Chapter 1 An Introduction to Sociology in the Global Eye
Everything I do and think is affected by the group level. You are not the only one affected by events and one person can have an impact on society. This is an example of the Butterfly Effect – a small change can have a great impact.
Sociology- the systematic study of the ways in which people are affected by and affect the social structures and social processes associated with the groups, organizations, cultures, societies and world in which they exist.
p. 3 The Changing Nature of the World and Sociology
The 18th and 19th century was of great importance to the founding of sociology, this was the Industrial Revolution. Sociologist concentrated on those who worked in factories and the type of work they did, especially blue collar types and their relationships when it came to society and the “state of the family.”
Mid 20th Century was the post industrial age and the focus shifted from factories to offices, white collar workers. The service sector from high to low class grew as well, from physicians to fast food workers
Present Day Information Age – The focus is now on knowledge and information, and technology has greatly increased. Many things are computer assisted We also discuss several other topics like in early childhood, the two hemispheres of the brain begin to operate slightly differently, which allows for a wider range of activity. which of the following defines this process?
Concerns for the 20th Century
Globalization - increasingly fluid global flows and the structures that expedite and impede those flows, Fed Ex and UPS. began to appear in academic literature in the 1990s, today it’s a central issue, Society has traditionally been the largest unit of analysis but since the global age it has declined. This is partly due to the importance and growth of larger transnational and global structures like the UN, POEC and others. We had greater access to goods and information as well as each other. Some negatives were more drugs came into the country, diseases and even sex trade
Consumption – process in which people obtain and utilize goods and services, Began in the 1950s when things shifted from production to consumption. Population grew and so did the rise in consumption. Credit Cards is one example
McDonaldization- process by which rational principles of the fast food restaurant dominates more sectors of society and societies throughout the world. Has 4 defining characteristics
Efficiency-quick least costly
Calculability- large portions low prices, focus on quantity not quality Predictability- identical no matter what location
Control- employee’s actions are limited
The replacement of human by non-human technology
Dehumanization increases along with McDonaldization
p.13 Digital/Technology- the interplay of machines, tools, skills and procedures for the accomplishment of tasks. Assembly line
Mediated interaction something stands in between actual face to face communication, dating sites
Continuity and Change (more than one way to look at the world) Sociological Imagination- a distinctive way of looking at the world C.Wright Mills argued sociologist have a unique perspective (sociological imagination)
Military industrial complex-military and defense industry favored spending taxpayers money on war and war preparedness.
p.16 Private troubles and social issues, sociological imagination could have been of some assistance prior to the Great Recession. Because individual consumption and debt was increasing which was a private issue at the time soon morphed into a public issue when people began to lose their homes, file bankruptcy and more. Don't forget about the age old question of property is the legal right to exclude others from resources that are originally possessed or are acquired without force, theft, or fraud.
p.17 Micro Macro Relationship
Micro small scale such as individuals, thoughts and actions
Macro large scale groups, organizations, cultures, society
Karl Marx earliest most important sociologist, showed interest in what workers do and think (micro level) and the capitalist economy where they exist which is the Macro level.
Randall Collins develop theory of violence (skilled violent individuals, material and resources needed by violent organizations
p. 19 Agency Structure Relationship
Sociologist focus in other parts of the world especially Europe. Agency is the micro level and structure is the macro level. Agency gives importance to the individual (agent) having power and capacity for creativity. Yet, the agents are enmeshed in the macro level which creates constraints. The example in the book was we can help create universities but we are constrained by them and the power they have over us, must take certain courses, pass classes etc.
Erving Goffman states that individuals are dangerous giants, have the potential to disrupt and destroy the structures in which we find ourselves. We can make a change We also discuss several other topics like utd astronomy
Social Construction of Reality agency seen as creating social reality, macro level phenomena through thoughts and actions (designers create world of fashion)
p.20 Social structures and Processes
Auguste Comte invented the term sociology in 1839 originator of sociology as a field
Distinction between “social statics” and “social dynamics” studied parts of society (manufacturers and retailers of clothing) and how they related to one another and to society as a whole.
Social structures change slowly, shopping mall and endure
Social processes change quickly, dynamic
p.21 Science or Social Reform – Comte argued that the relationship study between structure and process should be a science. He also believed that the sociologists were to uncover the laws the social world was dominated by. He also felt problems should be solved by social reform.
p.22 Sociology the other social sciences and common sense Sociology is a social science the others are Anthropology-cultural aspects, Communication studies-mediated and non-mediated communication globally, Economics-production distribution consumption globally, geography-mapping spatial relationship, political science-studies nations-states and psychology examines ways individual’s identity is shaped If you want to learn more check out cash received before services are performed are recorded as
Sociology encompasses all of this and others in its approach to globalization. Ch 2 Thinking Sociologically
Theories- interrelated ideas with wide range of applications, stand the test of time
p.29 Giants of Classical Sociological Theory
Karl Marx German, radical ideas, was a macro theorist and focused on the structure of a capitalist society, may have build on his work and others oppose it. Capitalism to him was where one group of people owned items needed for production (capitalists) and the others (proletariat/workers) owned little or nothing except the capacity to work. Marx felt the capitalist system was marked by exploitation
Ideology- reality of capitalism was distorted and concealed the real ways in which it operated Don't forget about the age old question of umass boston economics
False Consciousness- the worker didn’t understand capitalism and may have believed them system worked for their benefit
Class Consciousness-truly understand capitalism and their role in it
p.33 Max Weber German Best known work protestant work ethic and the spirit of capitalism, focused on the central role religion played in the Western world’s economic development. Protestantism especially Calvinism led to the rise of capitalism. Great interest in rationalization- social structures focus on the most direct means to their ends. Example - assembly line, more products fewer workers Iron Cage-metaphor for rationalization
Golden Cage- modern iron cage
p.35 Emile Durkheim French Macro theorist, contemporary of Weber ,had a positive view of macro structures, concern was social facts which are macro level phenomena such as cultural norms and social structures that impose themselves on people, examples given are universities and US government. They have and
independent existent and can force people to do things. Felt these are necessary and had a negative view of people slaves to their passions which is opposite of Weber and Marx. He felt people couldn’t control themselves from their passions. Collective conscience set of beliefs people shared in society. Wrote Suicide famous research study, cause of suicide was based on social factors
Other important early theorist
Georg Simmel – major importance is contributions to the micro theory, focus on the way conscious individuals interact with each other.
Interested in forms of social interaction
Superiors & subordinates (manager and stockers)
Types of people who engage in interaction
Poor and rich
W.E.B Dubois – focused on race, best known for theoretical ideas, wrote the Philadelphia Negro, Ideas of double consciousness and color line
p.38 Thorstein Veblen – Book The theory of the leisure class- showed concern in how the upper class demonstrate their wealth, conspicuous leisure- spending time doing nothing publicly showing others that they have that ability, conspicuous consumption- publicly demonstrating a waste of money, easier to show (building extravagant homes)
Structural/ Function Theories- Include state and culture, Structural functionalism- looks at social (influenced by Emile Durkheim) structures and their functions, conservative theory. Functions observable positive consequences of a structure that help it survive, adapt and adjust, ex. National borders. Dysfuntions negatively affect the ability of a given system to survive, adapt or adjust. Ex. Stricter immigration laws. Manifest function-consequences brought about purposely, taxes (tariff)on imports. Latent functions-unintended positive consequences foreign products more expensive less desirable as a result of the tariff. Unanticipated consequences- can be positive or negative
Structuralism which is only concerned with structures. Theorists begin with a positive view of society. More interested in social impacts of hidden or underlying structures like gender, capitalism and female oppression. Debunking – structures like the state are a façade, seeks to understand and also critically analyze.
p.43 Conflict Theory – focuses on negative aspects, society held together by coercion. Rahl Dahrendorf, see dissension and conflict everywhere. Two basic sides to society consensus and conflict
Critical Theory- focus on culture, culture more important than economic system. Culture industry- rationalized and bureaucratized structures that control modern culture. Mass culture -cultural elements administered by organizations, are phony.
Falseness pre-packaged sets of ideas that falsify reality, ex reality shows Repressiveness- stupefy and pacify and repress the masses so they are less likely to demand social change. Ex Youtube, Ebay Facebook
Feminist Theory- a critique of male dominance and the problem it poses for men and women, attempt to rectify the masculine bias built into most social theories. Gender inequality causes or results from gender differences, social devaluing of female characteristics.
Queer Theory- no fixed and stable identities that determine who we are. Diverse group of ideas about how cultures develop gender and sexuality norms. Examines the dynamics of between heterosexuals and homosexuals. Mainly interested in gender, redefinitions of sexual behaviors, norms and practices.
Critical theories of race and racism – race is a continuous global matter and has adverse effects on people of color. Some argue it’s an historical interest because white Americans have become color blind, thus feel that we have become color blind and feel that skin color is no longer an issue. This is ignoring present reality and is the “new racism” intersectionality- people are affected by gender, sexual orientation, class age and global location not just race, oppression.
Postmodernity p.48 state of society beyond the modern era. Characteristic of the post modern world is less rational, non rational and even irrational. Postmodernism- is the emergence of new and different cultural forms like music, movies, are etc. It’s eclectic. So the Postmodern theory is a reaction against modern theory and expressed in non traditional ways, typically goes against the grain or what many feel is normal. Yet they offer a new and important way of theorizing.
Symbolic interactionism- the interaction of 2 or more people using symbols. These symbols carry a meaning for specific groups of people. Symbolic interactionist are interested in how various aspects of identity are created and sustained in social interaction. 4 basic principles >during social interaction is where the symbolic meaning are acquired and exercised>Symbols are not set in stone and can be modified>due to humans unique thinking ability symbols are able to be altered>symbolic interaction is the basis of everything else in the social world
Ethnomethodology an inter/actionist theory focus on what people do not think. Ethnomethodologists regard people’s lives and social worlds as practical accomplishments as extraordinary. Many study conversations. Focus on 3 basic issues of conversation>vocal cues>stable and orderly properties>actions necessary to keep the conversation going. Best known example relates to gender. There are things we do and so to be considered masculine or feminine.
Exchange theory - theorists are interested in behavior itself, argued should study elementary forms of life, interested in social behavior that involves 2 or more people and a variety of tangible and intangible exchanges. People are seen as rational profit seekers. people will continue on the path in which the rewards are greater than the costs. Rational choice theory- is an exchange theory and people are rational and believe that people act intentionally in order to achieve goals. Variety of means available to achieve goals. 2 constraints on the ability to act rationally > access to scarce resources -more resources, more rational and vice
versa> requirements of social structure- often have rules that restrict the actions available to those within it hospital, school etc
Sociologists practice empiricism- they gather information and evidence using their senses, especially eyes and ears. Scientific Method – structured way of finding answers to questions about the world. Steps in the research process p.60 and slide 3 in powerpoint >uncovers questions that need answers>review relevant literature in question>develop hypothesis>choose research methods>use chosen method to collect data>analyze data
Development of scientific knowledge- develops gradually and cumulatively (grows) as one set of findings builds on another, confidence in findings grows as they are confirmed, some eventually become scientific fact. Over times some are found to be erroneous as well. Thomas Kuhn proposed a model that focused on the role of scientific breakthroughs after which a revolution occurs. Says Paradign defines science- a general model of the world. Ex. Astronomy-planets revolve around the sun. Sociology seen as multiple-paradigm science.
Qualitative research- studies done in natural settings and they produce in depth descriptive info. Observations (watching and taking notes) and open ended interviews are a type of qualitative research. Quantitative research- analysis of numerical data from surveys and experiments. Involve numbers. Statistics mathematical method used to analyze numerical data. Aids researches in 2 ways>descriptive statistics, compares differences, see trends, describes>inferential statistics – test hypothesis, use data from a small group to speculate about a larger group.
Observational research- primary qualitive method, consists of watching, recording and listening to what occurs in a natural setting. There are dimensions to this type of research >degree to which those being observed are aware>degree to which the presence of the observer affects the actions of those being observed>degree to which the process is structured. 2 Most common types is the participant the researcher plays a role in the group being observed and non participant plays little or no role, ex. Big Brother.
Ethnography creation of detailed account of what a group of people do and the way they live. Usually researched hang out, talk to people or even live with group being studied. Global ethnography best way to understand globalization. Is grounded in various parts of the world and seeks to understand globalization as it exists in people’s social lives. Is intensive and lengthy time frame. Interviews- information is received by asking questions that have been spelled out, usually face to face. Types of interviews- prestructured helps to avoid unanticipated reactions. Researcher acts the same way>ask the same questions>ask closed ended questions>offer the same explanation>doesn’t show any kind of reaction. Problems with this type of interviewing like difficult to live up to the guidelines, researches find it hard to hide emotions when an outrageous answer
may be given>intonations may be different each interview and wording may be changed. Respondents may not be truthful. Closed ended questions limit response. Unstructured- open ended, yields much diverse info.
Questionnaires self administered written questions, Two types of Surveys descriptive designed to gather accurate info for example level of sexual activity among college students. Explanatory seeks to uncover potential cause of something.
p.71 Sampling a representative portion of a population. Types are random every member of group has equal chance of being included. Stratified larger group is divided into series of smaller groups. Convenience conveniently available to participate (passing our surveys to students in your class)
Experiments manipulation of one or more characteristics in order to examine the effect. Independent Variable (IV) is the condition that is manipulated, the dependent variable is what resulted.
Types of experiments- laboratory take place in controlled setting>>natural researcher takes advantage of a naturally occurring event to study its effect on 1 or more IV.>>Field natural situation but have some control over the participants. Secondary Data Analysis- data collected by others, often involves statistical analysis. Historical comparative research- to show how different historical events and conditions have led to different societal outcomes. 2 methods are being combined. Much more detailed. Ideal type one sided accentuation of social reality, not meant to be accurate depiction of reality. Content analysis is a secondary type of analysis the relies on the systematic and objective analysis of the content of cultural artifacts in print, visual etc. Goal is to use qualitative and quantitative methods to understand the content of messages. Herbert Gans Reliability- can perform the same thing and get the same results each time Validity- trustworthiness, does the question measure what it’s supposed to? Ethics right or wrong, the choices people make and how they justify them. Increase knowledge and eliminate or reduce harm. Ex. Henrietta Lacks and her cancer cells being taken without permission and used in other research.
Physical harm can be an unintended result of research Psychological Harm something as simple as asking a question about a sensitive topic can cause this. Zimbardo’s prison experiment
Illegal acts- researchers become involved in or witness, drugs prostitution. Violation of trust divulging identity of participants (Tea Room research, obtaining license plates and going to the homes of some)
Informed consent- written evidence that the person agrees to participate, explanation includes, what the study is about, ability to withdraw at any time, why they are recruited, what’s involved, risks, degree of confidentiality, safeguards of the vulnerable, contact info
IRB (institutional review board) protect 3 ethical principles>respect for persons>beneficence-little harm to come to participants>Justice-operate on principles of justice
Chapter 4 Culture
Encompasses the ideas, values, practices and material objects that allow a group of people, entire society to carry out their collective lives in relative harmony and order. (bloods and crips street gang)
Broadest element of culture are values standards defining the group or society considers good or right etc. Values express the ideals of a society. Democracy and equality for Americans is an example. Norms informational rules that guide what people do and how they live. What we should and should not do. Not written down in one place. They are reinforced by negative or positive punishments, unimportant. Mores (pronounced moore rays) important norms that whe violated come with severe negative sanctions. Ex. Using a smart phone to cheat on a test Laws norms that have been codified. Written down and can be enforced by institutions like the state.
Material culture- contains all the artifacts “stuff” clothes, technology, toys shape our culture p.95
Symbolic culture non material intangible aspects (buying cloth diapers to represent green living) and language- set of meaningful symbols used to communicate. Allows the storage of culture. (email spam) Ideal culture- the norms and values society leads us to think people should believe real culture what people actually do. Mothers should be primary devoted to their children, stay at home mom but in reality many mothers work outside the home. Ideology – shared believes that explain the world and guide actions (all people have an equal chance to succeed if they work hard)
Subcultures groups of people who accept much of their dominant culture but are set apart by a significant characteristic Tea Party etc. Countercultures differ from the dominant culture and norms are incompatible with dominant culture, like computer hackers (counter culture) , KKK
Culture Wars – subculture against the dominant culture or between dominant groups (conservative and liberals) can lead to disruptions of the economic and political status quo.
Mulitculturalism environment where cultural differences are accepted can be based on race, nationality, ethnicity and more Assimilation integrating the minority group into the mainstream.
Identity politics used when the dominant group is unwilling to accept the minority group, they strengthen the position of the cultural groups in which they identify, black power, feminists and gay pride cultural relativism the norms and values need to be understood within the context of that culture. Ethnocentrism belief that one’s culture symbols, norms, values and traditions are better than others.
Globalization values- values shared throughout the world, has brought with it greater acceptance of some values. Cultural imperialism – dominant culture imposes on others, it destroys local cultures
Consumer culture-core ideas and material objects relate to consumption, can be found in the goods and services bought. Children in consumer culture is the most controversial aspect. Children need to be included because consumption by them has not always been valued. Now there are advertisements and sections in stores just for children. Ex. Ikea store Non traditional settings for consumption doctors, internet amazon, etsy and ebay
Postconsumer culture Great Recession 2007-2009 effects still being felt in the housing market, pay rates for the middle and lower class. Culture jamming a form of social protests aimed at revealing the underlying realities in which consumers may be unaware. Dove commercial and greenpeace.
Cyberculture- internet as a whole, has characteristics of all culture including its own norms and values. Some include openness and knowledge sharing. Chapter 5
The Individual and the self- Humans have distinctive interaction >Feral children research>nature vs nurture. Humanness is taught. Sociologist Charles Horton Cooley – looking glass self we develop our self image based on how others see and respond to us. We only develop a self concept when interacting with others (Symbolic interaction) George Herbert Mead self is the ability that develops over time. He distinguished between the I part of the self that is unconscious and create and the ME the attitude assumed by the individual. ME- how people see you, conform to societal norms, rational, controls the I.
Individual as performer Erving Goffman, understanding of the self and how it develops, influenced by Mead’s thinking. Dramaturgy views an individual’s social life as a series of dramatic performances. Impression management – when one communicates with others we use a series of techniques to control the image of ourselves we want to project. Front stage what you want others to see, suppressed and tamed behavior, façade. Back stage unsuppressed free to express oneself.
p.125 Socialization- person learns to accept the ways of a group in which he/she is a part of. Involved interacting with others. Childhood socialization family- first and most effective agents are parents (which are called basic or primary agents) children acquire values and norms from them. Anticipatory teaching the child what is expected of them in the future. (Be a good student, go to college, get married or not) Reverse socialization ex. Children teaching the parents. Schools and teachers>Peers as children age they spend more time in this area, help learn what is expected >>gender socialization what girls and boys should do. Ex girls play with dolls boys play with trucks. *Report talk-create emotional connection (yes,no) Madeline Albright 1st secretary of state. Media more socialization takes place with media as children mature, tv, smartphones, computer.
Consumer culture children need to be socialized in order to consume. Mainly takes place in malls, shopping sites, online. This type of culture helps reinforce lessons about race, gender and class. Ex. Children may see that in many places you may need a credit card to shop, now they are socialized into credit card use.
Adult socialization->> workplace workers change jobs frequently nowadays and each time they do so they’ll need resocialization to unlearn old behaviors and learn new ones. Can’t rely on what we learned as children. Total institutions closed all encompassing place of residence and work set off from society for example Prison or military. Other agents of adult socialization family changes, geographic mobility, aging, changes in social values and norms.
Interaction social engagement of two or more people, actions are toward one another. Usually face to face but now uses social media, smartphones etc. examples are parents and children, children and siblings
Superordinate and subordinate – student and teacher Reciprocity and Exchange those who interact expect a give and receive rewards of equal value. Ex. Parties in a relationship and one is caring and the other doesn’t show any type of consideration for the other. Caring reward is not being reciprocated back. Doing Interaction involves 2 or more individuals>>> Interaction Order( Erving Goffman) organized and orderly ex. A group o students that forms a clique(their own little group) and develop their own norms. Governed by those involved. Status is a key element in the interaction order, it’s a position within a social system occupied by people. For example in Gangs there is the OG (original gangster) who is usually the leader and then there’s the soldiers which is the lowest position. Role is what is expected of the person who occupies the role so the OG calls the shots and controls the gang, the soldier is usually the one who carry out the murders and other deviant acts. Ascribed status not chosen and beyond the individual’s control achieved status acquires on the basis of achievement. Master status most important position.
Interpersonal relationships, Dyads- 2 person group, most basic, evolve into triads, ex. Husband and wife then here comes a baby! Triad 3 person group Social networks>>can be two or more people but also include groups, organizations and more network analysis interested in how networks are organized and the implications of that organization for social life Groups>>small number of people who over time develop a patterned relationship based on interaction with one another.
Review Weak Tie/ Strong tie p. 137 or second to last page of powerpoint Weak ties can be positive because it’s easier to let go and move on to something else, strong ties can hold you back from things because of the strong relationship with others.
Conformity – some conformity is good and necessary for the group to survive, too much can be disastrous. Member of a group change /conform to fit with the expectations and demands of that group. Conformity is more likely to occur when the demands come from someone in an authoritative position.