Study Guide for Computers and Applications Test 2
Study Guide for Computers and Applications Test 2 CSC 1010
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Reshetova on Friday October 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CSC 1010 at Georgia State University taught by Louis Henry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Study Guide for Test 2 Chapter 4 System software controls where a program is stored in memory, how commands are converted so that the system unit can process them, and where files are saved (works with end users, application software, computer hardware); handles hundreds of technical details with little or no user intervention Application software: used by end user to accomplish a specific task such as using word processing systems to letters, reports, and documents. System Software has four types of programs: 1. Operating Systems 2. Utilities 3. Device Drivers 4. Language Translators Operating System: a collection of programs that handle many of the technical details related to using a computer (most important type of computer program) Without an operating system, your computer could not run application software. Most operating systems store data and programs in a system of files and folders. People interact with the operating system through the graphical user interface. Functions of the operating system: 1. Provide User Interface 2. Run applications (Foreground, Background) 3. Manage Resources 3 Different Categories of Operating System: 1. Embedded 2. Network 3. Stand-alone Desktop: The place that provides access to computer resources allowing you to interact with the operating system's graphical user interface. Pointer: Controlled by a mouse, trackpad, or touchscreen Window: Rectangular area for displaying information and running programs Menu: Provide a list of options or commands Gesture Control: Ability to control operations with finger movements, such as swiping, sliding, and pinching Tab: divide menus into major activity areas Booting: the process of starting up or restarting the operating system (Warm Boot, Cold Boot) Icon: Graphic representation for a program, type of file, or function Dialog Boxes: provide information or request input Help: provides assistance for operating system functions and procedures Documents, worksheets, programs, and presentations are all examples of files. Folders: store related files (organization) Smartphones and Tablets need an operating system. (Every mobile computer as well) Laptops: use stand-alone operating systems. Handheld devices: use embedded operating systems. Mobile Operating Systems: mobile OS; includes iOS, Android, Windows Phone 8 Mac OS: runs on Apple computers; Current versions include OS X Lion and OS X Mountain Lion Linux: a popular open source alternative to Windows; extended one of UNIX versions; Google Chrome OS based on this Unix: Used by servers on the Web, mainframe computers and powerful microcomputers Windows: most widely used microcomputer operating system and can run with a variety of different microprocessors (Current versions: Windows 7 and 8) Virtualization: the ability to support multiple operating systems on a single physical machine (Host and Guest Operating System) Utilities: specialized programs to make computing easier The categories of utility programs: Backup, File Compression, Diagnostic, Antivirus The Window Utilities: Disk Cleanup, File History, Optimize Drives The file history utility program: makes a copy of files to help protect you from the effects of a disk failure. Track: concentric ring (on a hard disk) Sectors: each track is divided into these wedge-shaped sections Fragmented: broken up (the file) A file is said to be fragmented when it can’t be saved on a single track across contiguous wedge shaped sections called sectors. Backup and Restore: utility program included with the many versions of Windows that makes a copy of all files or selected files that have been saved onto a disk. Disk Cleanup: a trouble-shooting utility that eliminates and identifies unimportant files. Three Utility Suites: Norton Utilites, BitDefender, Zone Defender Device Drivers: associated with every hardware device on a computer (a program or driver); works with the operating system to allow communication between the device and the rest of the computer system Add a Device Wizard: gives step-by-step guidance for selecting the appropriate driver and installing that driver Utility Suites: combine several programs into 1 package; provide programs that will protect your system from dangerous programs called computer viruses Chapter 5 System Unit = houses most of the electronic components that make up a computer system 4 types of personal computers: 1. Desktops (Apple’s iMac) – most powerful type of personal computer 2. Laptops (Ultrabooks) – also called notebooks 3. Tablets – effectively a thin slab that is all monitor with the system unit located behind the monitor 4. Mobile Devices (Most popular: smartphone) – smaller and less powerful than tablets Components of system unit: 1. Microprocessor – has two basic components: control unit and arithmetic logic unit (arithmetic operations, logical operations); brains of the computer system 2. System Board 3. Memory – a holding area for data, instructions, and programs; ROM: read-only memory; RAM: random access memory; Cache Memory: temporary high-speed holding area between memory and CPU; Virtual Memory; Flash Memory: offers a combination of the features of RAM and ROM. Computers: digital devices Computers can understand only digital signals. Byte: a group of 8 bits In the system unit: 1 can be represented by a negative charge; 0 by no electric charge Character encoding: how a computer provides representation to communicate ASCII: American Standard Code for Information; original standard used by microcomputers EBCDIC: Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code; original standard used by mainframes Unicode: 16-bit coding scheme; currently the most widely used standard and is recognized by virtually every computer system System Board: mainboard or motherboard The motherboard is a circuit board covered with electronic components including sockets, slots, and bus lines. CPU: central processing unit A bus line connects the parts of the CPU to each other. A bus is a pathway for bits representing data and instructions. The mouse, keyboard, and speakers: some of the things that would be plugged into ports on the back of the system unit. DVI (Digital Video Interface): provide connections to digital monitors USB (Universal Serial Bus): provide connections for keyboards, mice, printers, and storage devices FireWire: provide high speed connections to specialized devices Ethernet: provide a connection point to other computers or a modem for high speed internet access Types of expansion buses: USB, FireWire, PCI Express There are numerous specialized ports, including, HDMI, and MIDI that are used for high-end audio, multimedia, and musical instrument connections. Cables are used to connect a device to a port. Examples of Standard ports: VGA, FireWire, USB, Ethernet Binary System used to represent data and instructions. Components of System Board: sockets, slots, bus lines Arithmetic Logic Unit: performs arithmetic and logical operations Control Unit: tells the rest of the computer system how to carry out program instructions Expansion Cards include: Sound cards, Graphic cards, Wireless network cards, Network interface cards Sockets: provide a connection point for chips. With virtual memory large programs are divided into parts and the parts are stored on a secondary storage. Chapter 6 Input: any data or informations that are used by a computer Input Devices: keyboard, mice Four Basic Categories of keyboards: traditional, laptop, virtual, and thumb Function Keys: shortcuts for specific tasks (typically displays help) Numeric Keypad Keys: enters numbers and arithmetic symbols and controls cursor or insertion point Navigation Keys: control the cursor or insertion point on the screen Windows Key: displays the Start menu Pointing Devices: mouse, touch screen, stylus, game controlling Game Controlling: Joystick, Dance Pads, Gamepads, Motion-Sensing Devices Scanning Devices: convert scanned text and images into a form that the system unit can process. 5 Types of scanning devices: card readers, optical scanners, bar code readers, RFID readers, character and mark recognition devices Optical Scanner: also known as a scanner; accepts documents consisting of text and/or images and converts them to machine-readable form Image Capturing Devices: capture or create original images Audio-Input Devices: convert sounds into a form that can be processed by the system unit Output: processed data or information Output Devices: speaker, printer, monitor Soft Copy: The output of a monitor is referred to as this Hard Copy: Printer output is called this The most costly aspect of ink-jet printers is replacing the ink cartridges. Distinguishing features of printers: resolution, speed, color capability, memory, duplex printing Examples of printers: cloud printers, thermal printers, plotters Ergonomics: defined as the study of human factors related to things people use Traditional Keyboards: full-sized, rigid, rectangular keyboards that include function, navigational, and numeric keys Thumb Keyboards: miniature keyboards for smartphones Virtual Keyboards: display an image of a keyboard on a touch screen device Pixels: series of dots; picture elements Flatbed Optical Scanner: like a copy machine Document Optical Scanner: can quickly scan multipage documents Portable Optical Scanner: handheld device that slides across the document to be scanned Advantages of flat panel monitors: thinner, more portable, require less power Features that determine the clarity of displayed images on a monitor: dot pitch, resolution, size, aspect ratio, contrast ratio Printer features include: resolution, speed, color, duplex, memory Resolution: measure of the clarity of an image measured in dots per inch Speed: number of pages printed per minute Color: provided by most printers but is expensive to use Duplex: printing on both sides of a sheet of paper Memory: stores printing instructions and documents waiting to be printed UPCs: Universal Product Codes; widely used by retail stores to automate the processes to check out customers, to change product prices, and to maintain inventory records MaxiCode: widely used by the United Parcel Service and others to automate the process of routing packages, tracking in-transit packages, and locating lost packages QR Codes: provide consumer information Personal Laser Printers: less expensive and are used by a single user Shared Laser Printers: typically support color; more expensive; used by a group of users Types of character and mark recognition devices: optical-character recognition, optical-mark recognition, magnetic-ink character recognition Webcams: specialized digital video cameras that capture images and send them to a computer for broadcast over the internet Characteristics of ink-jet printers: inexpensive and reliable Types of Mouse: Optical, Wireless, Mechanical Optical: emits and senses light to detect mouse movement Wireless: uses radio waves or infrared light waves to communicate with the system unit Mechanical: has a ball on the bottom and is attached with a cord to the system unit
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