CES210 Exam #1 Study Guide
CES210 Exam #1 Study Guide CES 210
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Eiden on Friday October 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CES 210 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Mai Phillips in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 353 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Conservation and Environmental Science in GN Natural Science at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
CES210: Conservation and Environmental Science - Exam#1 Study Guide : Chapter One WHAT IS ENIVRONMENTAL SCIENCE? Environment- the circumstances or conditions that surround an organism or group of organisms, or the complex of social or cultural conditions that affect an individual or community Environmental Science- the systematic study of our environment and our proper place in it - Already at least 1.1 billion people lack an adequate supply of safe drinking water, and more than twice that many don’t have modern sanitation. Polluted water and inadequate sanitation are estimated to contribute to illness in more than 1.2 billion people annually, and to the death of 15 million children per year - Smallpox has been completely eradicated, and polio has been vanquished except in a few countries - Over the last 20 years, the average number of children born per woman worldwide has decreased from 6.1 to 2.7. The UN Population Division predicts that by 2050 all developed countries and 75% of the developing world will experience a below-replacement fertility rate of 2.1 children per woman. This prediction suggests that the world population will stabilize at about 8.9 billion rather than 9.3 billion, as previously estimated Chapter Two WHAT IS SCIENCE? Science- a process for producing knowledge methodically and logically - Basic Principles of Science: Empiricism, Uniformitarianism, Parsimony, Uncertainty, Repeatability, Proof is elusive, Testable questions - Science also depends on orderly testing of hypotheses, a process known as the scientific method 1. Observe 2. Propose a HYPOTHESIS 3. Develop a test 4. Gather data 5. Interpret your results - Another way to gather information about environmental systems is to use models. A model is a simple representations of something Systems Involve Interactions A system is a network of interdependent components and processes that together have properties beyond of individual parts Feedbacks are self-regulating mechanisms in which the results of a process affect the process itself Homeostasis (the ability to maintain stability) and resilience (the ability to recover from disturbance) are important characteristics of systems - The ideas of systems, including ecosystems, are central in environmental science. A system is a network of interdependent components and processes, with materials and energy flowing from one component of the system to another CES210: Conservation and Environmental Science - Exam#1 Study Guide : Chapter Three ELEMENTS OF LIFE From living organisms to ecosystems, life can understood in terms of the movement of matter and energy To understand how matter and energy cycle through living things, we must understand how atoms bond together to form compounds Carbon-based (“organic”) compounds are the foundation of organisms FROM SPECIES TO ECOSYSTEMS Ecosystems consist of organisms and the systems they depend on Food webs are structured by trophic levels Higher trophic levels have fewer organisms and less mass than lower trophic levels - Understanding how nutrients and energy function in a system, and where they come from, and where they go are essential to understanding ecology, the scientific study of relationships between organisms and their environment The first law of thermodynamics states the energy is conserved: it is neither created nor destroyed under normal conditions. Energy may be transformed, but the total amount does not change - The second law of thermodynamics states that, with each successive energy transfer or transformation in a system, less energy is available to do work. This law recognizes that disorder, or entropy, tends to increase in all natural systems - Chemosynthesis is the process in which bacteria use chemical bonds between inorganic elements, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or hydrogen gas (H2), to provide energy for synthesis of organic molecules Photosynthesis captures energy; respiration releases that energy - Photosynthesis begins with a series of light-dependent reactions. These use solar energy directly to split water molecules into oxygen (O2), which is released to the atmosphere, and hydrogen (H) 6H20 + 6CO2 + Solar Energy (chlorophyll) C6H12O6 (Sugar) + 6CO2 Note that the CO2 in the equation above is captured from the air by plants tissues - This process of releasing chemical energy, called cellular respiration, involves splitting carbon and hydrogen atoms from the sugar molecules and recombining them with oxygen to recreate carbon dioxide and water - The Hydrologic Cycle: most exthange occurs with evaporation from oceans and precipitation back to oceans. About 1/10 of water evaporated from oceans fall over land, is recycled through terrestrial systems, and eventually drains back to oceans in rivers Carbon cycles through earth, air, water, and life - Carbon serves a dual purpose for organisms: 1. It is a structural component of organic molecules 2. The energy-holding chemical bonds it forms represent energy “storage” CES210: Conservation and Environmental Science - Exam#1 Study Guide : - The Carbon Cycle: numbers indicate approximate exchange in gigatons (Gt) per year. Natural exchanges are balanced, but human sources produce a net increase of CO2 in the atmosphere - The Phosphorus Cycle: Natural movement of phosphorus is slight, involving recycling within ecosystems and some erosion and sedimentation of phosphorus-bearing rock. Chapter Four EVOLUTION PRODUCES SPECIES DIVERSITY Natural selection acting on spontaneous mutations results in evolution All species have environmental tolerance limits Taxonomy describes relationships between species Natural selection leads to evolution - Adaptation, the acquisition of traits that allow a species a survive in its environment, is one of the most important concepts in biology All species live within limits Limiting factors include… 1. Physiological stress due to inappropriate levels of some critical environmental factor, such as moisture, light temperature, pH, or species nutrients 2. Competition with other species 3. Predation, including parasitism and disease 4. Luck - In 1840 the chemist Justus von Liebig proposed that the single factor in shortest supply relative to demand is the critical factor determining where a species lives - Ecologist Victor Shelford (1877-1968) later expanded Liebig’s principle by stating that each environmental factor has both minimum levels, called tolerance limits, beyond which a particular species cannot survive or is unable to reproduce Chapter Five TERRESTRIAL BIOMES Characteristics of biological communities vary with temperature, precipitation, and latitude Hot, humid regions generally have greater biological productivity than cold or dry regions We use climate graphs to describe and compare precipitation and temperature in different biomes - Ocean environments are important because they cover 2/3 of the earth’s surface, provide food for much of humanity, and help regulate our climate through photosynthesis - Where there is too little rainfall to support forests, we find open grasslands or grasslands with sparse tree cover, which we call savannas - Savanna and grassland plants have many adaptations to survive drought, heat, and fires. Many have deep, long-lived roots that seek groundwater and that persist when leaves and stems above the ground die back. After a fire, or after a drought, fresh green shoots grow quickly from the roots CES210: Conservation and Environmental Science - Exam#1 Study Guide : Deserts are hot or cold, but all are dry - You may think of deserts as barren and biologically impoverished. Their vegetation is sparse, but it can be surprisingly diverse, and most desert plants and animals are highly adapted to survive long droughts and extreme heat, and many can survive extreme cold. Deserts occur where precipitation is rare and unpredictable, usually with less than 30 cm of rain per year - Warm, dry, high-pressure climate conditions create desert regions at about 30 degrees latitude north and south - Sparse, slow-growing vegetation is quickly damaged by off-road vehicles. Desert soils recover slowly Temperate shrublands have summer drought - Many dry environments support drought-adapted shrubs and trees, as well as grass - Periodic fires burn fiercely in this fuel-rich plant assemblage and are a major factor in plant succession. Annual spring flowers often bloom profusely, especially after fire. In California this landscape is called chaparral (thicket). These areas are inhabited by drought-tolerant animals such as jackrabbits, kangaroo rats, mule deer, chipmunks, lizards, and many bird species Temperature forests can be evergreen or deciduous - Temperature, or midlatitude, forests occupy a wide range of precipitation conditions but occur mainly between about 30 and 55 degrees latitude. - In general we can group these forests by tree types, which can be broadleaf deciduous (losing leaves seasonally) or evergreen coniferous (cone-bearing) - Deciduous forests can regrow quickly because they occupy moist, moderate climates - The coniferous forests of the Pacific coast grow in extremely wet conditions. The wettest coastal forests are known as temperate rainforest, a cool, rainy forest often enshrouded in fog Boreal forests occur at high latitudes - Because conifers can survive winter cold, they tend to dominate the boreal forest, or northern forests, that lie between about 50 and 60 degree north The extreme, ragged edge of the boreal forest, where forest gradually gives way to open tundra, is known by its Russian name, taiga - Coral reefs are among the best-known marine ecosystems because of their extraordinary biological productivity and their diverse and beautiful organisms. Reefs are aggregations of minute colonial animals (coral polyps) that live symbiotically with photosynthetic algae - The greatest threat to the reefs is global warming - Elevated water temperatures cause coral bleeding, in which corals expel their algal partner and then die. The coral reefs are dying primarily because of this! Mangroves are trees that grow in salt water. They occur along calm, shallow, tropical coastlines around the world - Estuaries are bays where rivers empty into the sea, mixing fresh water with salt water. Salt marshes, shallow wetlands flooded regularly or occasionally with seawater, occur on shallow coastlines, including estuaries - Barrier islands are low, narrow, sandy islands that form parallel to a coastline. They occur where the continental shelf is shallow and rivers or coastal current provide a steady source of sediments - Wetlands are shallow ecosystems in which the land surface is saturated or submerged at least part of the year CES210: Conservation and Environmental Science - Exam#1 Study Guide : HUMAN DISTURANCE - Humans have become dominant organisms over most of the earth, damaging or disturbing more than half of the world’s terrestrial ecosystems to some extent. - In Indonesia, almost all the mangrove swamps that once lined the coasts of Java have been destroyed, while in the Philippines and Thailand more than 2/3 of coastal mangroves have been cut down for firewood or conversion to shrimp and fish ponds Chapter Six Exponential growth involves continuous change Exponential growth leads to crashes - Carrying capacity is the term for the number or biomass of a species that can be supported in a certain area without depleting resources - Shortages of food or other resources eventually lead to a population crash, or rapid dieback Logistic growth slows with population increase - Logistic growth is density-dependent, meaning that the growth rate depends on population density. Many density-dependent factors can influence population: overcrowding can increase disease rates, stress, and predation. These factors can lead to smaller body size and lower fertility rates. Crowding stress alone can affect birth rates. - Density-independent factors also affect populations. Often these are abiotic (non-living) disturbances, such as drought or fire or habitat destruction, which disrupt an ecosystem - R-selected species have a high reproductive rate (r) but give little or no care to offspring, which have high mortality - K-selected species growth slows as the carrying capacity (K) of their environment is approached FACTORS THAT REGULATE POPULATION GROWTH - To complicate it still further, we can consider the four factors that contribute to r, or rate of growth. These factors are Births, Immigration from other areas, Deaths, and Emigration to other areas Intrinsic and extrinsic factors are important - Factors that regular population growth, primarily by affecting natality or morality, and can be classified in different ways. They can be intrinsic (operating within individual organisms or between organisms in the same species) or extrinsic (imposed from outside the population). Factors can also be either biotic (caused by living organisms) or abiotic (caused by nonliving components of the environment) Population viability analysis calculates changes of survival - Conservation biologists use the concepts of island biogeography, genetic drift, and found effects to determine minimum viable population size, or number of individuals needed for long-term survival or rare and endangered species. - A meta-population is collection of populations that have regular or intermittent gene flow between geographically separate units CES210: Conservation and Environmental Science - Exam#1 Study Guide : Chapter Seven POPULATION GROWTH - In 2013 the total world population was at least 7.2 billion people and was growing at 1.13% per year Human population grew slowly until relatively recently - For most of our history, humans have not been very numerous compared to other species. Studies of hunting and gathering societies suggest that the total world population was probably only a few million people before the invention of agriculture and the domestication of animals around 10,000 years ago - Many factors contributed to this rapid growth. Increased sailing and navigating skills stimulated commerce and communication between nations. Agricultural developments, better sources of power, and better health care and hygiene also played a role. - It took all of human history to reach 1 billion people in 1804, but little more than 150 years to reach 3 billion in 1960 I = PAT Formula: This says that our environmental impacts are (I) are the product of our population size (P) time affluence (A) and the technology (T) used to produce the good and services we consume Mortality offsets births - Crude death rate subtracted from crude birth rate gives the natural increase of the population. We distinguish natural increase from the total growth rate, which includes immigration and emigration, as well as births and deaths Emigration and immigration are important demographic factors - Many countries are trying to limit immigration, but the more-developed regions are expected to gain about 2 million new residents per year for the next 50 years. Without migration, the population of the wealthiest countries would already be declining and would be more than 126 million less than the current 1.2 billion by 2050 A DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION CAN LEAD TO STABLE POPULATION SIZE - In 1945 demographer Frank Notestein pointed out that a typical pattern of falling death rates and birth rates due to improved living conditions usually accompanies economic development. He called this pattern the demographic transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates Successful family planning programs often require significant societal changes. Among the most important are… 1. Improved social, educational, and economic status for women (birth control and women’s rights are often linked) 2. Improved status for children (fewer children are born if they are not needed as cheap labor) 3. Acceptance of calculated choice as a valid element in life in general and in fertility in particular (the belief that we have no control over our lives discourages a sense of responsibility) 4. Social security and political stability that give people the means and the confidence to plan for the future 5. The knowledge, availability, and use of effective and acceptable means of birth control - The example of Brazil gives us hope that with rising standards of living, democracy, and social justice, population growth will spontaneously slow without harsh government intervention CES210: Conservation and Environmental Science - Exam#1 Study Guide : Chapter Nine WORLD FOOD AND NUTRIENT - Although population growth slowed to an average 1.7% per year during that time, world food production increased an average of 2.2 per year. Increased use of irrigated and fertilizers, improved crop varieties, and better distribution systems have improved the nutrient of billions of people. Globally we consume an average of about 3,000 kcal per day Millions of people are still chronically hungry - Despite bountiful production, some 870 million people in the world today are considered chronically undernourished, getting less than minimum 2,200 kcal per day - Much of this increase has occurred in sub-Saharan Africa and in South Asia – which includes India, the second most populous country on earth. Over 95% of malnourished people live in these and other developing countries - In 1960 nearly 60% of people in developing countries were chronically undernourished. Today that proportion has fallen to just 16% Overeating is a growing world problem - Some 64% of adult Americans are overweight, up to 40% only a decade ago - About 1/3 of us are seriously overweight or obese. Obesity is quantified in terms of the body mass index (BMI), calculated as weight/height2 (squared) - Globally, nearly 2 billion adults (15 and older) are overweight (25% of the world’s population) - Malnourishment is a term for nutritional imbalance caused by a lack of specific dietary components or an inability to absorb or utilize essential nutrients - Anemia (low hemoglobin levels in the blood, usually caused by dietary iron deficiency) is the most common nutritional problem in the world - Kwashiorkor is a West African word meaning “displaced child”. This condition most often occurs in young children who subsist mainly on cheap starchy foods - Marasmus (from the Greek “to waste away”) is caused by shortages of both calories and protein. A child suffering from severe marasmus is generally thin and shriveled. This impacts mental and physical development Seafood is a key protein source - We harvest about 95 million metric tons of wild fish and seafood every year, but we directly wat only about 2/3 of the amount - Development of freezer technology on oceangoing factory ships since the 1950s allowed annual catches of ocean fish to rise by about 4% annually between 1950 to 1988 - Fish are the only wild-caught meat source still sold commercially on a global scale - Aquaculture (growing aquatic species in net pens or tanks) provides about half of the seafood we eat Green revolution crops are high responders - The dramatic increases obtained as these new varieties spread around the world has been called the green revolution CES210: Conservation and Environmental Science - Exam#1 Study Guide : Genetic engineering moves DNA among species - It is not possible to build entirely new genes by borrowing bits of DNA from completely unrelated species, or even synthesizing artificial DNA sequences to create desired characteristics in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) - Genetically modified (GM) crops offer dramatic benefits Chapter Ten WHAT IS SOIL? Soils are complex ecosystems Soil has six components… 1. Sand and gravel 2. Silts and clays (extremely small mineral particles) 3. Dead organic material(decaying plant matter) 4. Soil fauna and flora (living organisms, like worms, fungi, roots of plants, and insects) 5. Water (moisture from rainfall or groundwater) 6. Air (tiny pockets of air that helps bacteria and other organisms survive) - Soil texture – the amount of sand, silt, and clay in the soil – is one of the most important characteristics of soils. Texture helps determine whether rainfall drains away quickly or ponds up and drowns plants - Reddish soils, including most tropical soils, often are colored by iron-rich, rust-colored clays, which store few nutrients for plants. Deep black soils on the other hand, are rich in organic material, and thus rich in nutrients Pesticide is a general term for a chemical that kills pests, but sometimes we also consider chemicals that drive pests away to be pesticides - In addition there are chemicals aimed at particular groups of pests. Herbicides are chemicals that kill plants; insecticides kill insects; and fungicides kill fungi IPM uses a combination of techniques - Integrated pest management (IPM) is a flexible, ecologically based strategy that is applied at specific times and aimed at specific crops and pests Chapter Eleven BIODIVERSITY AND THE SPECIES CONCEPT What is biodiversity? - Three kinds of biodiversity are essential to preserve ecological systems: 1. Genetic diversity is a measure of the variety of different versions of the same genes within individual species 2. Species diversity describes the number of different kinds of organisms within individual communities or ecosystems 3. Ecological diversity assess the richness and complexity of a biological community, including the number of niches, trophic levels, and ecological processes that capture energy, sustain food webs, and recycle materials within this system CES210: Conservation and Environmental Science - Exam#1 Study Guide : WHAT THREATENS BIODIVERSITY? - Extinction- the elimination of a species is a normal process of the natural world. Species die out and are replaced by others, often their own descendants, as part of evolutionary change Extinction is a natural process - Studies of the fossil record suggest that more than 99% of all species that ever existed are now extinct ENDANGERED SPECIES MANAGEMENT Hunting and fishing laws have been effective - By the 1890s most states had enacted some hunting and fishing restrictions. The general idea behind these laws was to conserve the resource for future human use rather than to preserve wildlife for its own sake. The wildlife regulations and refuges established since that time have been remarkably successful for many species The Endangered Species Act is a powerful tool for biodiversity protection - As defined by the ESA, endangered species are those considered to be in imminent danger of extinction, whereas threatened species are those that are likely to become endangered – at least locally – in the foreseeable future - Vulnerable species are naturally rare or have been locally depleted by human activities to a level that puts them at risk CAPTIVE BREEDING AND SPECIES SURVIVAL PLANS - Breeding programs in zoos and botanical gardens are one way to attempt to save severely threatened species Chapter Twelve WORLD FORESTS Boreal and topical forests are most abundant - Forests are wildly distributed, but the largest remaining areas are in the humid equatorial regions and the cold boreal forests of high latitudes. Five countries – Russia, Brazil, Canada, the United States, and China – together have more than half of the world’s forests. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined forest as any area where trees cover more than 10% of the land. This definition includes a variety of forest types, ranging from open savannas, where trees cover less than 20% of the ground, to closed-canopy forests, in which tree crowns overlap to over most of the ground - Roughly 1/3 the world’s population depends on firewood or charcoal as their principal source of heating and cooking fuel Causes for deforestation… - There are many causes for deforestation. In Africa forest clearing by subsistence farmers is responsible for about 2/3 of the forest destruction, but large-scale commercial logging also takes a toll. In Latin America the largest single cause of deforestation is expansion of soy farming and cattle ranching. Loggers start the process by cutting roads into the forest to harvest valuable hardwoods, such as mahogany or cocobolo. This allows subsistence farmers to move into the forest, but they are bought out or driven out – after a few years by wealthy ranchers Additional source to study specific terms we covered in Chapters 1-12: https://quizlet.com/EmEiden
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