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Exam Review

by: Isabel Rubin

Exam Review ENC3201

Isabel Rubin

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Bitzer, Vatz, Cosginy, Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Quintilian, Locke, Descartes
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Isabel Rubin on Friday October 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENC3201 at Florida State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Rhetoric in English at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
ENC3021 exam review 10/5/16 Bitzer, Vatz, Cosginy, Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Quintilian, Locke, Descartes  Bitzer o Situations inherently have meaning o Rhetor responds to a situation that has the ability for positive modification o 3 constituent parts of a situation  exigence  problem that requires a positive modification  audience  the people who can solve the problem  constraints  anything that will limit the response or have an effect on the positive modification o Roles of the Rhetor  Minimized; situation is in control  Rhetor comes into already existing situation  Rhetor’s role is to discover the situation and the positive modification needed o Recurring situation  Similar situations that have happened in the past become a guide  Vatz o There is no intrinsic meaning in situations  rhetoric creates the meaning and thus creates the situation o Roles of the Rhetor  Has great control and plays a more important part  brings attention to the situation  chooses and translates  chooses what seems salient  translates the language by placing significance on words o Rhetoric becomes important because it creates our reality  Situations don’t have meaning until we use rhetoric to give them meaning  Cosigny o Rhetoric is used to engage and determine within a situation  Look at particularities of a chaotic situation and give it order  Determine questions that need to be answered o Rhetoric is an art  Universal way of approaching a subject o Integrity  Universal capacity to manage novel situations  The topic is not predetermined by material or context o Receptivity  Find and shape issues without predetermining what you will find o Topics  Device which allows Rhetor to discover what is relevant  Way of approaching situation and generating ideas  Giving an element of coherence in regard to the situation itself  Rhetoric vs. reality o Bitzer  Reality exists without rhetoric o Vatz  Things don’t exist outside the rhetoric used to create them o Cosigny  We don’t arbitrarily create reality; there is something there, but rhetoric plays a role in creating something manageable  Rhetoric vs knowledge o Bitzer  We learn by someone communicating the facts o Vatz  Knowledge is dependent on what Rhetor chooses to make salient o Cosigny  Generate rather than interpret knowledge  Decide what is relevant through the art  Knowledge is created by creating relationships between preexisting ideas and applying it to the situation Classical Rhetoric  Plato o Argues against Sophists o Idea of Truth  Something real and divine  Not available to humans in its most divine form (because humans are flawed), but we can believe it o Charioteer metaphor  One horse is good, one horse is evil  Represents two types of souls  Mortal (human) o Doesn’t make it to heaven; ends up in the body of a person but saw glimpses of the Truth  Immortal (god) o In heaven o Every soul is striving to reach the concrete Truth  Some people have longer glimpses than others  More likely to push themselves toward understanding (philosophers) o Socratic Dialogue  Discovery of the Truth through questioning  Teacher questions the student trying to drive the student to get to the Truth  Breaking something down into as many components as possible to reach thorough understanding o Theory of Rhetoric  Rhetoric is connected to the soul  The soul connects knowledge and the Truth  Rhetoric should create knowledge and push people closer to discovering the Truth  Rhetoricians must define the soul, know the different types of souls, and implement the types of arguments that go with each type of soul o Bad rhetoric  Tied to persuasion  Persuades a belief o A belief is the perception of the Truth, knowledge is the actual Truth  Focuses on delivery rather than content  Argument against writing  Writing means losing the need for memory  Writing something down takes rhetoric one step farther from the soul, thus farther from the Truth o Speech is connected to the body, and the body is connected to the soul  Best way to create knowledge is through Socratic dialogue—can’t do that with writing  Can’t understand intent with writing  Aristotle o Truth is not as transcendent or divine as Plato’s o Truth is accessed through logic and reason, not the soul o First Principles  Basis of all beliefs  Cannot reason farther from the first foundational things upon which all knowledge in a subject is based o Rhetoric vs. Dialectic  Counterparts  Dialectic gets us to the Truth but rhetoric helps us do something with that knowledge and helps others find the Truth  Rhetoric  Capacity of finding any means of persuasion about any subject o A system that people use  Universal o Not isolated to one area of knowledge  Used for situations in which our actions can accomplish something o Like Bitzer, inevitable or accidental situations cannot be affected by rhetoric o There has to be something that can change in order to use rhetoric  Dialectic  Logical method to discover and solve problems  Designed to get to the first principles  Use to get to the original premise that every argument is based on o Enthymeme vs Syllogism  Enthymeme  Means of persuasion  Way of setting up an argument in which you reason through three premises, but the first major premise is unstated because it is universally known  Syllogism  Used to discover  Cannot leave out any premise without missing a part of the argument  Cicero o Prove, please, persuade  Each has a style of speech connected  Plain, medium, grand o Eloquence o Use terms audience can understand  Cicero and Quintilian focus most on delivery whereas Aristotle and Plato focus on message  Quintilian o Principles regarding how students, teachers, and rhetoricians should act o Education begins at birth by surrounding oneself with knowledgable people o Rhetoric is born from a wide base of knowledge  Speaking, reading, and writing begins with every subject  With knowledge anyone can be a rhetorician o Good man speaking well o The science of speaking rightly  Persuade men to do what is right morally  Technically right aspects of oratory itself o Standard for morality  Unselfish, honorable  Courage, justice, and self-control  Someone who will fight for good of community as a whole Enlightenment Rhetoric  Unlike classical theorists, Locke, Descartes, and Fell don’t look to define rhetoric  Talk about rhetoric and we can infer things about rhetoric based on what they have to say  What does each theorist have to say about rhetoric? And how do they define rhetoric? o Locke  Rhetoric becomes separate from knowledge-making and relegated only to style and delivery  Rhetoric is acceptable in popular discourse to entertain but not in instruction or communication about knowledge  Knowledge comes from experience, not from god  Teaching someone from you own experiences is not efficient, must learn on your own  Ties rhetoric to figurative speech  Theory of language is anti-rhetorical  Rhetoric becomes complicated because of language  Words stand for ideas o Idea=mental perception of something o Simple idea=cannot be broken into more simple ideas (e.g. sweet) o Complex idea=lots of ideas put together (e.g. apple)  The only thing you can actually know is your own idea  Ideas are formed from your own direct and indirect experiences, and because no two people’s collection of experiences are identical, no one’s ideas are identical  Usually ideas are close enough that we can understand what people are talking about, but when we talk about abstract complicated ideas, it’s harder to be precise.  There is no natural connection between the idea and the word used to explain it  Rhetoric is figurative speech meant to move and please  Literal speech, like instruction, is not rhetoric  It is deceptive  Rhetoric is the dressing up (like Cicero’s grand style) filled with description, metaphor, poetic language, etc.  If goal is to minimize miscommunication and impreciseness of language, rhetoric exacerbates problem o But as a people, we enjoy eloquence and being deceived too much to get rid of rhetoric (like women) o Descartes  “I think, therefore I am” is the one thing of which I can be certain  the self is the only thing we know for sure  uses this one piece of information to reason forward and to illustrate that god exists  In order to get to the Truth, we have to start at ground zero  Similar to Plat that they are both trying to discover the Truth, but disregards Plato’s method of dialectic and reasoning to knowledge o Plato  Method involves discourse between people  Knowledge is collaborative o Descartes  Method involves self-reflection  Start from the thing that you can identify as true then reason forward  Argues against reliance on senses and Aristotelian view of rhetoric  All senses are inherently fallible  Bases knowledge on a mathematical/geometric way of thinking because it’s something we can unequivocally prove o Question all current knowledge that associates knowledge with the senses  Can’t trust senses for two reasons o Senses can be deceived  E.g. we sense things when we dream o Everyone perceives senses differently  Rhetoric is the way we think and create ideas  Descartes doesn’t actually call it rhetoric  No real goal of rhetoric  Systematic way of thinking that allows people to generate knowledge  Illustrates existence of god through this system of thinking, persuading us by enacting his own method, letting his own work function as an example that actually does work Compare Enlightenment and Classical  Christianity influenced how people thought about rhetoric o Classical rhetoric was Pagan—deals with probable knowledge and reason to generate knowledge o In Christianity, knowledge is absolute because it comes from god and revelation o Classical rhetoric  rhetoric is used to discover knowledge through reason o Enlightenment rhetoric  Christianity divorces rhetoric from discovering knowledge  Public and private communication falls under rhetoric  Classical rhetoricians argue that the major way we know is through senses and experiences


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