ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY MIDTERM #2 STUDY GUIDE
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY MIDTERM #2 STUDY GUIDE Psyc2051
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaija Perkins on Friday October 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc2051 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Ronis-Tobin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology at The University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Midterm #2 Study Guide Anxiety= unfounded fear or anxiety that hinders everyday functioning that also produces significant distress or life impairment Anxiety prepares us for fight-or-flight, anyone can experience it Social Anxiety = excessive fear of being watched or judged, extreme self- consciousness in social settings, fear of humiliation, social situations are avoided. 12 month prevalence of 7%-8%, 2 times more common in females Arises during mid-teenage years Specific Phobia= excessive fear of specific objects or situations, intense fear or panic attacks when exposed to situation/object, object/situation is avoided 12 month prevalence of 7%-8% Twice as common in females Arises in childhood and early adolescence depending on the type of phobia Agoraphobia= anxiety or panic in situations where escape is difficult or embarrassing and produce panic 12 month prevalence of 1.7% More prevalent in females Arises in late adolescence (2/3 before 35) Panic Disorder= recurrent and unexpected attacks of fear or terror, worry about future panic attacks 12 month prevalence of 2.7% 2 times more prevalent in females Arises during late adolescence and early adulthood Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)= Excessive anxiety and worry over life circumstances, Difficulty controlling worry 12 month prevalence 1.2%-2.9% 2 times more prevalent in females Arises around age 30 but can vary Treatment: SSRI’s, antidepressants, cognitive-behavioral therapy, meditation, psychotherapy Anxiety in the Brain: Prefrontal cortex= controls attention and evaluation of stimulus Amygdala = fear center, fight-or-flight OCD: Obsession= consistent anxiety producing thoughts or images Compulsion= need to engage in activities to counteract anxiety or prevent occurrence of event Ex.) hoarding disorder vs. OCD cleanliness Treatment= SSRI’s (antidepressants), behavioral treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy is most effective) Stress Related Disorders: Stressors= external situations that are demanding physiological and psychological Stress= internal psychological or physiological response to a stressor Types of disorders: adjustment, acute stress, post-traumatic stress Acute- limited in time Chronic- recurring over time Somatic Disorders: Somatic disorder= prominent physical/bodily symptoms associated with impairment and/or distress (real illness may not actually be present) Ex.) somatic symptom disorder, illness anxiety disorder, conversion disorder Somatic symptom disorder (SSD)= pattern of reporting and reacting to pain or other distressing symptoms Illness anxiety disorder= chronic preoccupation with having or contracting an illness Conversion disorder= motor, sensory, seizure-like symptoms (inconsistent with disorders) Munchausen’s syndrome= symptoms of illness are deliberately forced for an incentive/reward (people want to experience symptoms, but don’t always experience them) Munchausen’s by proxy= imposed on another Depression: Characteristics of Depression= affects a person’s well-being, continuous, occurs for no apparent reason, involves extreme reactions. Insomnia, change in appetite, fatigue, social withdrawal, reduced motivation, restlessness, change in activity, rumination, inability to concentrate, thoughts of suicide, depressed mood, irritable, anxious Types of depressive disorders= postpartum depression, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS), clinical depression Depressive reactions to grief: normal reactions may last several years, but the frequency/intensity diminishes over time Individuals with depression have increased connectivity in the default mode network brain regions (antidepressants normalize connectivity) Reduced activation in the prefrontal cortex Increased activity in the amygdala Bipolar Disorder: Bipolar 1 disorder= periods of severe mood episodes from mania to depression Bipolar 2 disorder= mild form of mood elevation, milder hypomania and depression (one depressive episode, one hypomanic episode) Mania/Hypomania= various behaviors from euphoria to extreme irritability. Impairs social and occupational functioning, may involve loss of contact with reality Dysthymic/major depressive episode= see above for depression symptoms Bipolar disorder affects 1% of people and can only be confirmed when mania is detected Treatments= mood stabilizers, family focused therapy
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