Introduction to Psychology Test 2 Study Guide
Introduction to Psychology Test 2 Study Guide PSYC 1001-002
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Friday October 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1001-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Jennifer Stratford in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 416 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (Lecture) in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
Intro. To Psychology Study Guide 2 Key Terms Memory allows learning and being able to recall the learned information Dynamic (unpredictable) world no learning Fixed world no learning Intermediate world learning helps us adapt to a world that is both dynamic and fixed People with memory loss have intact implicit learning but impaired explicit learning (different brain regions are active during implicate vs explicit learning) Stimulusresponse association association between environmental stimulus and behavioral response 2 main forms: 1. Classical conditioning natural associated with neutral 2. Operant conditioning reinforcement or punishment Ivan Pavlov 1849 to 1936 classical conditioning Unconditioned stimulus environmental stimulus that elicits a naturally occurring reaction Unconditioned stimulus stimulus that initially does not produce a response Conditioned response reaction produced by the conditioned response that is the same as the unconditioned response 2 phases: 1. Acquisition CS and the US are presented together 2. Extinction gradual elimination of learned response when the US is no longer presented Spontaneous recovery tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period Secondorder conditioning a new US becomes associated with a CS from previous study and elicits same CR Discrimination capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimulus Generalization a slightly different stimulus causes CR even though the CS is slightly different from the original one during the acquisition Cerebellum helps coordinate the conditioned response Hippocampus storage of the memory of the learned condition Amygdala bridge between behavioral and physiological responses Schedules of reinforcement Fixed interval schedule (FI) reinforcements are represented at fixed time periods, as long as appropriate response is made Fixed ratio schedule (FR) reinforcement delivered after a specific number of responses made Intermittent reinforcement when only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement (higher rates of responding and more resistant to extinction) Shaping learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior Accidental shaping can lead to superstitions Rare or odd behaviors repeated if accidentally reinforced (leads to mistaken belief of causeandeffect) Chaining learning a complex behavior by learning each part of the behavior stepbystep Latent learning something learned but the learning isn’t demonstrated until something in the future provokes it Bobo doll experiment: children imitate adult behaviors, when the adult beat up the bobo doll, the child then beat up the bobo doll Memory ability to store and retrieve information Memory is what makes learning possible Memories are made by combining information you already have with new information The time it takes to forget in shortterm memory is about 15 seconds but to prolong the memory, you need to rehearse it People can recall items from long term memory even if they haven’t thought of them for years Intro. To Psychology Study Guide 2 Studying then taking a mini test is more effective for long term retention than repeated studying Hippocampus critical for long term memory storage The frontal lobe suppresses memory recollection Alzheimer’s patients death of neurons that use neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (throughout the brain and the brain shrinks) Priming helps the brain to not work as hard to retrieve information Approximately 4000 active human languages (all have basic structure of sounds and rules) Phonological rules: Indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce syllables Morphological rules: indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words A sentence—the largest unit of language— can be broken down into progressively smaller units: phrases, morphemes, and phonemes. Syntactical rules indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences When listening= surface structure to deep structure When speaking= deep structure to surface structure At birth, infants can distinguish between all human phonemes They have the potential to learn any language This dissipates after 6 months of age Speech comprehension comes before speech production All infants go through the same babbling sequence Children learn words through fast mapping which is mapping a word onto an underlying concept after only one single exposure Telegraphic speech consists of mostly content words The orderly progression of language development may depend on general cognitive development or experience with a single language Aphasia difficulty in producing or comprehending language Broca’s aphasia (speaking) Wernicke’s aphasia (understanding Speech) In many parts of the world, bilingualism is the norm Learning a second language early in life increases the density of gray matter in the brain Amount of grey matter correlated to language proficiency Attempts have been made to teach nonhuman animals, especially apes, human language but apes’ vocal tracts not wellequipped, also there are limitations in size of vocabulary, types of words (concrete), and complexity, although success has come with ASL and computerized keyboards Time and colors show that spatial displays affect language and thought Categories classification of things in concepts Processing prototypes left hemisphere and visual cortex Processing exemplar right hemisphere, basal gland, and prefrontal cortex Brain regions work together to form concepts and categories 2 main problems Illdefined no clear goals Welldefined clearly specified goals and solution paths Phenomenology how things seem to the conscious person Dichotic listening people wearing headphones hear different messages in each ear Intro. To Psychology Study Guide 2 Cognitive unconscious all the mental processes that give rise to a person’s thoughts, choices, emotions, and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person Subliminal perception thought or behavior is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving Altered state of conscious a form of experience that departs significantly from the normal subjective experience of the world and the mind REM sleep a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and a high level of brain activity Insomnia difficulty in falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep Somnambulism when a person arises and walks around while they sleep Narcolepsy sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities Sleep paralysis the experience of waking up and not being able to move Night terrors abrupt awakening with panic and intense emotional arousal Manifest content a dream’s apparent topic or superficial meaning Latent content a dream’s true underlying meaning Psychoactive drugs chemicals that influence conscious or behavior by altering the brain’s chemical message system Encoding specific principle a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re create the specific way in information was initially encoded Transfer appropriate processing the idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding and retrieval contexts of the situation match Source memory recall of when, where, and how information was acquired
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