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## Exam #2 Study Guide

by: Jessica Crump

38

3

6

# Exam #2 Study Guide Psy 202

Jessica Crump
OleMiss
GPA 3.87

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This study guide covers chapters 5-9 highlighting the logic of the chapters as Dr. Redding has said the logistics will be more important for the exam. I've also provided a few tips and a flow chart...
COURSE
Elementary Statistics
PROF.
Dr. Melinda Redding
TYPE
Study Guide
PAGES
6
WORDS
CONCEPTS
Psychology, Statistics
KARMA
50 ?

## Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Crump on Friday October 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 202 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. Melinda Redding in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Elementary Statistics in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Mississippi.

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Date Created: 10/14/16
Exam  2  Study  Guide:  Ch.  5-­‐9   Fill  in  the  Blank       1.   When  not  everyone  who  is  asked  to  participate  in  a  study  agrees  to  participate  the   population  becomes  less  represented.  This  is  referred  to  as  a  _____________________.     2.   A  distribution  of  means  is  referred  to  as  _____________________.     3.   _____________________  refers  to  a  range  of  scores  built  around  a  sample  value  that  is   assumed  to  contain  the  population  mean.     4.   When  the  proportions  of  the  variables,  in  a  population  are  accurately  reflected  in  the   sample,  we  call  the  sample  _____________________.     5.   Sampling  error  reflects  discrepancies  between  values  of  the  _____________________   and  the  _____________________  due  to  random  factors.   6.   A  sample  that  gives  every  case  in  the  population  an  equal  chance  of  being  selected,   thus,  does  not  guarantee  a  representative  sample  _____________________.       7.   The  Central  limit  theorem  tells  us  three  things:     a.       b.       c.       8.   _____________________  compares  a  sample  mean  to  a  population  mean  with  a  known   population  standard  deviation.     9.   The  hypothesis  that  goes  against  the  research  question;  says  that  there’s  no  effect  is  the   _____________________.     10.  When  the  null  hypothesis  is  correctly  rejected  it  is  referred  to  as   _____________________.     11.  The  name  for  the  regions  of  the  distribution  that  result  in  the  rejection  of  the  null   _____________________.   12.  What  are  the  three  things  that  can  be  done  to  increase  power?   a.       b.       Exam  2  Study  Guide:  Ch.  5-­‐9   c.       13.  _____________________  says  that  the  theoretical  population  is  different  from  your   true  population  mean.     14.  The  amount  of  impact  that  the  explanatory  variable  has  on  the  outcome  variable  is   referred  to  as  _____________________.     15.  A  single  sample  t  test  is  used  to  compare  a  sample  mean  to  population  mean  when  the   _____________________  of  the  _____________________  is  unknown.     16.  When  cases  selected  for  one  sample  are  connected  to  the  cases  selected  for  another   the  appropriate  test  is  a(n)  _____________________.     17.  Put  the  following  steps  of  hypothesis  testing  in  order  1-­‐6  (1  being  the  first  step  and  6   being  the  last  step).   a.   Interpretation  ___   b.   Decision  rules  ___     c.   Test  ___   d.   Assumptions  ___   e.   Calculation  ___   f.    Hypothesis  ___     True  or  False  If  it’s  false,  add  or  replace  the  word(s)  needed  to  make  it  correct.     1.   Type  1  error  occurs  when  the  null  hypothesis  is  rejected  and  there  really  was  a   treatment  effect.  _____________________   2.   When  the  standard  deviation  of  the  population  is  not  known,  the  standard  deviation  of   the  sample  can  be  used  to  estimate  the  standard  error  of  the  mean.   _____________________   3.   The  alpha  level  refers  to  the  proportion  of  the  sampling  distribution  in  between  the   tails.  _____________________   4.   When  you  increase  your  alpha  level,  you  increase  your  type  I  error  and  decrease  your   type  II  error.  _____________________   Exam  2  Study  Guide:  Ch.  5-­‐9   5.   In  APA  format,  p  <  .05  means  that  the  null  is  rejected  and  the  alpha  level  is  .05.   _____________________   6.   The  degrees  of  freedom  (df)  are  equal  to  the  degrees  of  freedom  of  the  sample   variance.  _____________________   7.   As  the  sample  size  decreases,  the  sample  variance  more  closely  resembles  the   population  variance.  _____________________   8.   Cohen’s  D  tells  how  many  standard  deviations  apart  the  means  are.   _____________________   9.   The  alternative  hypothesis  is  what  is  tested.  _____________________   10.  The  independent  samples  t  test  is  used  to  compare  the  means  of  two  independent   samples.  _____________________   11.  With  independent  samples  t  tests,  the  larger  samples  affect  the  variance;  that’s  why   they  are  pooled.  _____________________   12.  Within-­‐subjects  tests  have  1  sample,  2  means,  and  no  independent  variable.   _____________________   13.  Repeated  measures  tests  have  2  samples  and  2  means.  _____________________   14.  All  the  t  test  formulas  have  a  mean  difference  in  the  numerator  and  variance  in   denominator.  _____________________   15.  Paired  samples  t  tests  have  more  power  than  independent  samples  t  tests.   _____________________   16.  The  null  hypothesis  goes  with  the  research  question.  _____________________   17.  As  degrees  of  freedom  increase,  the  values  for  the  critical  regions  decrease.   _____________________           Exam  2  Study  Guide:  Ch.  5-­‐9   Helpful  Tips     •   If  you  don’t  know  the  population  standard  deviation  (s),  it’s  a  t  test.     •   If  the  null  is  rejected,  you  can  calculate  the  effect  size.     •   An  equal  sign  of  some  kind  (≥,≤,=  )  will  always  be  in  the  null  hypothesis  (H0).     •   APA  format  –  [t(15)  =  -­‐1.333,  p  >.05]     o   t  –  tells  it’s  a  t  test     o   15  –  tells  us  the  degrees  of  freedom     o   -­‐1.333  –  tells  t     obs o   p  </>  .05  –  tells  the  alpha  level  and  whether  or  not  the  null  was  rejected     §   p < .05  –  means  the  null  was  rejected     §   p > .05  –  means  failed  to  reject  the  null   •   When  making  the  hypotheses  for  a  one  tailed  test,  it’s  easier  to  start  with  the   alternative  hypothesis  because  it  goes  along  with  the  research  question.  From  there,   you  know  that  the  null  will  just  be  the  opposite.     •   I’m  putting  a  flow  chart  I  made  for  deciding  which  test  to  use  on  the  page  before  the   answers.     •   Dr.  Redding  mentioned  that  a  few  older  topics  like  inferential  statistics  vs.  descriptive   statistics,  and  research  designs  would  be  on  the  test  so  brush  up!     Symbols   •   H 0 –  null  hypothesis     •   H 1 –  alternative  hypothesis     ▯ •   sM  –  standard  error  of  the  means  (▯ )   •   µ  –  sampling  distribution  of  means     M •   df  –  degrees  of  freedom     •   s or   ▯  –  (estimated)  standard  error  of  the  mean     M   ▯ •   d  =  cohen’s  d   2 •   s p –  pooled  variance     •   D  –  difference  scores  (x –1  x 2   •   M  –  mean  difference  (i.e.  mean  of  difference  scores  for  a  sample)   D ▯ ▯ •   S MD  r    –  standard  error  of  the  mean  difference     ▯           Exam  2  Study  Guide:  Ch.  5-­‐9   Population standard deviation ( )? No Yes Is there more than one population mean z test (µ)? No Yes Single sample t Are the sample sizes test equal for all samples? Yes No Are the Cases paired or Independent samples t test returning/repeatdly measured? No Yes Independent Paired samples t samples t test test   Exam  2  Study  Guide:  Ch.  5-­‐9   Answers     1.   Self-­‐selection  bias     8.   True     2.   Sampling  distribution     9.   False,  alternative  should  be  null     3.   Confidence  interval     10.  False,  samples  should  be   4.   Representative     populations   5.   Sample  and  the  population     11.  True     6.   Random  sample   12.  True     7.   a.  n  is  large,  sampling  distribution  is   13.  False,  2  should  be  1   normal,  b.  sample  distribution  mean   14.  False,  variance  should  be  standard   is  the  same  as  the  population  mean   error   c.  the  standard  error  can  be   15.  True     calculated   ???? ▯   ▯   16.  False,  null  should  be  alternative     ▯ 17.  True     8.   Single  sample  z  test     9.   Null  hypothesis     10.  Power     11.  Critical  regions     12.  a.  increase  sample  size,  increase   alpha  level,  or  use  a  one-­‐tailed  test   13.  Alternative  hypothesis       14.  Effect  size     15.  Standard  deviation,  population     16.  Paired  samples  t  test     17.  a.  6     b.  4   c.  1   d.  2   e.  5   f.  3     True/False   1.   False,  there  really  wasn’t  a   treatment  effect.     2.   True   3.   False,  delete  the  word  between  (the   alpha  level  refers  to  the  proportion   of  the  sampling  distribution  in  the   tails)   4.   True     5.   True     6.   True     7.   False,  decreases  should  be  increases

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