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BSC 114 Chapter 13 study guide

by: Lauren Dutch

BSC 114 Chapter 13 study guide BSC 114

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 114 > BSC 114 Chapter 13 study guide
Lauren Dutch
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chapter 13 meiosis
The Principles of Biology 1
Dr. Stephenson
Study Guide
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Dutch on Friday October 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Stephenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see The Principles of Biology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
Chapter 13 Study Guide: 1. There are tens of thousands genes present in the human genome. 2. A locus is the precise location of a gene on a chromosome. 3. Sexual and asexual reproduction are alike in that they can both occur in multicellular organisms. 4. A clone is the product of asexual reproduction and mitosis. 5. Unless the chromosomes were stained to show band patterns, a karyotype would be least likely to show part of a chromosome turned around. 6. A karyotype is a photograph of all the chromosomes in a single cell from an individual. 7. Fertilization produces a diploid zygote. 8. Diploid cells can divide by mitosis or meiosis; haploid cells can divide by mitosis but not by meiosis. 9. Alteration of generations includes multicellular haploid stage, multicellular diploid stage, zygote, and spores. 10.The sexual cycle of the diploid, multicellular algal genus Fucus involves mitosis, meiosis, and fertilization. 11.A life cycle in which the only multicellular form is haploid is most typical of fungi. 12.In sexually reproducing species, the chromosome number remains stable over time because meiosis and fertilization always alternate. 13.The egg of a rabbit contains 22 chromosomes. There are 44 chromosomes in the somatic cells of a rabbit. 14.In a diploid cell containing 10 chromosomes, meiosis results in the formation of daughter cells containing 5 chromosomes. 15.Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes. 16.Sister chromatids are identical copies of each other formed through DNA synthesis. 17.Homologous chromosomes have genes for the same traits at the same loci. 18.When we say that an organism is haploid, we mean that its cells have a single set of chromosomes. 19.Mitosis multiplies body cells in humans. 20.Somatic cells in humans contain two sets of chromosomes and are therefore termed diploid. 21.Nearly all life cycles have both haploid and diploid phases. Usually, the transition from haploid to diploid takes place at fertilization, when gametes fuse. 22.Spores and gametes are different in that gametes can fuse to form a zygote but spores can develop into independent organisms without first forming a zygote. 23.Humans have 46 chromosomes. This number of chromosomes will be found in liver cells. 24.Meiosis results in cells that contain half the parental chromosome number. 25.At the end of telophase I of meiosis and the first cytokinesis, there are two haploid cells. 26.When a diploid cell has completed meiosis, there are four haploid cells. 27.Synapsis occurs during prophase I. 28.During anaphase II, sister chromatids separate and migrate toward opposite poles. 29.During anaphase I, homologs separate and migrate toward opposite poles. 30.Cytokinesis is the division of cytoplasm to create two cells. 31.Meiosis creates cells with a haploid number of chromosomes. 32.Crossing over occurs during prophase I. 33.Regions of chromosomes where nonsister chromatids cross over are called chiasmata. 34.The synaptonemal complex physically connects homologous chromosomes during prophase I. 35.If an organism has a haploid chromosome number of 4, 4 tetrads will form during meiosis. 36.Synapsis of homologous pairs occurs only during prophase I of the first meiotic division. 37.Homologous chromosomes only separate during meiosis, not mitosis. 38.Meiosis is longer and more complex than mitosis because it decreases the chromosome number to haploid, introduces genetic variation among daughter cells, ensures that each daughter cell gets a single complete set of chromosomes and undergoes two rounds of cytokinesis. 39.An organism with a diploid number of 8 can produce 16 kinds of gametes. 40.Genetic variation is caused by random fertilization, independent assortment and crossing over. 41.In humans the haploid number of chromosomes is 23. Independent assortment has the possibility of producing 2^23 different types of gametes. 42.The diploid number of chromosomes in a certain animal is 8. The four pairs of homologs align and assort independently to form any of 16 different combinations. 43.In a diploid set of chromosomes, one member of each pair of homologs is derived from the father and one comes from the mother. If 2n = 6, 1/8 of a particular gamete will contain only paternal chromosome. 44.The major contribution of sex to evolution is that it provides a method to increase genetic variation. 45.The random alignment of homologs at metaphase I does not have to do with crossing over. 46.Although energetically more costly than asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction leads to different combinations of alleles that could provide adaptability in a changing environment. 47.Although sexual reproduction is nearly universal among animals, bdelloid rotifers reproduce asexually but can increase genetic variation present in a population by means of the uptake of DNA from other rotifers.


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