BIOL 2312 Exam 2 Study Guide
BIOL 2312 Exam 2 Study Guide Biol 2312
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Westermann on Friday October 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2312 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Michelle Wilson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
[BIOL 2312] [Dr. Wilson] [EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE] [Chapter 45] [Endocrine System] ● Compliments the nervous system ● 4 Mechanisms of Cell Communication ○ Direct contact ■ Gap junction, conduction, chemically from one cell to another ○ Synaptic Signaling ○ Endocrine Signaling ■ systemic ○ Paracrine Signaling ■ Talking to cells around them ■ Changes occur locally ● Stimulus => Sensor => Effector => Response ○ Effector: gland (production/halt production) ○ Sensor and Effector may be a single cell, endocrine organ, or series of endocrine organs ● Hormone ○ Regulatory chemical ○ Secreted and carried in the blood ○ Can act at a distance from the source ○ Sufficiently complex ■ Tweaking this system is difficult ■ Don’t want certain hormones to affect everything ○ Adequately stable ● Neurotransmitters ○ Work in synaptic area ● Neurohormones ○ Blood based ● Paracrine Regulators ○ Do ot travel in blood ○ Allow cells of organ to regulate each other ● Autocrine regulators ○ Self regulating ○ Positive feedback ● Pheromones ○ Released into environment to communicating to individuals of a species ○ Debate over whether they are found in humans or not ○ Not involved in normal metabolic regulation within an animal ● Paracrine regulators ○ Occur in most organs ○ Growth factors ○ Epidermal growth factor ○ Nerve growth factor ○ Insulin-like growth ○ Cytokines ● Receptor proteins ○ Regulatory enzymes ● Nitric Oxide (NO) ○ Functions as a neurotransmitter ○ Produced by endothelium of blood vessels ■ Erections, injuries ■ Endothelium stimulates vasoconstriction ● Steroids ○ Long lasting effect ○ Need to be super precise when it comes to controlling or regulating steroid usage ● Hormones ○ Lipophilic ■ Nonpolar ■ Fat soluble ■ Steroid and thyroid hormones ○ Hydrophilic (polar) ■ Water-soluble ■ All other hormones ■ Freely soluble in blood ● Endocrine ○ Ductless ○ Secreted into extracellular fluid ○ Carried in blood (hormones) ● Exocrine ○ Duct ○ Secrete product into a duct ○ Create a quantity based on the stimulus and deliver pecific area ● Only targets with receptors are able to respond ● Pituitary gland (hypophysis) ○ At base of hypothalamus ○ Physical extension of hypothalamus ○ Runs the show ○ Known as the “master gland” ○ 2 visual regions ■ Anterior side (Anterior Pituitary) ● Front ● Appear glandular ● Developed from pouch of epithelial tissue of embryo’s mouth ● Very compact, uniform look ● Does all the work for the pituitary ● Produces and secretes ssential hormones ○ No back-up mechanisms in the body if these hormones can’t be produced ● Controlled by hormones from hypothalamus ● Glands need regulation ● Example: hormone delivered by th ypothalamohypophyseal portal system ○ Portal ■ Vessel system - capillary bed to another capillary bed but does not go through the heart ■ Acts like a duct ● Negative feedback and feedback inhibition ■ Posterior side (Posterior Pituitary) ● Back ● Appear fibrous ● Storage container ● Doesn’t produce anything ● Stores and releases 2 hormones - neuroendocrine reflex ○ Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) ■ Peptide hormone ■ Usually produced during dehydration ■ Stimulates water reabsorption by the kidney ■ Inhibits diuresis (urine production) ■ Intricate balance between kidney and ADH ■ Makes you thirsty, inhibits sweating ■ Heat Stroke: thirsty, sweating inhibited, pass out (due to drop in blood pressure - blood volume depleted) ○ Oxytocin ■ Positive feedback ■ Composed of 9 amino acids (very small) ■ Peptide hormone ■ Only shows up in milk ejection and labor contractions ■ Both males and females have this hormone ● Still unsure why males have it ■ The two have different embryonic origins ○ If the pituitary glands has problems; everything else has problems ● Tropic hormones (tropins) ○ Act on another gland ○ 3 categories ■ Peptides Hormones ● Very small ● Not much structural complexity ● ACTH ○ Works in adrenal cortex gland ● MSH ○ Makes melanin (pigment) for hair and skin ■ Protein Hormones ● Much larger and more complex than peptide hormones ● Single chain of ~200 amino acids ● GH ○ Disorders ■ Over- or undergrowth ■ Gigantism versus pituitary dwarfism ■ Acromegaly ● Affects protein, lipid, and carb metabolism ● PRL ○ Positive feedback ○ Milk production ■ Glycoprotein Hormones ● Very complex ● Dimers (2 identical subunits) ○ Contain alpha and beta subunits ● TSH ○ Tropic ● LH ○ Gonads ○ Ovulation (in females) ○ Help other cells nurture sperm (in males) ● FSH ○ Gonads ○ Develops the egg (in females) ○ Develops sperm (in males) ● FSH and LH named after function in women ● Hypothalamus ○ Produces 2 hormones ○ Stores them in posterior pituitary gland ● Thyroid ○ Front of the neck; can feel it when you swallow ○ Sometimes referred to as the “third eye” ● Other Hormones ○ Production of hormones in these organs serves as a secondary function ○ Atrial Natriuretic Hormone ■ Secreted by the right atrium in the heart ■ Helps monitor high blood pressure ■ Promotes salt and water secretion ● Water always follows salt ○ Erythropoietin ■ Secreted by kidneys ■ Makes more red blood cells ■ Which allows for more oxygen in blood ■ Good for muscles ■ Used for doping purposes sometimes ● Insect Hormones ○ Molting ■ Organism just growing larger ■ Sheds exoskeleton for new one ○ Metamorphosis ■ Transformation point ■ High levels of brain hormones cause molting ○ Juvenile hormones ■ Run the show ■ Appears in molting phases only ■ Insect won’t metamorphosize if juvenile hormones are present [Chapter 46] [The Musculoskeletal System] ● Form (skeletal) and function (muscular) ● Pulling mechanism - works in pairs (when one contracts another relaxes) ○ Pulls against skeletal frame ● Myofibrils => Muscle Fibers => Bundles => Muscles ○ Myofibrils ■ Made of actin and myosin (contractions occur at this level) ■ Thick (myosin) filament ● When multiple myosin molecules are wrapped together ■ Myosin heads talk to actin binding point ■ Ratio of actin is higher when compared to myosin ■ Actin molecules attach to Z-Disk ● Z-line contraction unit (unit contracts as a whole) ● ATP is important in this process ○ Muscle Fibers ■ Multiple cells fuse together ○ Bundles ■ Multiple muscle fibers come together ○ Muscles ■ Multiple bundles ○ Multiple layers allow for good control ● Bridge Cycle - Muscle Contraction ○ Myosin (little dot) binding site for myosin head ■ Try to interact with any actin molecule ■ Presence of ATP (potential energy) is necessary ■ When ATP is cleaved (phosphate removed) ● Broken bond releases energy ● ADP and phosphate are products ○ Myosin changes shape (creates kinetic energy; physically moves protein molecule) ○ Back to start (must be reset with ATP otherwise it will be stuck on the same actin) ■ Cycle must be restarted ○ 1st level of regulation is ATP ■ Available in muscles all the time ■ But your muscles are not always contracting ○ 2nd level of regulation: troponin and tropomyosin ■ Troponin ● Controls and is controlled by tropomyosin ● Gets Ca2+ molecule signals to get tropomyosin out of the way ■ Tropomyosin ● Gets in the way of actin binding site ● Physical barrier ○ 3rd level of regulation: control Ca2+ ■ Comes from motor neuron junction ■ Neurotransmitter ACh released from motor neuron => ACh binds to receptor => ligand-gated channel opens => Na depolarizes => travels through plasma membrane (t-tubules) that run down in muscle => go to sarcoplasmic reticulum (job is to hold stores of Ca2+) => activated when cell depolarizes ○ Opportunities to mess up at every step ○ When a someone dies, there is no more ATP (locked in last crossbridge the ever made - rigor mortis) ○ Bridge Cycle will stop when: ■ Muscles run out of ATP ■ Tropomyosin covers actin binding site ● Force ○ When sarcomere is contracting we don’t want the sarcomere to be all the way out (few cross-bridges) or all the way in ○ Recruit more motor units when picking up something heavy ■ Don’t innervate entire muscle fiber, supposed to be interplay of different states ● Cramps: when the entire muscle completely contracts ○ Don’t need a whole lot of force to pick up a pencil ■ Use more motor units when picking up a bowling ball than picking up a pencil ○ Muscles work in pairs ■ Biceps (flexion) and triceps (extension) ■ Biceps ● Turn off Ca2+ for triceps, turn Ca2+ on for bicep ■ Triceps ● Pulls - tricep is engaged, bicep is relaxed ○ Ca2+ in tricep ○ Work out - create muscle growth ○ Ultimate goal is to increase force ○ Tetanus - fluid, controlled muscle contraction ■ Doesn’t start out this way ■ Start with twitch ■ Twitch ● Single impulse hitting motor unit (ex: eye twitch) ■ Need a series of these twitches over and over (summation) ■ Summation becomes tetanus ● Training outputs in cortex ■ Parkinson’s ● Intermittent stimuli leads to tremors ● ACh released when it shouldn’t be ○ Collections of slow and fast-twitch fibers ■ Gives us dexterity and response time ■ Fast-twitch ● Found in eyes ○ Eyes get tired; not for long-term use ○ Light yellow in color ○ Turkey - white meat ■ Slow-twitch ● Found in thighs, back, and core ○ Work all day ● Limitless O2 supply ○ (myoglobin) ● ATP synthesis ● O2 stored in (vertebrate) skeletal muscles ● Dark red in color ○ Mitochondria, myoglobin ● Turkey - dark meat ○ More flavor due to presence of myoglobin ■ Many muscles are combinations of fast and slow twitches ● Skeletal System ○ 3 types ■ Hydrostatic ● Hydro - water ● Soft-bodied organisms ● Move with shape of water can change change shape of organism ● Very flexible ● Motor response - very basic ● 2 sets of muscle ○ Longitudinal ■ Run the height of organism ○ Circular ■ Wrap around the organism ○ Same design as human digestive tract ● Earthworm locomotion ○ Has “feet” (chaetae) ○ Allow earthworm to anchor itself for movement of circular and longitudinal muscles ■ Exoskeletons ● On the outside ● Loses effectiveness in growth/size ● Very strong relative to size ● Muscles pull on exoskeleton ● Made of chitin ● Helps protect organs ● Juvenile hormone and ecdysone present during molting ● Limit on muscles and breathing ○ Breathing limit occurs before muscle limit ○ Limited by space ■ Endoskeletons ● Vertebrates ● Centralized skeleton ● Echinoderms - sand dollars/ starfish ○ Endoskeletons consist of calcium carbonate (harder) ● Bone ○ Made of calcium phosphate/ stronger than cartilage ● Cartilage cushion ● Different types of bone ○ Flat bone ○ Long bone ○ Short bone ○ Irregular bone ○ Sesamoid bone - patella ● 206 bones in human body (give or take number of sesamoid bones) ● Bone tissue development ○ Mesenchymal stem cells ■ Collection of cells that have a lot of potential ■ Can be in any of the 3 germ layers ■ Mesenchymal cells can become: ● Osteocyte, chondrocyte, muscle fiber, fibroblasts, or stromal cells ● Bone ○ Hard, connective tissue ○ 2 Modes of Development ■ Intramembranous ● Starts in the middle; use connective tissues as guidelines ● Typically see this sort of development in flat bones ○ Not a lot of growth (elongation) ■ Endochondral ● Where growth and height comes in ● As long as GH is present, bones will continue to elongate ○ Osteoblasts become osteocytes by entombing (surrounding) themselves in the matrix ■ Reside in lacunae (not isolated) need to communicate ● Use canals in bone for communication ○ Ossification centers first found in middle of bone - helps calcify cartilage ■ 3 different ossification points (1 in the center and 1 at each end of the bone) ■ Continues to build outward - helps elongate the bone (growth plates) ○ At some point growth stops ■ When growth stops, ossification of bone is able to catch-up ○ Osteoblasts - can become osteocytes ○ Osteoclasts - break down bone (PTH) ○ Bones aren’t completely solid because otherwise they would be too heavy for movement ■ Impacts are taken better when the shock can be absorbed ○ Bones have catalyzed communication tunnel - communicate from inside to outside ○ Periosteum ■ Tough outer covering for the bone ● Tendons and ligaments attach to this part ○ Cartilage cells make cartilage in one direction - away from the center of the bone ■ Will continue as long as GH tells it to ○ Birds ■ Very light bones (avascular) ○ FIsh ■ Bones splinter very easily (avascular) ■ Bones don’t heal when they’re broken ■ Increase buoyancy ○ Bone Structure ■ Compact ● Outer cover ■ Medullary ● Internal cavity ■ Spongy ● Dominantly found in epiphyses ● Bone marrow ○ Blood production; WBC production ○ Osteoblasts come from here ○ Bone Remodeling ■ Bone may thicken/ increases bone mass ■ Large, frequent forces can change shape of bones ■ Positive feedback ■ Bone can thicken and remodel itself back to original condition ■ Osteoporosis ● Loss of balance in bone remodeling ● Try to stop bone loss - shut down osteoclasts; drug makers ■ Fibroblasts ● Can generate sesamoid bones ○ Joints (4 patterns) ■ Ball and socket ● All directions ■ Hinge ● Strength ■ Gliding ● Spine ■ Combination ● Jaw [Chapter 47] [The Digestive System] ● Food Processing (4 Steps) ○ Ingestion ○ Digestion ○ Absorption ○ Elimination ● Digestion classes ○ Autotrophs ■ Organisms that make their own food ■ Use inorganic compounds ■ Producers of our ecosystem ■ Example: plants, bacteria ○ Heterotrophs ■ Eat other things ■ Consumers of ecosystem ■ 3 Categories ● Herbivores ○ Eat plants ● Carnivores ○ Eat other animals ● Omnivores ○ Eat both plants and animals ● Nutrients ○ Can be organic or inorganic ○ Required for all basic functions ○ Nutrients as nutrition ○ Deficiencies lead to disease ○ Organic Nutrients ■ Carbs ● Rich source of sugar ● Provide energy ● Efficiency ● Body doesn’t want to make its own sugars if it can get it from food sources ■ Proteins ● Harder to break down ■ Lipids ● Lots of calories ● Heavy foods ■ Nucleic Acids ● Need to be able to build sugar rings ○ Essential Nutrients ■ Vitamins ● Tend to be coenzymes; help enzymes function properly ● 2 Classes ○ Water-soluble ■ Must be consumed readily ■ No storage system for them ○ Fat-soluble ■ Stored in fat ■ Vitamin A,D,E,K ● More critical - must be stored ● Can overdose on these ■ Amino Acids ● 9 Essential Amino Acids memorize these) ○ PVT TIM HLL (Private Tim Hill) ■ Phenylalanine ■ Valine ■ Tryptophan ■ T reonine ■ Isoleucine ■ Methionine ■ Hi stidine ■ Leucine ■ Lysine ● Body doesn’t make these ○ Must get these from food ■ Long-Chain Unsaturated Fatty Acids ● Essential Fatty Acids ○ Saturated ■ Huge amounts of energy ■ Example: butter ○ Unsaturated ■ Can take on more Hydrogen to become saturated ■ Liquid at room temperature ■ Examples: olive oil, canola oil ○ Has chemical potential ■ Minerals ● Only need small amounts of essential minerals ● Deficiencies of these are bad ● Rip and tear off flesh ○ Salivation ■ Controlled by autonomic nervous system ○ Swallowing ■ Starts voluntarily ● You make a decision to swallow ■ Once you begin to swallow it becomes an involuntary action ■ Choking ● Voluntary and nonvoluntary collide ● Very difficult to choke - a lot has to go wrong ■ Soft palate ● Pushes up against nasal cavity ■ Epiglottis ● Covers respiratory tract when swallowing ■ Swallowing involuntary (reflex) for human babies until about 12 months when they learn they can control it themselves ■ Esophagus ● Stratified muscle ● Movement of bolus ■ Swallowing center found in brain stem ■ Sphincter ● No real sphincter in humans ○ Makes acid reflux possible ■ Stomach ● Storage (allows expansion) ● Mixes with gastric juice ● Stomach Lining ○ 3 kinds of secretory cells ■ Mucus-secreting cells ● Lots of this is produced ● Helps to protect stomach lining - makes sure we don’t digest ourselves ● Stomach ulcers form when part of the stomach lining is exposed to acid without any mucus protection ■ Parietal cells ● Makes stomach acid (HCl) ● Not much of this is produced ■ Chief cells ● Makes precursor enzymes ● Pepsinogen (inactive form of pepsin) ○ Activated by stomach acid ● Stomach ○ Absorption of some water (aspirin and alcohol) ○ Chyme ■ Mix of food and gastric juice ○ Peptic ulcer ■ Bacterial infection ■ Bacteria starts colonizing stomach ● Moves mucus out of the way ● Small Intestine ○ Consists of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum ○ Takes chyme, digestive enzymes, and bicarbonate ■ Bicarbonate neutralizes acidity of chyme ○ Villi increase surface area (absorption) ○ If enzyme lactase is lacking in this area a person is lactose intolerant ● Secondary Organs ○ Pancreas ■ Trypsin and chymotrypsin ■ Pancreatic amylase ■ Lipase ○ Liver ■ Helps break down fats ■ Big filter ○ Gallbladder ■ Underneath liver ■ Stores and releases bile ● Absorption ○ Break down to basics ■ Amino acids and monosaccharides ● Enter into epithelial lining into blood vessels ● Proteins and sugars enter venous side ● Goes through liver - filtered for toxins, parasites, and pathogens ■ Fatty acids are encapsulated ● Dumped into the lymph system (independent from veins) ● Don’t go through liver ● Go straight to the heart ● Bile salts help break down fats ● Fatty acids pulled through the tissue => enters lymph system => doesn’t go through the liver (pathogens can get in the body and avoid capture by the liver by clinging to fatty acids or by mimicking them) ● Large Intestine - colon ○ Shorter than the small intestine ○ Still works in absorption process, also takes part in elimination ○ Starts in the lower right quadrant of the human body ○ Small intestines empty into here at a junction (cecum and appendix)
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