Art History, Exam 2 Study Guide
Art History, Exam 2 Study Guide ARH 025VL
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Friday October 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 025VL at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Norris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Art History B in Art History at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Art History—Exam 2 Study Guide Italian Renaissance Donatello, Varrocchio, Botticelli, etc. Donatello revived many art forms from classical works such as contrapposto, life-size freestanding nudes, equestrian portraits, and large-scale bronze casting Donatello, St. Mark, 1411-13 -Freestanding sculpture, Carved marble, Contrapposto -St. Mark was thought to be a scholar, so Donatello carved him as such Donatello, David, 1440 -David, immediately after he decapitated Goliath -Very feminine characteristics: hand on hip, long hairYouthful and feminine characteristics give the message that God can use anyone to do His work -Revival of freestanding, life-sized, male nude sculptures -David plays a political role in Florence: people living there looked up to David because he was an underdog (like them) that was able to conquer his foe -Placed in the Palazzo Medici (the Medicis were a prominent Italian family) Verrocchio, Lorenzo de Medici, 1480 -Verroccio was da Vinci’s teacher -Medici was an important political figure (basically controlled Florence) and also a scholar -Terracotta Verrocchio, Colleoni, 1481 -Equestrian portrait -Soldier on a warhorse (mercenary general) -Colleoni commissioned the portrait of himself -Wanted to be a part of the “cult of fame” Sculptors began using more naturalism in their work to help imply movement Pallaiuolo, Hercules and Antaeus, 1470-75 -Lion skin: attribute of Hercules -Hercules is trying to kill Antaeus -Dramatic, though accurate, representation of the human body -Triumph through adversity -Turtles are symbols of tenacity Masaccio, Holy Trinity, 1425 -God is holding Jesus up on the cross -The dove (Holy Spirit) is above Jesus’ head -Fresco -Donors are on the outer corners of the painting -Triangular composition -Roman-inspired architecture -Linear perspective (influenced by Brunelleschi) -Vanishing point in the distance -Orthogonal: lines leading to the back of the paintin Masaccio, The Tribute Money, 1425 -Continuous painting -Chiarosco -Consistent illusion through the uniformity of space, light, and form -Importance of the cultivation of arts and learning Mantegna, Camera Picta, 1470 -Room of the newly-weds -Painting on the ceiling looks like an opening to the outside (oculus) -Trompe l’oeil: Trick/fool the eye -Peacock represents Hera, Greek goddess of marriage Ghirlandaio, Birth of the Virgin, 1485 -Biblical figures placed in a Florentine home (elite household) -Sculptures of boys along the top of the wall signify that boy were more valued than girls and people thought that if expectant mothers looks at pictures of boys, they would have a boy instead of a girl Botticelli, Birth of Venus, 1484 -6’x9’ -Painted on canvas in tempera -Example of idealization -waves are in a decorative pattern (no linear perspective) -“ideal beauty”imagination, not reality -“Venus Pudica”: modest Venus; she’s covering her genitals and one boob High Renaissance da Vinci, Rafael, Michelangelo, etc. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): Used a combination of idealization and naturalism, ex—Vitruvian Man shows idealistic proportions for men Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1495 -Combination of oil and tempera (this combination caused it to be very susceptible to fading) -Jesus is telling the disciples that one of them will betray him and they all show very emotional reactions -Painting was meant to go in a dining hall in a monastery -Judas being on the same side as the rest of the disciples signifies that all of them will betray Jesus in one way or another Castagno, Last Supper -Much less emotion than da Vinci’s depiction -Judas is on the opposite side of the table from the other disciples and does not have a halo. He also has more Jewish features than the others, who look more European (da Vinci does the same thing) Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna and Child with St. Anne and St. John -Cartoon, Pyramidal composition, Sfumato Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, 1503-05 -Oil on canvas (oil begins to replace tempera) -Relatively small, only 2’x3’ -Sfumato, Tonal -Background is made up (idealization blended into naturalism) -da Vinci incorporates his ideal of beauty into all his paintings da Vinci’s Impact: Blending naturalism with idealization, pyramid composition, sfumato, and (biggest impact) raising the status of artists Rafael, Madonna of the Meadow, 1505-06 -Uses similar methods to da Vinci: Tonal, pyramidal composition, etc. Rafael, Galatea -Scene from Greek mythology -10’x7 ½’ -Lots of action -Figures are all very muscular (women included) -Very idealistic Rafael, Stanze della Segnatura (signature room), 1509-11 -Painted for the Pope’s palace (in the library) -The paintings on the major walls are representative of theology and philosophy while the minor walls are representative of the law and arts -Crossed keys of the floor are a symbol of the pope -One painting is the School of Athens -Good representation of the High Renaissance -Similar composition to The Last Supper -Figures are all Greek, though from different periods: Pythagoras, Arab mathematician, female philosopher, and Euclid -Figures in the center are Plato (old with a white beard) and Aristotle (younger guy) -Plato thought that beauty can only be found in the abstract (abstract idealization) -Aristotle thought that beauty can be found in the concrete (Naturalism) -They were the foundation of Western knowledge and all others learned from them -This painting is an embodiment of the High Renaissance -Naturalism and Idealization reinforce each other in meaning and style -Monumentality/Grandeur -Energy/Balance Michelangelo, David, 1501-04 -Twice the size of regular people -Ideal male physique according to Michelangelo -Extreme detail on the face: Flared nostrils, furrowed brows -Representation of when Goliath approached Davidhe recoils in disgust or distain -Signifies a safeguard (protector) for Florence Michelangelo, Moses, 1513-15 -7 ½’ high -Marble -Moses has horns (attribute) -Even though he’s elderly, he has enormous muscles -Holding the Ten Commandments in one hand Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, 1508-12 -Fresco -Iconographic Program: The book of Genesis—creation and fall of man, Noah, etc. -Along the sides, there are prophets and sibyls (female prophets) -Ignudo (singular); Ignudi (plural) Michelangelo, Creation of Adam, 1508-12 -(almost) Connected line from God’s arm over to Adam -God’s hair and cloak suggest that He’s moving towards Adam with great speed -Adam has not yet been brought to life, hence the small space between their hands -God has one arm around two figures: Eve/Virgin Mary and Baby Jesus. This symbolizes that God already knows the human race will sin and need Jesus to save them Michelangelo, The Last Judgement, 1534-41 -Fresco -44’x48’ -Scene is generally placed at the entrance to a church, rather than the altar wall where this painting was put -Angels are playing trumpets to raise the dead from their graves -There is a set of keys (attribute of the pope) next to a money bag and both are going to hell -Bartholomew is holding a knife and his own skin (he was a martyr and skinned alive) -Painting reflects the unrest in the church at the time Michelangelo started making art when he was a teenager and didn’t stop until he died. He was a painter, sculptor, and writer. He felt connected to God through art (he was a very devout Christian). He followed Neo-Platonism. Michelangelo’s career had three phases: -High Renaissance -Mannerism: artificial looking paintings/sculptures; distortion of figures -Anticipated the Baroque period with his expressiveness and dramatic flair Venetian Renaissance Art was influenced by: -Politics—Venice was a republic and ruled by a Doge (similar to a Duke, but an elected position) -Cultural influence from the East (Byzantine) -Climate—Distinct lighting due to Venice being a port city made an appearance in art Titian, Bacchanal, 1518 -5 ½’x6’ -From Roman poetry: Bacchus, god of wine -Uses lots of texture (being painted on canvas helps with that too) -Naked woman in the foreground is there simply for the viewer’s pleasure Titian, Madonna of the Pesaro Family, 1519-26 -Oil on canvas -Celebration of a military victory of a family member -Keys are an attribute of St. Peter -Warn lighting, rich colors, and texture are all very noticeable -Haptic Composition: stimulating sense of touch Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538 -4’x5 ½’ -Slutty Venus (she looks like she’s trying to seduce the viewer) -Probably actually a courtesan: Mistress of a wealthy man, but also educated -Reclined female nude Titian defined the Venetian Renaissance and used lots of sensuality, eroticism, and sexuality in his subjects. His style shows a lot of warm, golden light with rich colors and a wide range of textures. Titian also has a long career and was a contemporary of Michelangelo. Terms to Know: Contrapposto: When a figure (generally a sculpture) has shifted its weight to one leg; off-balance Cult of Fame: wanting to make a lasting impression on society, make a difference, and/or be remembered forever Linear Perspective: Figures in a painting are placed in a line (ex: The Last Supper) Vanishing Point: Point at the back of a painting that looks like it fades into the distance Orthogonal: Parallel lines that point back towards a vanishing point Lorenzo de Medici: Important political figure (basically controlled Florence), scholar, housed Michelangelo in his home when he was a young boy, “il magnifico” Platonic Academy: Contemporaries of de Medici (philosophers, intellectuals, artists) including Michelangelo who grew up in de Medici’s household Neo-Platonism: Key ideas of Plato (all physical reality is flawed; perfection exists only in the abstract) were applied to their beliefs about ChristianityPerfection only exists in GodArtists can create paintings that are closer to perfection because contemplating idea beauty brings you closer to God Naturalism: Representing things (in art) as they are Idealization: Representing things and people not as they are, but how the artist thinks they should be Savonarola: Fanatic monk who thought the church was becoming corrupt because artists were painting things that were secular. He gained followers and they destroyed books, paintings, and other works of art. Botticelli joined and even destroyed some of his own works. Theocracy took over the government Fusing Naturalism and Idealization: Combination of what is and what something should be Cartoon: Sketch that is made, then a painting is copied from it Pyramidal Composition: Figures in a painting are placed in a sort of pyramid shape Sfumato: Kind of hazy background in a painting Linear: Distinct lines outlining everything in a painting Tonal: Colors blend into each other instead of there being lines Pope Julius II: Commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling. Also decided to sell indulgences to make money for the church Plato: Thought that beauty can only be found in the abstract (abstract idealization) Aristotle: Thought that beauty can be found in the concrete (Naturalism) Ignudo/Ignudi: Male nudes Terribilita: Emotional intensity of art conception and execution Reformation: Started by Martin Luther in protest of some of the practices in the Catholic Church. The part of the church that eventually broke away were called protestants Doge: The “duke” of Venice. Elected position Trade: The reason Venice thrived Cosmopolitan: People from all over the world. Culture had Eastern influences Haptic: Stimulates sense of touch
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