BIOL 1030 Exam 2 Study Guide
BIOL 1030 Exam 2 Study Guide BIOL 1030
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1030 at Auburn University taught by Debbie Folkerts in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 240 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in BIOL at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE—PRACTICE EXAM 1) What are the cell walls of fungi made of? a) Cellulose b) Chitin c) Mold d) Trichophyton 2) What type of meiosis do fungi go through? a) Gametic b) Sporic c) Zygotic d) None of the above 3) True or False: fungi make their own food. a) True b) False 4) What does the sac fungi of P. Ascomycota contain? a) Conida b) Elaters c) Crustose d) Ascus 5) Which one of these fungi classes are harmful to amphibians? a) P. Chyridiomycota b) P. Zygomycota c) P. Ascomycota d) P. Glomeromycota MATCHING 6) P. Zygomycota a) Mushrooms and toadstools 7) P. Chytridiomycota b) Grow inside of higher plants 8) P. Ascomycota c) The white fuzz that develops on food 9) P. Basidiomycota d) Have flagellated spores 10) P. Glomeromycota e) Urgetsum is an example of this 11)What is single celled and capable of budding? a) Yeast b) Urgetesum c) Mushrooms d) Choanocytes 12)Which of these is the simplest growth from of lichen and looks like dry chipped paint? a) Fruticose b) Foliose c) Crustose d) None of the above BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE—PRACTICE EXAM 13)What is Trichophyton? a) LSD b) Black mold c) The source of penicillin d) Athlete’s foot 14)True or False: P. Porifera lacks symmetry. a) True b) False 15)What is the P. Porifera’s matrix made of? a) Mesophyll b) Chitin c) Chlorophyll d) Yeast MATCHING 16) Pinacocyte a) Help in filter feeding 17) Archaeocytes b) The holes of the sponge 18) Porocytes c) Flat cells that cover the outside and inside of the sponge 19) Choanocytes d) Play a role in food transport 20) What type of organic fibers do the skeletons of P. Porifera have? a) Collagen b) Reticular c) Sponging d) Both A and C 21) Which of these are “glass sponges” and are siliceous deep water marine? a) Class Hexactinellida b) Class Demospongiae c) Class Calcarea 22) Which of these are marine, small, and calcareous spicules? a) Class Hexactinellida b) Class Demospongiae c) Class Calcarea 23) Which of these have only leucon body types and have siliceous spicules? a) Class Hexactinellida b) Class Demospongiae c) Class Calcarea 24) Which of these is a shared house for both sexes? a) Monoecious b) Diecious c) Triecious d) None of the above BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE—PRACTICE EXAM MATCHING 25) P. Coniferophyta a) Also known as the “Mormon Leaf” 26) P. Cycadophyta b) Have a fleshy seed coat, a dwarf branch, and are pollution resistant—Ex: Ginkgo Balboa 27) P. Ginkophyta c) Cone bearing trees 28) P. Gnetophyta d) Have a tropical look and contain cones that produce a lot of pollen 29) How many sterile whorrels do Angiosperms have? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 30) Is the fertile whorrel, androecium, male or female? a) Male b) Female 31) What types of cells does the dermal tissue system consist of? a) Epidermal cells b) Parenchyma cells c) Guard cells d) Both A and C 32) What does the stomata help prevent? a) Insulation b) Heat loss c) Water loss d) None of the above 33) Which of these cells is dead and hard? a) Parenchyma cells b) Collenchyma cells c) Sclerenchyma cells 34) Which of these is alive at maturity, but not capable of mitosis? a) Parenchyma cells b) Collenchyma cells c) Sclerenchyma cells 35) Which of these do not travel through xylem tissue? a) Water b) Carbohydrates c) Minerals d) All of the above 36) An ovary that is superior, with everything else below it, can be classified as… a) Epigynous b) Hypogynous c) Perigynous BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE—PRACTICE EXAM 37) Which of these ovary positions involves a “cup holder”? a) Epigynous b) Hypogynous c) Perigynous 38) Which growing period is short and occurs yearly? a) Perennial b) Monthly c) Annual d) None of the above 39) What grows in the secondary growth period? a) Girth b) Roots c) Shoots d) Elaters 40) Samara is an example of… a) Cocklebur b) Maple c) Hydrochlory 41) Coconut is an example of… a) Cocklebur b) Maple c) Hydrochlory MATCHING 42) Pepo a) Legumes 43) Pome b) Peach 44) Indehiscent c) Watermelon 45) Drupe d) Orange 46) Dehiscent e) Apple 47) Hesperidium f) Nuts 48) Which one of these is an example of an accessory fruit? a) Blueberry b) Pineapple c) Strawberry d) Lemon e) All of the above f) None of the above BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE—PRACTICE EXAM MATCHING 49) Calyx a) Whorl of stamens 50) Androecium b) Whorl of petals 51) Corolla c) Whorl of sepals 52) Gynoecium d) Whorl of carpels 53) True or False: A complete flower has 4 whorls a) True b) False 54) True or False: an imperfect flower has an androecium and a gynoecium a) True b) False 55) Which symmetry has the plant parts arranged around a single main axis? a) Connation b) Radial c) Adnation d) Bilateral 56) Which of these is the spring like structure that some plants grow? a) Stomata b) Microphylls c) Tendrils d) Megaphylls MATCHING 57) Auxin a) Quickens the ripening process of fruits. 58) Cytokinin b) Stimulates growth, germination, and flowering. 59) Ethylene c) Promotes cell division and cytokinesis in plant roots and shoots. 60) Gibberellins d) Helps in the developmental processes of plants. 61) Abscisic Acids e) Causes a plant to grow in length and regulates plant growth. 62) Which sign does this indicate—moving away from the light a) Positive—(+) b) Negative—(-) BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE—PRACTICE EXAM 63) Which of these is the directional growth from sunlight? a) Thigomotropism b) Hydrotropism c) Gravitropism d) Heliotropism 64) Which of these is growth or movement by plants/fungi due to gravity? a) Thigomotropism b) Hydrotropism c) Gravitropism d) Heliotropism 65) Which of theses is plant growth/turning away from moisture? a) Thigomotropism b) Hydrotropism c) Gravitropism d) Heliotropism 1) B 47) D 2) C 48) C 3) B 49) C 4) D 50) A 5) A 51) B 6) C 52) D 7) D 53) A 8) E 54) B 9) A 55) B 10) B 56) C 11) A 57) E 12) C 58) C 13) D 59) A 14) A 60) B 15) A 61) D 16) C 62) B 17) D 63) D 18) B 64) C 19) A 65) B 20) D 21) A 22) C 23) B 24) A 25) C 26) D 27) B 28) A 29) B 30) A 31) D 32) C 33) C 34) B 35) B 36) A 37) C 38) C 39) A 40) B 41) C 42) C 43) E 44) F 45) B 46) A BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Kingdom Fungi v Characteristics • Heterotrophic: they don’t make their own food • Go through zygotic meiosis • Have cell walls made of chitin • Separate/nonseperate hyphae: thread like v Phylum Chytridiomycota • Aquatic fungi that have flagellated zoo spores • These are the only ones with flagellated spores • Harmful to amphibians • Most ancient/Plesiomorphic v Phylum Zygomycota • Produce sporangia • The fuzzy white stuff that develops on food (bread molds, sugar molds) • Thick walled v Phylum Ascomycota • The sac fungi contain ascus - Ascus: a sack of sexually produced spores (sexual spores) - Conidia: asexual spores • Penicillum hotatum: the source of penicillin • Tolypoclaium inflatum: the source of immunosuppressant cyclosporine • Yeast: single celled and capable of budding • Urgetesum: LSD v Phylum Glomeromycota • Grows inside of higher plants v Phylum Basidiomycota • Includes mushrooms and toadstools • Gametangia • Sexual spores: basidiospores - The production of these is the only thing that happens in this phyla • Lichens: composite organisms, has 3 types: - Crustose: looks like dry, chipped paint, and is the simplest growth form § Capable of photosynthesis (protobiont) § Capable of fungal functions (mycobiont) - Foliose: leaf like fungus that is above and below - Fruiticose: branch like • Imperfect fungi: has no known sexual stages - Aspergillus niger: black mold, a food contaminant - Trichophyton: athletes foot Phylum Porifera v Characteristics • Lack symmetry • Have a matrix made of mesophyll • Have 4 cell types - Choanocytes: help in filter feeding BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE - Archaeocytes: play a role in food transport - Porocytes: holes of the sponge - Pinacocyte: flat cells covering outside/inside • Skeleton - Organic fibers: collagen, sponging - Inorganic spicules: calcareous, siliceous • Have 3 body types - Asconoid: one osculum - Syconoid: one osculum - Leucinoid: multiple oscula v Class Calcarea • Have spicules that are calcareous • Are marine and small v Class Hexactinellida • “Glass sponges” • Are siliceous and deep water marine • Have a fused layer of cells called a syncytium v Class Demospongiae • Have only leucon body types • These are marine and freshwater sponges • Have siliceous spicules/sponging Gymnosperms • A group of seed producing plants that are heterosporous. There are 2 types of houses for these. - Monoecious: 1 shared house for both sexes. - Diecious: 2 separate houses for both sexes. • Phylum Coniferophyta: these are cone-bearing trees that are Monoecious. These contain megasporangiate strobili and microsporangiate strobili. Examples are costal redwoods, giant sequoia, bristle cone pine, and pacific yew. • Phylum Cycadophyta: these plants have a tropical/subtropical look. They are Diecious and contain cones that produce a lot of pollen. • Phylum Ginkophyta: these are monotypic, have a fleshy seed coat, and are pollution resistant. These also contain a dwarf branch, which no other species has. Examples are the ginkgo biloba (improves brain function). • Phylum Gnetophyta: this is also known as the Mormon leaf. Angiosperms • A group of plants that are known as “flowering plants” which are closely related to gymnosperms. These have one mission in life, and that is to accomplish pollination. These will occupy any place hot/cold, wet/dry, etc. and go through double fertilization. They have 4 whorrels. • 2 sterile: calyx and corolla • 2 fertile: androecium (male) and gynoecium (female) Hormones/Nutrition • Cytokinin: plant growth substances that promote cell division/cytokinesis in plant roots/shoots. BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE • Auxin: a plant hormone, which causes a plant to grow in length. It also regulates plant growth. • Ethylene: a plant hormone that is used to quicken the ripening process of fruits. • Abscisic acid: a plant hormone, which helps in plant developmental processes. • Gibberellins: plant hormones, which stimulate growth, germination/flowering. • Tropism: when an organism turns a particular way, in response to a stimulus. - Phototropism: response to light—towards (+), away (-). - Scototropism: movement away from light. - Heliotropism: directional growth from sunlight. - Gravitropism: growth or movement by plants/fungi due to gravity. - Hydrotropism: plant growth/turning away from moisture. - Thigmotropism: turning/bending of a plant in response to touch. • Tendril: a plant with vining stems (looks like a spring). • Nastic movements: responses to stimuli, which are non-directional. • Nyctinatic: when plants move due to night changes of light intensity/temperature. EXTRA INFO v Tissue Systems: • Dermal tissue system: tissue in which you find the epidermal tissue that covers the outer surface of all cell parts. This can be thought of as the “skin” for plants. - Contain epidermal cells, which are thin and flat. - Have guard cells, which come in pairs. - Form stomata § These help in the prevention of water loss. - Contain trichomes § These have many functions like providing insulation, lowering desiccation (water loss), carnivory, and help with absorption. • Ground tissue system: tissue that acts as a filler between dermal and vascular tissue. This is also where photosynthesis takes place. - Parenchyma—simple § Composed of parenchyma cells. These are alive at maturity and are capable of mitosis and storage/transport. - Collenchyma—simple § Composed of collenchyma cells. These are alive at maturity and are not capable or mitosis. These are also supportive in the structure, stretchy, and flexible. - Sclerenchyma—simple § Composed of sclerenchyma cells, which are hard. These are dead at maturity and have 2 layers: sclerids and fibers. v Vascular tissue: tissue that is specialized for water transport, and allows water to be pumped throughout the plant. This tissue is found in the veins of the leaf and contains 2 types. - Xylem: tissue that is only for water and minerals, and can only flow upwards from the roots to the rest of the plant. § Complex § Contains parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma cells. - Phloem: tissue that is for carbohydrates and nutrients, and can flow in whichever direction up or down. § Complex BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE § Has ground tissue cells and conducting cells and is alive at maturity. v Flower Ovary Positions: • Hypogynous: when the ovary is superior, and everything else is below it. • Epigynous: when the ovary is inferior, and everything else is above it. • Perigynous: when the ovary is in the middle along with everything else. - Hypanthium: acts like a “cup holder” for the ovary when in the perigynous position. v Plant Parts: • Root: grows below the ground. • Shoot: modified stems and leaves, there are 2 types. - Microphylls: small leaves (male) - Megaphylls: big leaves (female) • Nodes: part of the plant where the leaves are attached. • Internodes: the area between the nodes of plants • Strobili: a structure on land plant species, which have sporangia bearing structures, these are also often called cones. This is where sexual reproduction occurs. (meiosporesàsporangiaàsporangiophoresàcluster of spororphyllsàstrobilus) • Elaters: curled around meiospores that change shape due to humidity. • Rhizomes: a big mass of roots. • Fronds: the leaf like part of a palm or fern. • Sori: a cluster of sporangia in ferns and fungi. • Prothallus: the gametophyte stage in the life of a fern. • Archegonium: a multicellular organ that contains the egg (female). • Antheridium: a haploid structure which produces/contains sperm (male). v Growth Periods: • Annuals: a type of growing period that is short and occurs once a year or once a season. • Perennials: a type of growing period that lasts a long time. • Primary growth: growth where the plant’s length increasesàshoots get taller, roots get longer. • Secondary growth: growth where the girth of the plant (horizontal growth) increases. v Pollination Syndromes: • Anemophily: these are “wind loving” and are pollinated with the wind involved. • Zoophily: these are “animal loving” and are pollinated with animals involved. - Bees - Moth - Butterflies - Flies (carrion flies/flowers) - Bats - Beetles v Leaf Arrangement: • Dichotomous branching: a type of stem branching with 2 stems. • Whorrel: leaves that are attached 2 at a time. • Opposite: leaves that are attached at the same time, one on either side. • Alternates: leaves that are attached one at a time. v Spore Production: - Homospory: the production of only one kind of the same spore. BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE - Heterospory: the production of different types of spores that has 2 types. o Microspores: plant spores that grow up to be microgametophytes (male). o Megaspores: plant spores that grow up to be megagametophytes. These produce ovules, which will be fertilized by sperm (female). v Seed Dispersal Syndromes (Fruit Characteristics): - Cocklebur: zoochory or epezochori o Where animals work in fertilization - Maple: anemochory, samara - Coconut: most famous and widely dispersed food (hydrochlory). - Simple/Aggregate/Multiple Fruits o Blueberry is a simple fruit. o Strawberry is an aggregate fruit. o Pineapple is a multiple fruit. - Accessory/Not Accessory Fruit o Accessory fruits: true fruits, which develop from the wall of the ovary with other tissues involved. - Strawberry is an accessory fruit. - Fleshy/Dry Fruit o Fleshy: have a mesocarp, which is a fleshy interior. - Pepo: fleshy fruits with a hard mesocarp layer. § Example: watermelon - Hesperidium: fleshy fruits with a leathery rind. § Example: lemons and oranges - Drupes: fleshy fruits that contain a big inedible seed. § Example: peach - Pome: fleshy fruits, which form a papery core that surrounds the seeds. § Example: apple o Dry: when the pericarp is tightly fused to the seed coat - Indehiscent: dry fruits that don’t split open at maturity. § Example: samara, and nuts - Dehiscent: dry fruits that split open at maturity to release seeds. § Example: legumes and peanuts v Flower Characteristics • Whorl: the arrangement of sepals, petals, leaves, etc. o Calyx: is a whorl of sepals. o Corolla: is a whorl of petals. o Androecium: is a whorl of stamens. o Gynoecium: is a whorl of carpels. • Complete/Incomplete o Complete flowers: have calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium. o Incomplete flowers: have one or more whorls absent. - Perfect/Imperfect o Perfect flowers: have androecium and gynoecium. o Imperfect flowers: are missing either androecium or gynoecium. - Connation/Adnation o Connation: the fusion within a whorl. BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE o Adnation: the fusion between a whorl. - Symmetry o Actinomorphic/radial symmetry: when the plant parts are arranged around a single main axis, you can cut this in any way and have similar halves. o Zygomorphic/bilateral symmetry: when the plant parts are symmetrical, but you can only cut it one-way for it to be symmetrical. - Wall Types o Exocarp: the outer wall. o Endocarp: the inner wall that is next to the seed.
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