrocketed in 1997 following 20/20 story • Cautions: interactions with pharmaceutical drugs: MAO inhibitors, reduces blood serum levels of several drugs (including oral contraceptives) (Examples of plants that represent their use: eyebright, maidenhair fern, liverleaf) Drugs that interact with St. Johns wort • Indinavir (used to treat HIV infection) • Cyclosporin (tissue rejection) • Digoxin (heart disease) • Warfarin (anticoagulant and a synthetic derivative of a plant coumarin found in Sweet Woodruff, Licorice, and Lavender) • Oral contraceptives Wednesday: Horticulture is the branch of agriculture that deals with “garden crops” (e.g. fruits, nuts, vegetable, ornamental plants, medicinal plants) Commercial Production Methods for Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal plants • Field cultivation • Greenhouse cultivation • Hydroponics • Artificial shade • Woodland culture Field production of MAPS • Most economical method • Climate and soils must be suited to crop • Preparation of seedbed, planting, weed and pest control, and harvesting can be highly mechanized, depending on the crop and scale of operation • Certified organic production brings a premium price Absinthe is an alcoholic drink made from anise, fennel and wormwood (Artemesia absinthium); it’s experiencing a resurgence in the uS • Banned in 1912 in US because of supposed hallucinogenic effects; certain products were legalized in 2007 • Strong licorice aroma and taste • Contains a compound called thujone that is toxins in excessive amounts, but you would probably die of alcohol poisoning before you drank enough absinthe to feel the effects • Favorite of Picasso and Oscar Wilde; rumors link it to Van Gouh’s cutting off his ear Geography and climate play an important role in field production. Certain climates favor the production of certain herbs and spices. For example: Jamaica produces allspice, ginger, and turmeric Canada produces mustard, oregano, and parsley Organically produced crops can be sold at a premium, and this technique is often appropriate for culinary herbs and medicinal plants • No use of prohibited substances on site for at least three years • Soil organics must be maintained or improved • Regular testing of surface and ground water • Maintenance of buffer zones around crops Greenhouse production • Environmental conditions can be optimized for plant growth • Year-round growth • Useful for herbs that are tender, in great demand, where appearance is a factor • Good for propagating herbs for wholesale market or as transplants Hydroponic Production (max level of control over plant and environment) • Growing plants in a nutrient solution without soil • Allows precise control over nutrients; eliminates soil bourne weeds and diseases, minimizing herbicide and pesticide use • Require less fertilizer and water than field production • Extended growing season • Allows intensive production in small space Artificial shade • Some MAPS cannot tolerate full sun • Shade cloth and wooden lath allow control over how much light reaches plants • Exposes plants to ambient temperature and some air flow • Less expensive than greenhouses Woodland Culture • Growing plants under forest canopy • Useful for many of our native southeastern plants that grow in the forest understory (ginseng, goldenseal, black cohosh) • Can vary in intensity and expense List at least three advantages of cultivating medicinal plants (or culinary herbs) vs. collecting them from the wild Advantages of Cultivation over Harvesting from the Wild • Supply and availability • Quality control (identification, adulteration, harvest, conditions, sanitation) • Genetic manipulation • Agronomic manipulation • Post-harvest handling What are some ways that you can improve medicinal plants using genetic or agronomic techniques? • Yield (response to fertilization) • Chemistry (aroma, nutrition) • Appearance (important in fresh material) • East of harvest (size, date of maturation • Pest and disease resistance • Climatic tolerances (hardiness, drought resistance) Field production of Peppermint: • Perennial plant, propagated by runners or cuttings • Plantings last 5-6 years • Needs rich, well-drained soil • Requires full sun and lots of moisture • Production in the USA are centered in the Midwest and northwest • Distill in large trucks or in beakers • These oils are kind of like opium- not just one compound- made up of many compounds • Depending on how you treat the plants before and after harvest, you can control which compounds and what the composition is of the oil Friday: Oil is extracted by putting the plants in a flask and heating it up (called distilling) The essential oil that’s extracted is a mixture of 15-20 essential oil compounds; very complex; good for southeastern plants Goldenseal, Hydrastis Canadensis, Buttercup family • Herbaceous perennial • Native to eastern US • Part used: rhizome and roots (contains burbarin- antibacterial and anti- inflammatory alkaloid) • Colds and flu, astringent, antibacterial • Cautions: heart disease, pregnancy • Goldenseal is easier to grow than ginseng because it is tolerant of higher light intensity and less subject to pest and disease damage • Unlike ginseng, goldenseal does not continually increase in value with the age of the plant; decay begins after 4 year, making harvest in 3 or 4 year is optimal • Need winter cold for root dormancy (probably no further south than north GA) • Rich soil with good drainage (avoid bottomlands and clay soils) • For forest associates look for mayapple, trillium, bloodroot, black cohosh Light requirements: good level is 75% shade; can provide with forest cover, lath, or shade cloth Site Preparation • Build raised beds if possible • Add compost or dead leaves for organic matter • Goldenseal likes a pH of 5.5-6.0; pH affects growth, root yield, and root alkaloid content; can add dolomitic limestone to raise pH Fertilization • Initial bed preparation can incorporate compost, poultry litter products, soybean meal • A light folicar feeding in the sprins with an organic fertilizer (fish emulsion or seaweed is helpful) Pests and disease • Slugs are the major pests in the SE • Weeds are best controlled by mulch • Disease is best controlled by site selection If you grow goldenseal in a 10x bigger area with artificial shade instead of in the woods, you make $45K over 4 years as compared to $2,500 When grown organic, $50/lb (dried roots) when grown in artificial shade $15/lb (not dry roots) Ginseng, Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius, Ginseng family • Herbaceous perennials • Native to east Asia and eastern North America • Part used: root (the seeds are also valuable- to people who want to grow ginseng) • Fatique, tonic, athletic performance • Cautions: high blood pressure, heart palpitations • Doesn’t apply much in allopathic medicine because it focuses on prevention of stress • Week 9 Notes for HORT 3440 CRN10344 Monday: Latin American Caribbean Studies Institute • History of the garden; discussion of ethnobtany; focus on Maya enthobotany • Selection of Latin American Ethnobotanically important species suitable for North Georgia Perennial gardens The Columbian exchange: Movement of Plants Around the world post discovery: 15 and 16 century Ethnobotany: how people use plants Maya International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (Maya ICBG) 1998-2001 • NIH/NSF funded UGA project to carry out medical ethnobiology, drug discovery (find out how indigenous people use plants and potentially find cures) • 1) determining the efficacy of the most important plants employed in Maya herbal medicine and 2) developing alternative income generation opportunities for highland maya communities • Also, potentially could create some income opportunity for the Maya people Medical Ethnobiology of the Highland Chiapas Maya Extreme poverty and resource scarcity is the norm among many rural subsistence farm families Traditional Maya healers (Curenderos) consider two realities in treating illnesses: • Naturalistic (visible) reality- where the treatment is based on clear-cut and apparent symptoms and treated with medicinal plants. Highly sophisticated traditional knowledge based on generations of empirical experimentations • Personalistic (nonvisible) reality- illness requires intervention by healers with superpowers. Treatment may involve ceremonial healing rituals or special prayers (can be human or god give, soul or spirit problems, fright (susto)-soul scared out of body) Warm, cold, bitter, caustic, astringent, sour Of the 9,000 plants known in Chiapas, 13% are weeds. 35% of the plants they use for meds are weeds. Why? (because weeds are everywhere) The compounds that weeds use to keep things from eating them have properties that may be medicinal UGA Latin American Ethnobotanical Garden: • Provide space for research of plants used medicinally by the highland Chiapas Maya • Enhance public’s knowledge of LAC region through ethnobotany • Promote preservation of traditional knowledge of region Tageted lucida: Mexican marigold • Native to southern Mexico • Flavors chocolatl drink • Used to treat fever and nausea • Black licorice scent Opuntia: prickly pear • Used for thousands of years in Mexico • Used to treat diabetes, lower cholesterol • Binding agent for bricks • It’s on the national flag of Mexico Mexican milkweed • That’s where the monarch butterflies feed • Self seeds • Links plants, insects, and culture • Used to treat skin conditions Epazote • Used to flavor food (beans) and cure stomach issues. Stops gas from eating beans • Kills intestinal worms Aloysia triphylla • Smells like lemon • Makes you happy when you drink it Poliomintha (Mexican oregano) • Used as oregano like spice in salsas Salvia: mexican bush sage • Used to treat low blood sugar • Salvia elegans: pineapple sage Illex paraguayensis: Yerba Mate • Caffeine Lantana camera • Used as a diharetic and to reduce fevers Agave • Tequila • Also used as a diharetic Wednesday: Once herbs and medicinal plants have been brought into cultivation, they can be manipulated in two general ways Genetically (selection and breeding, direct genetic modification, etc.) Environmentally (fertilization, light intensity, irrigation, etc.) The process is illustrated by research carried out at Purdue University by horticultural scientists working to develop new cultivars of Basil Goals of the Basil research program were to develop new genetic lines with: • Increase the total essential oil content • Increased content of cinnamon scented oils of interest to the perfume industry (methyl chavicol and methyl cinnamate) Sweet Basil, Ocimum basilicum, Mint family • Annual herb, cultivated for at least 3,000 years • Native to tropical regions throughout Africa, Middle East, India, Indonesia • Part used: leaves • Culinary herb; traditional medicine as a tonic, carminative, diuretic, and anthelmentic The essential oil composition of basil species is extremely variable, which makes them good candidates for development and selection of new “chemotypes” (chemical races, not necessarily morphologically distinguishable) Essential oils that are commonly present in sweet basil include: Ilinolook (slight licorice fragrance) Methyl chavicol (cinnamon scented) Eugenol (clove) But many other essential oils are also present in variable amounts The Purdue researchers obtained seeds of 87 Ocimum accessions from the USDA Plant Introduction Station in Ames, Iowa. An “accession” is a documented element in a collection (known provenance) These accessions were all field grown in a trial garden or “common garden” in central Indiana. About 50 of the accessions germinated Development of the new Basil cultivators involved three steps 1. Evaluation (initial screening) 2. Selection (and more intensive evaluation) 3. Breeding (and continued evaluation) (of chemotypes with new combinations of characteristics) Organoleptic means evaluation something using your senses Tifton Mint Study • Dr. Dean Batal, UGA Horticulture Department • Tested 8 different mini cultivars • Used 4 different soil amendment treatments • 3 cultivars had significantly higher yields • Addition of mushroom compost increased yield (biomass) Friday: Herbal Teas o Water extracts o Easy to prepare but relatively short-lived; infusions should be used the same day, decoctions within 48 hours o If using fresh herbs, use twice the amount as dried to get the same potency Infusions work best for leaf and flower materials that yield their chemicals fairly regularly; start with boiling water and steep the dried or fresh herbs until the liquid is cool enough to drink (traditional tea bags are infusions) Decoctions are used to extract chemicals from more stout materials, like roots and twigs. Place the material in water and simmer 20-30 minutes, until the liquid is reduced by 1/3 Tinctures and Elixirs o Made by steeping herbs in drinkable alcohol (ethanol); vodka, rum, wine o You can make non-alcoholic versions using glycerin or vinegar as the solvent o Alcohol is a stronger solvent than water, giving tinctures a stronger action than infusions or decoctions o Tinctures have a shelf-life up to two years (less of elixirs) Let herbs stand in alcohol 10-14 days, shaking occasionally Strain out the plant material Store in dark-colored bottles in a cool, dark place Tinctures are often diluted in water or fruit juice for consumption Elixers are prepared in a similar fashion, then refrigerated; less alcohol is used so the extraction is less powerful; elixers are typically sweet tasting and don’t need to be diluted Capsules o Convenient and useful for herbs that taste bad (e.g. valerian) o Contain dried herbs that have been ground to a fine poweder, or liquid extracts o Commercial preparations are best because the heat of grinding can degrade the chemicals in the herbs Poultices and compresses o For external use o A poultice is a wad of chopped up plant material applied directly to a wound or infection on the skin o Used to ease nerve or muscle pains, sprains; draws pus from infected wounds o Usually held in place by a bandage o Herb is softened (by boiling, steaming, chewing, pounding) to help release the chemicals Compresses o Clean cloths that have been dipped in an herbal solution (e.g. infusion, decoction, tincture) o They can be placed directly on the skin, or can be used to hold a poultice in place o Treat swelling, bruising, headaches, used to soothe fevers o Warm mint or lavender compress for acne Ointments and Creams o Ointments contain oils or fats heated with herbs o Contain no water so they form a separate layer on the surface of the skin o Useful where protection from molecules is needed (chapped lips, diper rash) o Creams combine oils or fats with water in an emulsion o Unlike ointments, creams blend with the skin o Feel cooling and soothing while allowing skin to breathe and sweat naturally Essential Oils o Extremely concentrated (not for oral use) o Sniff directly; mix with oils for massage; dissolve in bath water o Can be absorbed through the skin (lavender breath!) o For income or stress, try adding lavender and lemon balm to your bathwater Back to herb cabinet: Gingko, Gingko biloba, Gingko family o Tree native to China, fossils 200 million years old o Part used: leaf (doesn’t have a fruit) (looks like a flat fan shaped leaf) (the female trees have bad smelling fruits) (seeds used to treat asthma) o Its dioecious (separate male and female trees) o Improves circulation, memory, cognitive function o Cautions: may interact with MAO inhibitors Gotu Kola, Centella asiatica, Carrot family o Herbaceous, creeping perennial o Native to India o Part used: whole plant o Improving memory, reducing stress, wound healing, cellulite; skin rejuvenation o Cautions: no known risks Why hangovers hurt: o Alcohol relaxes blood vessels and they dilate; if blood vessels in brain open too wide they trigger pain nerves o Alcohol is a diuretic; fluid loss can trigger head pain o Fatigue and lousy-all-over feeling are the result of alcohols depressed effect and build up of acids in blood o Additives and impurities contribute to the side effects; dark alcohol is worse o The metabolism of alcohol occurs mainly in the liver and occurs in two steps. Acetaldehyde is a big contributor to hangovers Kudzu, Pueraria lobata, Pea family o Trailing or climbing perennial vine o Native to eastern Asia o Part used: root o Treatment for alcoholism, causes acetaldehyde to accumulate more rapidly in blood Milk Thistle, Silybum marianum, Sunflower family o Herbaceous annual or biennial o Native to Mediterranian, widely naturalized in US o Part used: seeds o Active ingredient is silymarin (a mixture), prompts manufacture of new, healthy liver cells o Extracts neutralize toxins from death cap mushroom (amanita) by displacing mushroom toxins from membrane receptors o Target therapies include.. Week 10 Notes for HORT 3440 CRN10344 Monday: Maisie Loo: Master gardener; UGArden Herbalist Noelle Fuller: Masters Student; Herbalist In the spring, they sow a lot of the plants from seed Planting out in the spring- a lot of their plants are perennials (come back every year) Cleaning- very important Spring harvest Chamomile (matricaria recutita) have to harvest by hand Stinging nettle- stings you but it very nutritious Plaintain (Plantago lanceolata)- leaves used to calm inflammation- common weed Lavender- time consuming- harvest when buds are blooming and then hand-pick (they also make olive oil) Calendula- herb in their skin soothing salve- stimulates skin cell rejuvenation and is antimicrobial Rose- as long as it’s fragrant and organic, it can be used in teas, good for your heart Lemon balm Holy Basil Maintaining the beds: Weeding, mulching, deadheading, pruning, watering, fertilizing Fall harvest: Hibiscus Dry room: Dark, climate and moisture controlled, clean Processing: stripping leaves off of stem, breaking up hard plant parts, try to keep it as whole as possible Holy Basil/Tulsi From India Used in India’s healing tradition: Ayurvedic Considered India’s most powerful healing herb Modern Uses: adaptogen (reduce stress), anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Regulate blood sugar, modulate immune system Research objective: to characterize yield, and the content and composition of essential oil 5 varieties from strictly medicinal seed company and 9 varieties from the USDA Wednesday: Tonics and Adaptogens o Tonic: a substance with a nourishing or restorative effect on the body, a “revitalizer” o People value tonics for their ability to promote longevity, convalescence, and a general sense of well being o Adaptogen: helps the body respond to physical and emotional stress, a performance enhancer Ginseng, Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius, Ginseng family (Asian ginseng is faster; American ginseng has a colder quality) o Herbaceous perennials o Native to east Asia and eastern North America o Part used: root o Fatigue, tonic, athletic performance o Cautions: high blood pressure, heart palpitations o “Panax” is derived from the Greek word for panacea o Asian ginsend (hot) is more stimulating physiologically than American (cold) o Wild collected roots are commonly a much higher price than commercially grown Siberian Ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Ginseng family o Shrub to 2 meters (woodier) o Native to Eastern Asia o Part used: root o Fatigue, stress, increasing stamina, tonic, memory o Cautions: high blood pressure Ashwagangha, Withania somnifera, Potato family o Shrub, native to India and Mediterranean region o Part used: leaves, roots, berries o Important in Ayurvedic (Indian) traditional medicine o Adaptogen, used to counter the effects of long-term stress (indian ginseng); traditionally to strengthen male libido and sexual function Schisandra, Schisandra chinensis, Schisandra family o Woody vine, native to China, Japan, and Korea o Part used: berries and leaves o Important herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine o Adaptogen, used to fight stress and as an overall tonic to enhance physical and mental performance Treat Urinary problems: Bearberry, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Blueberry family o Evergreen shrub o Cool temperature regions in Northern Hemisphere o Part used: leaf o Used to treat mild urinary tract infections (from e coli) o Antiseptic (destroys or inhibits microorganisms that cause infections) and astringent (tightens mucous membranes and skin, reducing secretions and bleeding from abrasions) o Primary active compound is arbutin, broken down in GI tract to hydroquinone, a substance with proven bactericidal and astringent properties o Cautions: don’t take for more than 7-10 days at a time and avoid during pregnancy Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Blueberry family o Trailing evergreen shrub o Cool temperature bogs in Eastern North America o Part used: fruit o Prevention and treatment of UTI (works best as preventative) o Thought to inhibit microorganisms from adhering to walls of urinary tract o Cant use cranberry and bearberry at the same time because bearberry requires basic environment and cranberry is acidic o Most cranberry juice cocktail products are only 30% juice (water, sugar) o Juice high in Vitamin C, fights dental plaque, may deodorize urine o Caution: too much can cause diarrhea o Grow in bogs and sandy soils o New Jersey pine barrens Health benefits? Anti-inflammatory/antioxidant/astringents 5% of the harvest is sold as fresh fruits They prefer sandy soil They’re harvested in October Saw Palmetto, Serenoa repens, Palm family o Shrubby palm o Native to southeast USA coastal plain o Part used: fruit o Extract treats benign enlargement of the prostate gland (BPH) o Blocks production of dyhydrotestosterone o The “plant catheter” o Center of production is in Ocala, Fl (harvest- they collect- don’t grow) o Fruits are wild-harvested o Fruit production varies greatly from year to year- so does the price of fruits o Research is underway to determine what factors control fruit production o Important food and cover plant for Florida Black bear and panther Hops, Humulus lupulus, Hemp family o Perennial vine o Native to Europe and Asia o Part used: bracts of female flowers o Sedative and sleep-aid o Concentration of volatile oils increases with drying o Cautions: avoid during pregnancy o Diecious in same family as pot o Make a hop-pillow or drink as tea for insomnia Skullcap, Scutellaria lateriflora, Mint family o Perennial herb o Native to North America o Part used: dried aerial parts o Sedative and tranquilizer, “nerve tonic” o Relieves irritability from PMS and cramping from menstrual cramps (antispasmodic) o Remedy for mental fatigue and nervous exhaustion o Let skullcap “wrap its arms around you” Hawthorn, Crategus spp, Rose family o Shrub or small tree (many hybrids in nature, species are hard to identify) o North temperate regions o Part used: fruit, leaf, flower o Targeted therapies include angine, high blood pressure, improving heart function o Frequently prescribed heart remedy in Europe o Take with medical supervision only o Opens up blood vessels that feed the heart, increasing the heart muscle’s energy supply and pumping power o Reinforces normal heart rhythm o Antioxidant activity o Ornamental attributes (1 inch long thorns too)
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