Psych 101, Exam 2 Study Guide
Psych 101, Exam 2 Study Guide PSY-101
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cynthia Cao on Friday October 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-101 at San Diego State University taught by Dr. Laumakis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psych in Psychology (PSYC) at San Diego State University.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Psychology Chapt. 3-6 Study online at quizlet.com/_2k5eob 1. the 5 basic sweet 21. axons of the ganglion optic disc tastes salty cells form one bundle sour for each eye in the optic bitter nerves, which exit the unami retina at the ___________ causing a 2. absolute The weakest stimuli that can be detected blind spot since it lacks threshold 50% of the time. rods or cones 3. accommodation change shape in order to adjust to images 22. barbiturate Depressant drug that decreases near and far neural activity and reduces anxiety; 4. acetylcholine neurotransmitter that stimulates muscle a type of sedative. contractions in the body 23. basilar membrane lines the entire length of the 5. acquisition The initial learning phase in both classical cochlea which contains about and operant conditioning. 16,000 hair cells 6. activation- This theory proposes that humans respond 24. Behind the pupil is the a tough, transparent structure that synthesis to random neural activity while in REM sleep lens is similar in size and shape to an model as if it has meaning. "M&M's candy" Like the cornea, the 7. adaptive value The degree to which a trait or behavior helps lens specializes in focusing incoming light, but it can also an organism survive. change shape in order to adjust to 8. adenosine a neurotransmitter that normally muffles the images near and far, a process activity of excitatory neurons in the brain called accommodation 9. afterimage An image that appears to linger in the visual 25. Below the base of the auditory nerve field after its stimulus, or source, is hair cells are dendrites removed. of neurons whose axons form the 10.alpha waves Brain waves that indicate a relaxed, drowsy state. 26. beta waves Brain waves that indicate an alert, 11.Although cones fovea awake state. are packed 27. binge drink consuming four or more drinks for most densely women and five or more for men, on in the one occasion or within a short time 12.amphetamines Stimulant drugs; methamphetamine falls in span this class of drugs. 28. binocular cues Information gathered from both 13.amplitude The height of a wave; the distance from eyes to help judge depth and midpoint to peak, or from midpoint to the distance trough of a wave. 29. biological preparedness The tendency for animals to be predisposed or inclined to form 14.anosmia rare condition where you're unable to perceive odors associations 15.another name paradoxical sleep 30. bipolar cells a specialized type of neuron for REM located approximately in the middle of the retina 16.anterograde A type of memory loss; an inability to create amnesia new memories following damage or injury to 31. blind spot The location where the optic nerve the brain. exits the retina. 17.audition The sense of hearing. 32. brain freeze: Cold dilate drinks cause a major 18.automatic Refers to the processing of information with artery in the skull to processing little or no conscious effort: detection, encoding, and sometimes storage of 33. brightness of a color represents a continuum from bright to dim in terms of the intensity of information without awareness. the color. Brightness depends on 19.autonomic a disruption of heart rate, blood pressure, wave height or amplitude instability and other activities regulated by the autonomic nervous system 34. cataplexy sudden episodes of total loss of muscle tone or strength that occur 20.the average 2.3 million colors person sees when a person is awake some 35.cause of narcolepsy believed to result from a failure of 49. conditioned A form of classical conditioning that occurs the brain to properly regulate sleep taste aversion when an organism learns to associate the patterns taste of a particular food or drink with 36.characteristics of a (1) ability to focus intently, ignoring illness. hypnotized person all extraneous stimuli; (2) 50. cones Specialized light receptors responsible for heightened imagination; our sensation of color and our ability to (3) an unresisting and receptive sense details: allow us to see fine details, attitude; such as the small print on the back of a (4) decreased pain awareness; shampoo bottle (5) high responsivity to suggestions 51. connectedness Objects that are connected are seen as a 37.chunking Grouping numbers, letters, or other group items into meaningful subsets as a 52. consciousness The state of being aware of oneself, one's strategy for increasing the quantity thoughts, and/or the environment; includes of information that can be various levels of conscious awareness. maintained in short-term memory 53. continuity Parts tend to be perceived as members of a 38.circadian rhythm The daily patterns roughly following group if they head in the same direction. the 24-hour cycle of daylight and 54. continuous A schedule of reinforcement in which every darkness; 24-hour cycle of physiological and behavioral reinforcement target behavior is reinforced. functioning. 55. convergence A binocular cue used to judge distance and 39.circadian rhythm sleep- characterized by excessive depth based on the tension of the muscles wake disorders sleepiness at work and insomnia at that direct where the eyes are focusing home 56. cornea The clear, outer layer of the eye that 40.classical conditioning we associate two different stimuli, shields it from damage and focuses when an originally neutral stimulus incoming light waves; About 65-75% of the is conditioned to elicit an focusing ability of the eye involuntary response.: for example, it has two important jobs: the sound of a bell and food (1) shielding the eye from damage by dust, bacteria, or even a poke in the eye 41.closure Gaps tend to be filled in if (2) focusing incoming light waves. something isn't complete 57. curare an arrowhead poison used by South 42.Cocaine produces a dopamine and norepinephrine American natives that blocks acetylcholine rush of pleasure and 58. cycles of waves with particles "bunched up" excitement by amplifying the effects of high pressure of _________ and _________ 59. cycles of waves with particles "spread out" 43.cochlea Fluid-filled, snail-shaped organ of of low pressure the inner ear lined with the basilar 60. dark adaptation Ability of the eyes to adjust to dark after membrane exposure to brightness. 44.cognitive map The mental image of the layout of a 61. dark adaptation 8:30 physical space. takes about __ 45.color constancy Objects are perceived as minutes for cones and ____ maintaining their color, even with changing sensory data. minutes for rods 46.conditioned emotional An emotional reaction acquired 62. data-based Taking basic sensory information about response through classical conditioning; process by which an emotional processing incoming stimuli and processing it for further interpretation. reaction becomes associated with a previously neutral stimulus. 63. delirium Withdrawal symptoms that can occur when 47.conditioned response A learned response to a conditioned tremens (DTs) a heavy drinker suddenly stops or (CR) stimulus. significantly cuts down alcohol consumption; can include sweating, 48.conditioned stimulus A previously neutral stimulus that (CS) an organism learns to associate restlessness, hallucinations, severe tremors, and seizures. with an unconditioned stimulus. 64. delta waves Brain waves that indicate a deep sleep 65.depressants A class of psychoactive drugs 80. explicit memory A type of memory you are aware of that depress or slow down having and can consciously express in activity in the central nervous words or declare, including memories of system. facts and experiences 66.depriving the clock of its exhaustion, irritability, 81. extinction In classical conditioning, the process by external light cues is impairment of memory, and which the CR decreases after repeated generally not a good idea. other negative outcomes exposure to the CS in the absence of the Sleep-wake cycles can be US; in operant conditioning, the disrupted, leading to disappearance of a learned behavior through the removal of its reinforcer. 67.depth perception The ability to perceive three- dimensional objects and judge 82. extrasensory The purported ability to obtain information distances perception ESP about the world without any sensory 68.difference threshold The minimum difference stimuli. between two stimuli that can 83. Factors such internal and external "noise" be noticed 50% of the time. as______________ 69.distributed practice Spreading out study sessions in our environment can interfere with over time with breaks in between our ability to detect weak 70.each taste bud has 50 to 100 signals _________ taste receptor cells, and it is onto these 84. Fast nerve fibers made up of large, myelinated neurons, at a speed of 30- are responsible for conveying information cells that taste molecules bind 110 meters/sec about pain occurring in the skin and muscles, generally experienced as a 71.eardrum membrane which separates stinging feeling in a specific location ex: the outer ear from the middle stubbed toe ear 85. father of Sigmund Freud 72.echoic memory Exact copies of the sounds psychoanalysis we hear; a form of sensory 86. feature detectors Neurons in the visual cortex specialized memory. in detecting specific features of the 73.effortful processing The encoding and storage of visual experience, such as angles, lines, information with conscious and movements. effort, or awareness 87. figure-ground A central principle of Gestalt psychology, 74.elaborative rehearsal The method of connecting involving the shifting of focus; as incoming information to attention is focused on one object, all knowledge in long-term other features drop or recede into the memory; a deep level of background encoding. 88. (FI & VI) interval time since last reward 75.encoding The process through which schedules are information enters our memory based on system. 89. fixed-interval A schedule in which the reinforcer comes 76.encoding specificity Memories are more easily schedule after a preestablished interval of time principle recalled when the context and goes by; the response or behavior is cues at the time of encoding only reinforced after the given interval is are similar to those at the time over of retrieval. 90. fixed-ratio A schedule in which the subject must 77.episodic memory The record of memorable schedule exhibit a predetermined number of experiences or "episodes" desired behaviors before a reinforcer is including when and where an given. experience occurred; a type of explicit memory. 91. flashbulb memory A detailed account of circumstances surrounding an emotionally significant or 78.Every color can be described hue, brightness, and shocking, sometimes historic, event according to three factors: saturation 92. frequency (Hz) The number of sound waves passing a 79.Every sound wave begins vibration given point per second; higher frequency with a is perceived as higher pitch, and lower frequency is perceived as lower pitch. 93. frequency theory States that pitch is determined by the 107.hearing loss is very 16% vibrating frequency of the sound common in the wave, basilar membrane, and United States, associated neural impulses. affecting _____ adults under 70 94. (FR & VR) ratio number of responses schedules are based years old on 108.hearing loss is very 20% common in the 95. ganglion cells comprise another type of neuron, are United States, located toward the front of the retina affecting _____ of 96. gate-control theory Suggests that the perception of pain american teenagers will either increase or decrease 109.he taller the the brighter the light through the interaction of biopsy- chosocial factors; signals are sent to height... open or close "gates" that control the 110.higher order With repeated pairings of a conditioned neurological pathways for pain. conditioning stimulus and a neutral stimulus, the 97. gestalt The natural tendency for the brain to second neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus as well. organize stimuli into a whole, rather than perceiving the parts and pieces 111.how many times do 5 times 90 minutes per cycle 98. getting mail that fixed interval we cycle through non-REM and REM comes everyday but only once a day at 1 cycles in a night pm 112.Hubel and Wiesel proposed that visual processing begins (1979) in the visual cortex, where teams of 99. glomeruli communicates information from cells respond to specifically oriented olfactory neurons to higher brain lines (as opposed to just pixel-like centers spots of light), and then continues in 100.gustation sense of taste other parts of the cortex, where 101.habituation A basic form of learning evident when information from both eyes is integrated an organism does not respond as strongly or as often to an event 113.hue the color of an object, determined by following multiple exposures to it. the wavelength of light it reflects. 102.hair cells the receptor cells for the sound 114.Humans can detect about 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz, but we tend waves, which have been transformed frequencies ranging to lose the higher frequencies as we into liquid waves; fire action from get older potentials in the cochlea 115.hypnosis An altered state of consciousness 103.hallucinogens A group of psychoactive drugs that allowing for changes in perceptions can produce hallucinations (auditory, and behaviors, which result from visual, or kinesthetic), distorted suggestions made by a hypnotist. sensory experiences, alterations of 116.the hypothalamus sleep-wake cycles, sexual behavior, mood, and distorted thinking. helps regulate and appetite 104.the hammer, anvil, the ossicles and stirrup are 117.iconic memory Visual impressions that are photograph-like in their accuracy but known as dissolve in less than a second; a form 105.The hammer pushes the oval window of sensory memory. the anvil; the anvil 118.illusion A perception incongruent with sensory moves the stirrup; and the stirrup data. presses on a drum- 119.The impact of the the hammer, anvil, and stirrup like membrane sound wave called bouncing against the eardrum sets 106.__________ have Gamma waves short wavelengths off a chain reaction through the three and are located on the far left of the tiny bones in the middle ear spectrum 120.imperfections in its cornea 136.latent The hidden meaning of a dream, often shape can lead to content concealed by the manifest content of the blurred vision dream 121.implicit memory A memory of something you know 137.latent Learning that occurs without awareness and or know how to do, but that might learning regardless of reinforcement, and is not evident be automatic or unconscious; this until needed. type of memory is often difficult to brin to awareness and express. 138.law of effect Thorndike's principle stating that behaviors are more likely to be repeated when followed by 122.inferior colliculus localizes sound in space pleasurable outcomes, and those followed by something unpleasant are less likely to be 123.instinctive drift The tendency for animals to revert to instinctual behaviors after a repeated. behavior pattern has been learned. 139.learning A relatively enduring change in behavior or thinking that results from experiences. 124.interneurons A type of neuron that resides exclusively in the brain and spinal 140.Light an electromagnetic energy wave, composed of cord; acts as a bridge connecting fluctuating electric and magnetic fields sensory and motor neurons. zooming from place to place at a very fast 125.interposition When one object is in front of rate another, it partially blocks the view 141.light Ability of the eyes to adjust to light after being of the other object, and the object adaptation in the dark. that is partially blocked appears more distant 142.linear When two lines start off parallel, then come perspective together, where they converge appears farther 126.In the circadian rhythm between 2:00 and 6:00 A.M. and at away than where they are parallel. for sleep and 2:30 P.M. 143.long-term A stage of memory with essentially unlimited wakefulness, there are memory capacity that stores enduring information two times when the about facts and experiences desire for sleep hits hardest. 144.long-term The increased efficiency of neural potentiation communication over time, resulting in learning 127.In which of the stage 2 and the formation of memories. following stages of sleep do we spend the 145.Loudness is decibels (dB), with 0 dB being the absolute measured in threshold for human hearing; normal most time at night? conversation is around 60 dB 128.iris donut shaped; the muscle responsible for changing the size 146.lysergic A synthetically produced, odorless, tasteless, of the pupil acid and colorless hallucinogen that is very potent; diethylamide produces extreme changes in sensations and 129.________ is seeing a sensation; perception red burner on the (LSD) perceptions. stove; ___________ is 147.maintenance Technique of repeating information to be thinking hot rehearsal remembered, increasing the length of time it can be held in short-term memory 130.is the raw material morphine used in making the 148.manifest The apparent meaning of a dream; the content remembered story line of a dream. street drug heroin 149.massed Studying for long periods of time without 131.kinesthesia Sensory system that conveys information about body position and practice breaks. movement. 150.max rate 1,000 times / sec 132.knowledge-based Drawing on past experiences and that neurons processing knowledge to understand and can fire interpret sensory information. alone 133.larks morning people 151.memory Information collected and stored in the brain that is generally retrievable for later use 134.LASIK eye surgery uses a laser to reshape the cornea 152.memory The location where memories are etched in the so that it can focus light properly trace brain via physiological changes. 135.The last 3 months of webs of blood vessels rapidly pregnancy are critical branch from the center of the retina for fetal eye outward, delivering crucial oxygen development and nutrients to the developing tissue. 153.methylenedioxymethamphetamine A synthetic drug 164.non-rapid eye The nondreaming sleep that occurs during (MDMA) "Ecstasy" chemically similar to the movement (non- sleep Stages 1 to 4. stimulant REM) methamphetamine and 165.nonvisual carries light information from the eyes to the hallucinogen pathway the SCN mescaline; produces a combination of stimulant 166.observational Learning that occurs as a result of learning watching the behavior of others. and hallucinogenic effects. 167.Obstructive Serious disturbance characterized by a 154.misinformation effect The tendency for new Sleep Apnea complete absence of air flow (apnea) or and misleading Hypopnea reduced air flow (hypopnea). Upper throat information obtained muscles go limp; airway closes; breathing stops for 10 seconds or longer; sleeper after an incident to distort one's memory of awakens, gasping for air. it. 168._____________ 1 in 10 155.mnemonic Technique to improve of american memory adults struggle 156.model The individual or with alcohol dependence character whose behavior is being 169.olfaction is on a limbic system imitated fast track to the __________, 157.monocular cues Depth and distance cues that require the use of where emotions like fear and only one eye. anger are 158.nanometers (nm) billionths of a meter processed 159.narcolepsy A neurological disorder 170.olfactory About 3 inches into the nostrils is a patch characterized by epithelium of tissue; home to millions of olfactory excessive daytime receptor neurons that provide tiny sleepiness, which docking sites, or receptors, for odor includes lapses into molecules sleep and napping. 171.Olfactory the olfactory bulb 160.negative punishment The removal of receptor neurons something desirable stimulate a part following an unwanted of the brain behavior, with the called intention of decreasing 172.One is that pertaining only to the individual who that behavior consciousness is experiences it 161.negative reinforcement The removal of an subjective unpleasant stimulus 173.operant we make connections between our following a target conditioning behaviors and their consequences: for behavior, which example, through rewards and increases the likelihood punishments of it occurring again. 174.opiates A class of psychoactive drugs that cause 162.neutral stimulus A stimulus that does not a sense of euphoria; a drug that imitates cause a relevant the endorphins naturally produced in the automatic or reflexive brain response. 175.opioid A class of psychoactive drugs that 163.Nociceptive pain caused by heat, cold, minimizes perceptions of pain. chemicals, and pressure; primarily 176.opponent-process Perception of color derives from a special theory group of neurons that respond to housed in the skin, but they also are found in opponent colors (red-green, blue-yellow). muscles and internal 177.optic chiasm where the optic nerves (one from each organs eye) intersect at a place in the brain 178.optic nerve an electrical cable hooking the retina to the 198. positive increases; increases brain where axons of the ganglion cells reinforcement bundle together _________ the rate 179.ossicles magnify sound from the tympanic of responding, whereas negative membrane reinforcement 180.ototoxicity ear poisoning _______ the rate of 181.Pacinian receptors that detect vibrations responding corpuscles 199. presbyopia the lens begins to stiffen, impairing our ability to focus on up-close images 182.papillae those bumps you can see on a person's tongue like the letters on a computer screen 183.parapsychology The study of extrasensory perception. 200. primary effect The tendency to remember items at the beginning of a list. 184.partial A schedule of reinforcement in which target reinforcement behaviors are reinforced intermittently, not 201. primary reinforcer A reinforcer that satisfies a biological need, such as food, water, physical continuously contact; innate reinforcer 185.partial The tendency for behaviors acquired reinforcement through intermittent reinforcement to be 202. priming stimulating memories beneath awareness through previous exposure; effect more resistant to extinction than those acquired through continuous reinforcement. a result of retrieval cues in the environment 186.paycheck every fixed ratio 203. proactive The tendency for information learned 2 weeks interference in the past to interfere with the 187.perception The organization and interpretation of retrieval of new material. sensory stimuli by the brain. 204. procedural memory The unconscious memory of how to 188.perceptual The tendency to perceive objects in our carry out a variety of skills and constancy environment as stable in terms of shape, activities; a type of implicit memory. size, and color, regardless of changes in the sensory data received. 205. proprioceptor Specialized nerve endings primarily located in the muscles and joints that 189.perceptual set The tendency to perceive stimuli in a provide information about body specific manner based on past experiences location and orientation. and expectations. 206. prosocial behaviors Actions that are kind, generous, and 190.photon the smallest possible packet of light benefit others. 191.photoreceptors Cells that absorb light energy and turn it 207. proximity Objects close to each other are into chemical and electrical signals for the perceived as a group brain to process 208. psychoactive drugs Substances that can cause changes 192.physiological With constant use of some psychoactive in psychological activities such as dependence drugs, the body no longer functions sensation, perception, attention, normally without the drug. Sign: withdrawal, judgment, memory, self-control, tolerance emotion, thinking, and behavior; 193.pitch The degree to which a sound is high or low substances that cause changes in determined by the frequency of its sound conscious experiences. wave. 209. psychological With constant use of some 194.place theory States that pitch corresponds to the dependence psychoactive drugs, a strong desire or location of the vibrating hair cells along the need to continue using the substance cochlea. occurs without the evidence of 195."pollute" the mixing it with other wavelengths and the tolerance or withdrawal symptoms color's light by result will be a less saturated 210. punishment The application of a consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behavior 196.positive The addition of something unpleasant recurring punishment following an unwanted behavior, with the intention of decreasing that behavior. 211. the pupil The black hole in the center of the iris 197.positive The process by which pleasant reinforcers 212. rapids eye The stage of sleep associated with reinforcement are added or presented following the movement (REM) dreaming; sleep characterized by targeted behavior, increasing the likelihood bursts of eye movements, with brain of it occurring again. activity similar to that of a waking state, but with a lack of muscle tone. 213.recall The process of retrieving 227.retinopathy of a condition in which blood vessels in information held in long-term prematurity (ROP) the retina grow incorrectly memory without the help of explicit 228.retrieval The process of accessing information retrieval cues. encoded and stored in memory. 214.recency effect The tendency to remember items at the end of a list. 229.retrieval cues Stimuli that help in the retrieval of stored information that is difficult to 215.recognition The process of matching incoming access data to information stored in long- 230.retroactive The tendency for recently learned term memory. interference information to interfere with the 216.reinforcers consequences, such as events or retrieval of things learned in the past objects, that increase the 231.retrograde amnesia A type of memory loss; an inability to likelihood of a behavior access memories formed prior to reoccurring. damage or injury to the brain, or 217.Reissner's corpuscles receptors sensitive to the difficulty retrieving them. slightest touch 232.rich false memories Recollections of an event that never 218.relative size If two objects are similar in actual occurred, which are expressed with size, but one is farther away, it emotions and confidence and include appears to be smaller. We details. interpret the larger object as being 233.rods Specialized light receptors in the closer. retina that are responsible for sight 219.relearning Material learned previously is when the light level is low; not acquired more quickly in sensitive to color, but useful for night subsequent exposures vision 220.REM rebound an increased amount of time spent 234.Rods are found fovea in REM sleep when they finally everywhere in the have an opportunity to sleep in retina except for a peace tiny central spot called the 221.REM Sleep Behavior The mechanism responsible for Disorder paralysis during REM not 235.saturation Color purity; is determined by functioning, resulting in the acting uniformity of wavelength and is made out of dreams. up of same-size wavelengths dreamers vocalize and act out 236.secondary reinforcer Reinforcers that do not satisfy dreams; violent and active dreams biological needs but often gain their are common; upon awakening the power through their association with dream is remembered; risk of primary reinforcers. injury to self and sleeping partners 237.selective attention The ability to focus awareness on a 222.__________results from conduction hearing impairment damage to the eardrum small segment of information that is available through our sensory or the middle-ear bones that transmit sound systems. waves to the cochlea 238.semantic memory The memory of information theoretically available to anyone, 223.retina The layer of the eye that contains which pertains to general facts about photoreceptor cells and the the world; a type of explicit memory. location for the transduction of 239.sensation The process by which sensory organs light energy into neural activity. in the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin, 224.The retina is transduction and other tissues receive and detect responsible for the stimuli. _____________ of light energy into neural 240.sensorineural hearing loss due to damage of the deafness hair cells on the basilar membrane activity 225.retinal disparity A binocular cue that uses the 241.sensory adaptation Sensory receptors tend to become difference between the images the less sensitive to constant stimuli. two eyes see to determine the 242.sensory memory A stage of memory that captures distance of objects near-exact copies of vast amounts of 226.retinal ganglion cells special type of light-sensing cells sensory stimuli for a very brief period in the eye of time. 243.sensory the smallest levels of stimulation people can 259. sound waves rhythmic vibrations of molecules traveling thresholds detect through a variety of forms of matter, such as air. alternating zones of high and low 244.serial position The ability to recall items in a list depends effect on where they are in the series pressure moving through the environment 260. Sound waves water, metal, and wood 245.shape An object is perceived as maintaining its can also constancy shape, regardless of the image projected on travel through the retina. materials like 246.shaping The use of reinforcers to guide behavior to the acquisition of a desired, complex 261. spontaneous In classical conditioning, the reappearance recovery of the conditioned response following its behavior. extinction; occurs in response to the 247.short-term A stage of memory that temporarily conditioned stimulus after a period of rest. memory maintains and processes a limited amount 262. stage 1 of "light sleep" muscles go limp and body of information non-REM temperature starts to fall. The eyeballs may 248.signal A theory explaining how various factors move gently beneath the lids. If you looked detection influence our ability to detect weak signals at an EEG of a person in Stage 1, you would theory in the environment likely see theta waves; hallucinations, or 249.similarity Objects similar in shape or color are imaginary sensations, can occur perceived as a group 263. stage 2 of Theta waves continue showing up on the non-REM EEG, along with sleep spindles and large 250.size constancy An object is perceived as maintaining its size, regardless of the image projected on waves called K-complexes appearin
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