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HWC 313 Midterm Study Guide

by: Dana Mass

HWC 313 Midterm Study Guide HWC 313

Dana Mass
Stony Brook U
GPA 3.52

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This is the study guide for the research midterm. I know she had said that we can use our notes on the exam, so included in the chapter reviews are the notes from class. The power points she gives ...
Research in Social Work I
Diana Filiano
Study Guide
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Popular in Social Welfare BASW (SOC WF)

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dana Mass on Friday October 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HWC 313 at Stony Brook University taught by Diana Filiano in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Research in Social Work I in Social Welfare BASW (SOC WF) at Stony Brook University.

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Date Created: 10/14/16
Wednesday, October 19, 2016 HWC 313 Midterm Study Guide Chapter 1:Why social work needs research *(From the textbook)* - To do research we must: - Describe: pinpointing a certain aspect of our clients - Define: research tools help us define concepts used in social work in a accurate and consistent way - Measure: this can help evaluate our client’s needs - Evaluate: we evaluate client progress over time. It can help us determine if the treatment needs to be altered or not. - Social workers are both scientists and uniquely creative individuals - Scientific research studies are a central source of knowledge - We can use our institutions voice, experiences from our past, our parents, and other authoritative roles to be sources of knowledge. - Knowledge is “what is” in the real world, whereas values are what we belief “should be”. - Research is critical and exhaustive investigation of something. - Different types of research: - Library: intended to be a critical and exhaustive investigation of literature - Marketing: done by company representatives who amy conduct a survey - Political: sponsored by political parties - Media: conducted by representatives of newspapers, TV, radio, magazines, etc Distinctiveness of Scientific Research - Scientific research is also involved in formation gathering and investigations - Scientific research ethics and principals: - seeking to discover something that exists or is a truth - follow a special code of theca behavior - being universal in its interest and representing the concerns of all society - being intended for the public’s use - using a methodology that minimizes bias - having a commitment to report findings accurately - using a methodology that involved a systematic set of procedures that can be flexibly employed Development of Theory - One goal of scientific research is to determine support for exiting theories; another goal is to generate new theories - Theory: consists of several interrelated explanatory statements or propositions about a phenomenon - Criteria: - Coherence and clarity - Comprehensiveness - Testability - Compatibility with existing theory - Significance for social work practice Systematic and Rigorous Methods - Six basic research steps: - Understanding the research topic - Focusing the study - Designing the study - Collecting the data - Analyzing the data - Preparing a report 1 Wednesday, October 19, 2016 - Social work problem solving process: - develop an assessment of client’s problems - set up goals to address or solve the problem - work out a plan of action to meet goals - carry out the action plan - evaluate the progress or lack of - decide whether to terminate or continue the relationship based on success - Steps in scientific research process: - Define the research problem - Set up research question - Set up research design - Carry out design - Analyze the data - Present the results Chapter 2: Philosophies and Perspectives about Research *(From the textbooks)* - Inductive research: when data is gathered about a phenomena before an explanation is hypothesized or suggested. Uses qualitative methodologies. - Deductive research: begins by crafting a theoretical statement that explains why something is happening in the real world. This is completed prior to data collection. Uses quantitative methodologies. - Generalizing: interring that the findings from a study of a sample of participants apply to a larger population. This needs to be done with care, caution, and awareness that there will be some degree of error involved. - Quantitative = numbers (surveys, structured observations). This is more structures and questions are asked in order to receive data (force-response). It can generalize findings from a larger population. - Qualitative = words (open-ended questions, focus groups). Attempts to discover the quality of something and makes an attempt to have new explanations. It has flexibility. - Reductionism: the analysis of data would go with the meaning of each response rather than go against it which them forces it to become quantitative. - Mixed methods refer to using both qualitative and quantitative methods to gather data. - Participatory Action Research: involves research participants in all or most of the steps of the research process. It favors studying topics that are beneficial to the research participants. - Feminist research: defined by both the research methods feminist researchers prefer and the research topics they study - Critical thinking: a careful examination of beliefs and actions. - Attributes to critical thinking: - distinguishing between questions of fact and value - using caution when offering what may have caused improvement - being cautious when making generalizations - stating problems and goals in measurable terms - continuously asking of interventions work - being a skeptic *(From class)* - Social patterns are not natural law and if it was, we would not need to research it - We look at similar characteristics in social patterns - What research tries to do is to get out of our “just” experiences, we want to get out of anecdotal experiences and use research to find other interests. (Moving from quantitative to qualitative) - We always want to make sure we are generating knowledge and using old knowledge will not help with that is going on today in the present. 2 Wednesday, October 19, 2016 - Some things may remain the same but keeping up with knowledge will only benefit our practice - Research is the problem solving method and jumping to solutions is not a correct way to solve an issue. - We need to make assumptions based on observation, then test out the assumption, then possibly revise the assumption. - Experiment: something that is cause and effect, if something actually produces a result. We are looking to achieve something. - Survey: asking people’s opinion,s, taking tests are surveys because it provides feedback - Interviews: clarity is very important, questions that are clear will have a clear response. - Field research: people watching - Content analysis: analyzing content/ material - Evaluation: not testing something output measuring something before or after. When you do something, does it have a benefit? - Sampling: trying something before you try it again - Quantification: grouping things based on number - Qualitative: very little information and gaining information from what you observe, grouping and categorizing either positively or negatively. Chapter 3: Research Ethics and Social Work’s Mandate *(From the textbook)* - Social workers supportive roles: - A gatekeeper to ensure that any new study to be conducted i the agency meets professional standards - An advocate or clients protection and privacy - Apromoter of research that is beneficial to the clients well being - Physical harm: harm given to a participant - Psychological harm: can be as more or more serious that physical harm and is often less tangible to detect. Ex: sharing feeling about loved ones who have died, asking children with divorced parents how it affects them - Invasion of privacy: informed consent addresses many of the concerns raised about studies that invite participants privacies. Ex: asking about sexual practices, marital status - Deception of participants: once informed consent is given some researchers may decide its important to avoid sharing too many details about the study purpose because this could create reactivity, or an interference with that is being studied - Misrepresentation of findings: dishonesty is an underlying cause. Some researchers may become disappointed with their findings and then modifying the findings slightly to their favor or advantage. - Balancing risks and gains: considerations given to risking harm to people must be balanced by considerations given to the potential gains that can come from a study. - Confidentiality: the circumstances in which the researcher knows the names each participant but promises not to disclose these names to anyone outside the research team. - Anomaly: the circumstances in which the researcher does not know the names of those who have participated in the study, which in turn ensures that the participants names will not be known to others. Chapter 4: Understanding the Research Topic *(From the textbook)* - The topic of a research study can focus on almost anything. - The questions social workers ask when conducting their own research: - Is the topic you want to address important? - Is the topic too large? - Is the topic interesting to the researcher? - Are the important concepts related to the topic? - Do you have the requisite skills and knowledge to conduct the research? 3 Wednesday, October 19, 2016 - Will you be able to gain access to required data? - A literature review can be though of as a search and evaluation of the available literature in a given subject area relevant to a research topic: - Surveying the literature relevant to your research topic - Synthesizing the information that is gathered into a summary - Critically analyzing the information gathered which can involve identifying areas of controversy surrounding the issue and crafting questions for further research. - Presenting the literature - Four major search strategies: - Consultation - Subject indexes - Browsing - Footnote chasing *(From class)* - We want to support our question with actual data and information - What ever generalizations we may have, we discuss with bullet points - External validity: your study is so representative of the population we can take the findings and generalize the information to population at large. The more diverse, the more we can generalize. - Problem formulation: start with a problem, we can ask a question without it. - Concept of resilience: ability to withstand, overcome, ability to thrive in adversity. You're still moving forward even though you have been through all of these things. - Analysis: creating themes, organize data into themes, it is inductive. - Independent: manipulated by the researcher - Dependent: impacted by the independent variable - Social desirability: do our questions make people wonder if they want to answer them or not. Chapter 5: Defining and Measuring Concepts - Value: a specific measure of a variable - Constant: a concept that does not change - Concepts: ideas or thoughts in which we have a mental image - Variables: a concept that changes and can be measured - Operationalizing a concept: - Identifying the key concept - Defining the variable: develop a straightforward but simple definition of the variable - Describing the variable: elaborate on the definition, give more detail and description - Developing a measure of the variable: age is a variable, ask questions. - Measurement: the process of determining the values of a variable for the people being studied. It is the central importance to research because it offers valuable tools for conducting the steps in the research process that follows. - Epistemology: the science of how knowledge is generated - Deductive research usually involved measurements in the form of numbers - Inductive research: involves measurement in word form. - Nominal variables: distinct, mutually exclusive, exhaustive. - Reductionism results whenever an effort to create a numerical measure of a concept results in losing some of the properties of the concept. - Likert Scale: a set of response categories that proceed in order from one extreme to the appositive extreme (Strongly agree, agree, disagree) - Forced-Response questions: restrict the respondent’s answer to a predetermined list of response categories. (Close-ended questions) - Open-ended questions: do not provide a restricted set of response categories from which respondents must choose their answers. Instead, respondents answer these questions in their own words. 4 Wednesday, October 19, 2016 - Levels of measurement: the degree to which the values of a variable can be quantified. They are important to understand because they provide guidelines for constructing measurements of variables and determine how a variable can be analyzed. - Nominal variables: these categories must meet three properties: - they must be distinct - mutually exclusive - exhaustive - Ex: race, gender - Ordinal: values are in two or more categories, have all of the properties of nominal variables, and have a sequential order to them. Ex: social class, Likert-sclae questions on attitudes - Interval: values have a sequential order to them, and there is an equal distance between the different values. There is no true zero value. Ex: temperature - Ratio: values have a sequential order to them, and there is an equal distance between the different values.Also, zero si a true zero value that represents an absence of a variable. Ex: income, age, weight - Pronominal variables: variables in qualitative studies that have not yet fulfilled the definition of nominal-level variables. - Validity: standard that determined whether an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and whether it measures it accurately - Face validity: the measure appears to be valid “on the face”. As you look over the measure, it appears to be valid based on what you already know about the concept or based on your mental image. - Content validity: the degree to which a measure cover the range of meanings included within the concept. Criterion-related validity: a measure is valid if it scores correlate with the scores of another measure of the same construct - Construct validity: third rigorous test of the the validity of measure. - Reliability: the internal consistency of the measure. - How is reliably measured? - Test-retest method: the first means of determining reliability. Determined whether a question is consisted my administering it to the same person at two different points in time. - Inter-rater reliability: two or more people measure the same episode independent of each other. Afterwords, the data is measured to see if they are similar. - Split-half method: splitting the items of an instrument into two random groupings and finding out if there is a strong association between two random groupings and finding out if there is a strong association between the response to the two sets of items - Alternate form method: administering two different forms of an instrument that are very similar and determining if the response to one instrument are strongly associated with the responses of another. - Thurston scale: consulting a group of outside experts. - Guttman scale: recognizes that the statements use in a scale can vary in degree of importance. Chapter 6: FOusing a Research Study: - Descriptive Studies: can be both qualitative and quantitative. - Not used to prove or disprove hypotheses. - We want to describe what we experience. - We sometime compare two groups. - There isALOT of comparisons with social work research using this design. - There can be hypothesis, but they may not be tested with the scientific method ( can be exploratory or explanatory). - There are still concrete tools for accuracy. - Surveys are ways to gain information about what is current. - We know some information but not enough to fully discuss it so we expand on what is already known. - Exploratory research has measures. We want people to give us their opinion. 5 Wednesday, October 19, 2016 - We don't know a lot about a topic so we begin to explore and observe. - These studies can lead to target descriptive study or an explanatory one that had a hypothesis and it is interested in causal factors. - Explanatory design: explain why (causation) something is happening. - This is the highest method. - This is the only design where we can say there is causation. - There are multiple factors which can cause the way something or someone is (Poverty). - It is deductive (starting with hypothesis and getting support). - Always quantitative which means we need precision. - We have one main focus and we want detailed data to support the focus. - Ahypothetical explanation describing the relationship between two variables - Hypothesis are proposed so that they can be verified or refuted. - There can be a positive relationship/ direct relationship (values of both variables increase or decrease together) - Anegative relationship is when the the values of one variable increases while the values of the other variable decreases. - Independent variable: presses to be the cause and is referred to as a causal variable. It is usually the variable of interest being introduced in the study, and it often is a practice or program intervention in social work research. - Dependent variable: the effect variable, or the variable that is changed by the independent variable. - Extraneous variables: variables that have not been considered in the hypothesis. These variables are often viewed as confounding or interfering with the relationship between an independent and dependent variable. Chapter 7:Research Design: - Secondary research: analyzes data already collected in another study. If there is any existing data, it usually has limitations. - Descriptive designs are intended for collecting information about people or a larger social group, but they are not interested in casual relationships related to the information that is collected. - structured, semi-structures, or unstructured interview - structured or unstructured questionnaire - structured or unstructured observation - participant observation - use of existing documents. - Cross-sectional: the data are collected at only one point in tie from research participants. - Exploratory research: are the smelliest most flexible of the three types. - Semi-structures or unstructured interview - unstructured questionnaire - unstructured observation - participant observation - use of existing documents - Explanatory research: collect data from research participants at two or more points in time. - structured interview - structured questionnaire - structures observation - use of existing documents - Three questions to ask about research design: - Who will be the source of the data? - How will the data be collected? - How will the important concepts be defined, measured, and analyzed? 6


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