New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Introduction to Psychology Test 2 Study Guide

by: Jenna Notetaker

Introduction to Psychology Test 2 Study Guide PSYC 1001-002

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Psychology (PSYC) > PSYC 1001-002 > Introduction to Psychology Test 2 Study Guide
Jenna Notetaker

GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

the key concepts that are needed for the test
General Psychology (Lecture)
Jennifer Stratford
Study Guide
Intro to Psychology
50 ?




Popular in General Psychology (Lecture)

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Friday October 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1001-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Jennifer Stratford in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 416 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (Lecture) in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado at Boulder.


Reviews for Introduction to Psychology Test 2 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/14/16
Intro. To Psychology Study Guide 2 Key Terms  Memory allows learning and being able to recall the learned information  Dynamic (unpredictable) world­ no learning Fixed world­ no learning Intermediate world­ learning helps us adapt to a world that is both dynamic and fixed  People with memory loss have intact implicit learning but impaired explicit learning (different  brain regions are active during implicate vs explicit learning) Stimulus­response association­ association between environmental stimulus and behavioral  response  2 main forms: 1. Classical conditioning­ natural associated with neutral 2. Operant conditioning­ reinforcement or punishment Ivan Pavlov 1849 to 1936­ classical conditioning Unconditioned stimulus­ environmental stimulus that elicits a naturally occurring  reaction Unconditioned stimulus­ stimulus that initially does not produce a response  Conditioned response­ reaction produced by the conditioned response that is the same as  the unconditioned response  2 phases: 1. Acquisition­ CS and the US are presented together 2. Extinction­ gradual elimination of learned response when the US is no longer  presented Spontaneous recovery­ tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest  period Second­order conditioning­ a new US becomes associated with a CS from previous study and  elicits same CR Discrimination­ capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimulus Generalization­ a slightly different stimulus causes CR even though the CS is slightly different  from the original one during the acquisition Cerebellum­ helps coordinate the conditioned response Hippocampus­ storage of the memory of the learned condition Amygdala­ bridge between behavioral and physiological responses  Schedules of reinforcement  Fixed interval schedule (FI)­ reinforcements are represented at fixed time periods, as long as appropriate response is made Fixed ratio schedule (FR)­ reinforcement delivered after a specific number of responses  made Intermittent reinforcement­ when only some of the responses made are followed by  reinforcement (higher rates of responding and more resistant to extinction) Shaping­ learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired  behavior Accidental shaping can lead to superstitions  Rare or odd behaviors repeated if accidentally reinforced (leads to mistaken belief of  cause­and­effect) Chaining­ learning a complex behavior by learning each part of the behavior step­by­step Latent learning­ something learned but the learning isn’t demonstrated until something in the  future provokes it  Bobo doll experiment: children imitate adult behaviors, when the adult beat up the bobo doll, the  child then beat up the bobo doll  Memory­ ability to store and retrieve information  Memory is what makes learning possible  Memories are made by combining information you already have with new information  The time it takes to forget in short­term memory is about 15 seconds but to prolong the memory,  you need to rehearse it  People can recall items from long term memory even if they haven’t thought of them for years  Intro. To Psychology Study Guide 2 Studying then taking a mini test is more effective for long term retention than repeated studying  Hippocampus­ critical for long term memory storage  The frontal lobe suppresses memory recollection Alzheimer’s patients­ death of neurons that use neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (throughout the  brain and the brain shrinks) Priming helps the brain to not work as hard to retrieve information  Approximately 4000 active human languages (all have basic structure of sounds and rules) Phonological rules: Indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce syllables Morphological rules: indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words A sentence—the largest unit of language— can be broken down into progressively smaller units:  phrases, morphemes, and phonemes. Syntactical rules­ indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences  When listening= surface structure to deep structure When speaking= deep structure to surface structure At birth, infants can distinguish between all human phonemes They have the potential to learn any language  This dissipates after 6 months of age Speech comprehension comes before speech production  All infants go through the same babbling sequence  Children learn words through fast mapping which is mapping a word onto an underlying concept after only one single exposure  Telegraphic speech­ consists of mostly content words The orderly progression of language development may depend on general cognitive development or experience with a single language  Aphasia­ difficulty in producing or comprehending language  Broca’s aphasia (speaking)  Wernicke’s aphasia (understanding Speech) In many parts of the world, bilingualism is the norm Learning a second language early in life increases the density of gray matter in the brain Amount of grey matter correlated to language proficiency Attempts have been made to teach non­human animals, especially apes, human language but  apes’ vocal tracts not well­equipped, also there are limitations in size of vocabulary, types of  words (concrete), and complexity, although success has come with ASL and computerized  keyboards Time and colors show that spatial displays affect language and thought Categories­ classification of things in concepts Processing prototypes­ left hemisphere and visual cortex Processing exemplar­ right hemisphere, basal gland, and prefrontal cortex Brain regions work together to form concepts and categories 2 main problems  Ill­defined­ no clear goals Well­defined­ clearly specified goals and solution paths  Phenomenology­ how things seem to the conscious person  Dichotic listening­ people wearing headphones hear different messages in each ear Intro. To Psychology Study Guide 2 Cognitive unconscious­ all the mental processes that give rise to a person’s thoughts, choices,  emotions, and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person Subliminal perception­ thought or behavior is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot  consciously report perceiving Altered state of conscious­ a form of experience that departs significantly from the normal  subjective experience of the world and the mind REM sleep­ a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and a high level of brain  activity Insomnia­ difficulty in falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea­ the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep Somnambulism­ when a person arises and walks around while they sleep Narcolepsy­ sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities Sleep paralysis­ the experience of waking up and not being able to move Night terrors­ abrupt awakening with panic and intense emotional arousal Manifest content­ a dream’s apparent topic or superficial meaning Latent content­ a dream’s true underlying meaning  Psychoactive drugs­ chemicals that influence conscious or behavior by altering the brain’s  chemical message system Encoding specific principle­ a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re­ create the specific way in information was initially encoded  Transfer appropriate processing­ the idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to  another when the encoding and retrieval contexts of the situation match Source memory­  recall of when, where, and how information was acquired 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.