His 102, Midterm Study Guide
His 102, Midterm Study Guide His 102
Popular in History of Western Civilization II
Popular in History
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tessa Peak on Friday October 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to His 102 at Northern Virginia Community College taught by Dr. Dluger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization II in History at Northern Virginia Community College.
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Date Created: 10/14/16
His 102 Midterm Study Guide Core Objectives Ch. 15 Define absolutism and understand central principles as a theory of government o Absolutism was a political theory that encouraged rulers to claim complete sovereignty within their territories; promise of stability was an appealing alternative to the disorder of the preceding “iron century” o Louis XIV felt he must rule assertively and without limitation; sought to control state’s armed forces, legal system, and financial resources to create an efficient centralized bureaucracy o Wanted to concentrate royal power so as to produce domestic tranquility; determined to impose religious unity Absolutist monarchs most successful in imposing rule o LOUIS XIV o Frederick II the Great enlightened absolutist who raised Prussia to the status of a major power Alternatives to absolutism in England o English monarchy was the most significant exception to the trend toward absolutism; had a limited monarchy (English Parliament) o Charles IIdeclared limited religious toleration, promised to observe Magna Carta; openly modeled kingship on absolutism of Louis XIV which caused public to divide o James IIopposite of Charles; flaunted Roman Catholicism and ordered Church of England clergymen to read his decree from pulpit Eighteenthcentury commercial revolution o Britain and Holland produced more food per acre and new crops increased supply of food o Northwest Europe became increasingly urbanized o Mass market for consumer goods emerged; houses stocked with uncommon luxuries and prices rose, continuing demand; golden age of small shopkeeper o European economy more complex, specialized, integrated, commercialized and productive than ever before Colonial expansionism and African slave trade o Many staple products of Europe’s colonial empires in Asia, Africa, and Americas known as “Columbian exchange” o Spanish, French, English, and Dutch all saw advances in colonialism o Colonial trade came to be dominated by transAtlantic routes; New England>Africa>Jamaica>Barbados; England>Africa>Virginia>England o Commercial rivalry between British and French Ch. 16 Define scientific revolution and explain what is meant by science in historical context o Science entails at least three things: body of knowledge, method or system of inquiry, and a community of practitioners and the institutions that support them and their work; scientific revolution involved each of three realms Older philosophical traditions important for development of new methods o Universal conviction that natural world had been created by God; firm belief that stars controlled the fates of human beings o One school of thinkers argued nature was a book written by creator to reveal ways of God to humanity o Renaissance humanism recovered, translated, and understood classical texts, encouraging collaboration between artisans and intellectuals Sciences that made important advances o Mathematics, particularly geometry, and astronomy in charting the skies as well as fixing the old Roman calendar o Philosophers and mathematicians granted a royal charter for improvement of natural knowledge o Optics, mathematics, and gravity Differences between Ptolemaic view of universe and new vision proposed by Copernicus o Ptolemy earth centered universe; heavens orbited earth in a carefully organized hierarchy of spheres, and earth and heavens were fundamentally different; stationary earth o Copernicus Earth rotated on its axis and orbited with the other planets around the sun (heliocentric) Different definitions of scientific method from Bacon and Descartes o Bacon “Knowledge is power”; advocated an inductive approach to knowledge: amassing evidence from scientific observations to draw general conclusions o Descartes Emphasized deductive reasoning, proceeding logically from one certainty to another; mathematical thought expressed highest standards of reason Ch. 17 Define Enlightenment as eighteenthcentury thinkers used it; identify close figures o Exciting new intellectual environment in which “party of humanity” would prevail over superstition and traditional thought o Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Diderot Explain how ideas spread internationally and consequences o Book trade was both international and clandestine. Formed crucial part of larger picture of Enlightenment o Led to clandestine booksellers smuggling thousands of books across the border, forming a “literary underground” Ways Enlightenment linked to imperial expansion and growth of commerce o Salons were operated informally and opened air for conversation and debate; coffeehouses made many possible links between smaller discussions, news, and debate o Popular culture rested on networks of sociability; did not exist in isolation o Flourishing musical culture Back and Handel, Haydn and Mozart, Opera; spread rapidly throughout Europe Enlightenment thought undermining central tenets of culture and politics o Had wide resonance well beyond a small group of intellectuals; Enlightenment thinkers did not hold to any single political position Broader changes in European society that made Enlightenment possible o Literacy rates increased helping in book trade and \ printed material; sociability Ch. 18 Origins of French Revolution o Rising middle class, inspired by Enlightenment ideas and by own selfinterest overthrew what was left of aristocratic order; tension between noble political aspirations and cruel violence lie at heart Steps that made revolution more radical o Changes in popular politics, crisis of leadership, internal polarization Connections between revolution & Napoleon’s regime after 1799 & effects of conquests o State fell prey to Napoleon Bonaparte whose rule was punctuated by astonishing victories and catastrophes o Napoleonic wars devastated Europe, convulsed its policies and traumatized its people for a generation o Dramatic stage in downfall began with disruption of alliance with Russia Links between French Revolution and Atlantic world o Caribbean islands occupied central role in French economy because of sugar trade; French National Assembly declined to discuss matter of slavery in colonies o Emancipation and war brought new leaders to the fore, and emerged victorious over French planters Ch. 19 Circumstances that allowed industrialization to begin in Great Britain o Britain was a secure island nation with a robust empire, profitable overseas trade networks, and established credit institutions o Had ample supplies of coal and welldeveloped transportation network o British agriculture was more thoroughly commercialized which produced higher profits and wealth that could be invested in industry Industries that were first to adopt new systems for mechanical production & regions o Textile industries, especially cotton, which thrived in Britain; coal and iron Changes in nature of work, production, and employment o Production skyrocketed as mechanical production was able to speed up the process, but led to lower employment rates when a machine could easily replace a person o Women and children likely found in factories with poor living conditions Effects of industrialization on social life in Europe o Cascading sequence of population movements led to growth of new cities that had been largely agricultural o Strained infrastructure of Europe’s urban centers, creating demand for new housing, forcing many to crowd in neighborhoods; conditions in countryside harsh Essential characteristics of new “middleclasses” in nineteenthcentury Europe o Movement within middleclass ranks possible through couple generations; helped sustain with belief that it was possible to get ahead o Family and home played central role in forming middleclass identity, wives & mothers expected to occupy a separate sphere of life; cities became increasingly segregated Ch. 20 Understand conservative political goals of leaders who met at Congress of Vienna o Most important guiding concept was legitimacy; broad appeal as general antirevolutionary policy o Conservatives aimed to solidify monarchy’s authority and a hierarchical social order Places where resistance to Congress of Vienna’s conservative political order expressed o Carbonari in Italian peninsula and Spanish empire Identify core principles of political liberalism, republicanism, socialism, and nationalism o Liberalism Commitment to individual liberties or rights; believed most important function of government was to protect liberties; constitutional monarchy o Republicanism Demanded a government by the people, expanded franchise and democratic participation in politics o Socialism Commitment to reason and human progress; believed society could be both industrial and humane o Nationalism Usually aligned with liberal against conservative states but became clear it could be molded to fit any doctrine; symbolized legal equality, constitutional government and unity; went hand in hand with liberal demands for economic modernity but could easily undermine other liberal values Ideas contained in Romanticism and relationship to Enlightenment o Touched all arts and permeated politics; reaction against Classicism stressed emotion, freedom, and imagination o First developed in England and Germany as reaction against Enlightenment o View of nature that rejects abstract mechanism of Enlightenment thought; nature not a system to be dissected by science but source of sublime power that nourishes human soul Understand causes of 1848 revolution and principal consequences for conservative rulers o Government’s inability to manage crisis of failed harvest and rising prices drove people to edge of desperation o Provisional government of new republic consisted of liberals, republicans, and socialists Ch. 21 Understand goals of liberal revolutionaries in 1848 and reason for failure to achieve them o Representative government, an end to privilege, economic development o Could only be realized in a vigorous modern nationstate Explain stages of national unification in Italy and Germany o Italy Had to choose between two strategies: radical and democratic movement from below for national unification under Garibaldi’s charismatic leadership or conservative form of unification engineered from above by Cavour; Cavour’s vision won and final steps came indirectly regional differences and deep social tensions made building nation an ongoing process o Germany Constitution established twohouse monarchy where William I faced parliamentary opposition, so chose Otto von Bismarck as ministerpresident; Bismarck defied parliamentary opposition and most decisive action in foreign policy; final step in unity was FrankoPrussian War outbreak of war between France and Prussia brought southern German states to Prussia’s side (revolution from above) Process of nation building in Russia and US, debates about serfdom and slavery o Nation building entailed territorial and economic expansion and incorporation of new peoples; two schools of thought emerged: Slavophiles sought to preserve Russia’s distinctive features, Westernizers wished to see Russia adopt European developments in science, technology, and education o Serfdom in Russia criticized, abolition of serfdom elsewhere in Europe made issue more urgent o American Revolution bequeathed to US a loose union of slave and free states; expansion brought complications with extended empire of slavery and leading American republic to forcibly remove Native Americans o Slavery legal only in southern US, Brazil and Cuba; Haitian revolution sent shock wave through Americans o American Civil War abolished slavery Identify primary powers involved in Crimean War and ways changed balance of power o Crimean War French and Russian claims to protect religious minorities and holy places within Muslim Ottoman Empire o Embarrassed France and left Russia and Austria considerably weaker, opening advantage for Bismarck o Brought innovations that forecast direction of modern warfare Ch. 22 Define imperialism and locate major colonies established in Africa and Asia o Process of extending one state’s control over another o France, Britain, Germany, Netherlands, Russia, US colonized about one quarter of world’s land surface (Africa); British and French in Congo, Belgian colony in Congo o Same states extended informal empire in China and Turkey, across South and East Asia, and into Central and South America Major reasons for European colonial expansion o Europe’s mission to bring civilization to the rest of the world, empire played an important part in establishing European identity Describe choices faced by colonized peoples in face of European power and culture o Resistance of colonized people did as much to shape history of colonialism as did ambitious plans of colonizers Explain how imperialism shaped culture of European nations at home o Imperialism created new colonial cultures in other parts of the world causing new hybrid cultures to emerge o British, French, and Dutch authorities worried too much familiarity between colonized and colonizer would weaken European prestige o People on both sides of colonial divide worried about preserving national traditions Nature of crisis faced by European imperial powers o Crises created sharp tensions among western nations and drove imperial nations to expand economic and military commitments in territories overseas
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