Psychology Sensation and perception, emotion, and developing throughout the lifespan
Psychology Sensation and perception, emotion, and developing throughout the lifespan PSYC 121 06
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This 28 page Study Guide was uploaded by Casey Shore on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 121 06 at Radford University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
Casey Shore Chapter 11: Stress, Health, and Human Flourishing What is stress? -Process of appraising and responding to “stressors” --- threatening or challenging events. Stressors: Catastrophes, significant life changes, and daily hassles & Social Stress. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): body’s stress response is general, occurs in 3 stages 1) Alarm- mobilize resources, increase heart rate 2) Resistance– cope with stressor, hormones released 3) Exhaustion– energy is depleted, become vulnerable Personality and Heart Disease: -Friedman and Rosenman (1980’s) (This is me) -Type A Personality: Competitive, hard- driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone. Tend to be combat ready, experience more sad emotions, rather than Type B. More prone to heart attacks. (This is Justin) -Type B Personality: Easygoing, relaxed. Type D Personality: Suppress negative emotions in order to avoid social disapproval. Negative emotion they commonly experience the feeling of not being accepted. Coping with Stress: Coping: to alleviate stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods. Two (2) Types: 1)Problem-focused coping: attempting to alleviate stress directly. 2)Emotion-Focused coping: Avoid or ignore stressor. If you have a to do list and you take things off the list one by one, you are coping with stress. Same thing with disagreements between coworkers, if you go to them and take about it that is your way of coping with the situation to limit the amount of stress it takes out on you. Three (3) Factors influence ability to cope successfully: 1)Personal Control 2)Explanatory Style 3)Supportive Connections Coping with Stress – Personal Control: how much control you think you have over real life situations. -Learned Helplessness: becoming hopeless when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. -Locus of Control: self-perception of control over life events. -Internal Locus of Control: belief that you control your own fate. -External Locus of Control: belief that external forces determine your fate. Coping with Stress – Explanatory Style: -Our outlook on life – explanatory style – impacts risk for heart disease. -Optimism: Positive outlook on life. - Optimists expect to have more control, cope better with stress, and enjoy better overall health. -Better grades, moods, and immune systems. -Pessimism: Negative outlook on life. -Attribute poor performance to lack of ability, or to uncontrollable situations. Coping with Stress - Social Support: -Social Support: feeling liked and encouraged by others. - Calms us, reduces blood pressure and stress hormones. - Fosters stronger immune functioning - “Opening heart therapy” --- chance to confide in others. Ways of reducing stress: 1)Aerobic Exercise 2) Relaxing and meditation 3) Faith communities - Promote healthier behaviors, usually - Social Support Happiness & Positive Psychology: - Humanistic Psychologists (1960’s) were interested in advancing human fulfillment. - Feel-good, do-good phenomenon: people are more helpful when in a good mood. - Relative Deprivation: we feel worse-off than others. - Money is important, up to a point. - Increased happiness becomes a “New Normal”. What Predicts Happiness? Anger Management: Catharsis : Releasing aggressive energy will relieve aggression urges. Yoga http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0o0kNeOyH98Bubble Wrap! http://www.virtual-bubblewrap.com/bubble-wrap.swf Tips to Manage Stress http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0fL-pn80s-c Sensation and Perception: How we experience the World. Sensation and Perception part 3 Visual Organization: Gestalt Psychology -Early 20 century -German psychologists -Gestalt Psychologists (Whole or form) -organize our sensations into perceptions -We constantly filter info., inferring perceptions to make sense of the world. Form Perception: -Our first perceptual task: perceive any object/fig as distinct from its surroundings (the back and fore-ground). -The Figure-Ground relationship continually alters, is reversible, and triggers multiple perceptions (see previous images!) -We then organize objects into meaningful forms. -Grouping is what we do to stimuli. Gestalt Theory: Grouping -Proximity: we group nearby figures together -Similarity: similar figures get grouped together -Continuity: we perceive smooth, continues patterns rather than discontinues ones -Closure: our brains fill in the “gaps” to create a whole figure Depth Perception: -Ability to see 3D even though images striking retina are 2D -Helps us judge distance and height - Visual Cliff Study Binocular Cues: -Used to judge distance of nearby objects - Requires use of both eyes -Retinal Disparity: a binocular cue - How the brain computes distance two objects -We can compare, judge relative distance between the 2 objects - The greater the distance between the retinal images the closer the objects Monocular Depth Cue: -Judge distance of faraway objects -If something is smaller, it must be far away - Influences our perception -Linear perception Monocular Depth Cue: Relative Size Relative Height: Interposition: Light and Shadow: Relative Motion: Perceptual Constancy: Ability to perceive objects as unchanging even as lighting, viewing angle, and distance change. -A “top-down” process that lets us identify people and things quickly. Constancy in Shape and Size: -Shape Constancy: ability to perceive form of familiar objects regardless of change in viewing angle. -Size Constancy: we know the size of an object will stay the same regardless of distance. -Size-Distance Relationship: we instantly unconsciously guess an object’s size based on distance and our perception of its size. Perceptual Interpretation: -Sensory Deprivation and Restored Vision - a period of sensory restriction does not cause permanent harm if it occurs later in life. -during infancy- “critical period”- visual experiences can impact our sensory and perceptual development - remember Genie the “Wild Child?” Take Home Points: 1) As we experience the world our brain takes in a lot of information. 2) The brain quickly and efficiently absorbs (through the senses) this info, processes it, and sends it down to the rest of the body so that we can react. 3) Our perception of the world is impacted by the context in which we perceive things, so be careful—the brain does play tricks! Casey Shore The other senses: -In humans, vision is the major sense. -More cortex devoted to vision than any other sense, but they all work together. Audition: Hearing(audition)- highly adaptive. -We hear a wide range of sound- sources. -Human voice is the frequency we hear best. -Sound frequencies and vibrations are picked up from the air. -Bones/muscles in the ear detect moving air molecules and pressure changes. -Ears change vibrating air into impulses. -Brain decodes impulses as sounds. Hearing: Amplitude (amplitude= the height of the sound wave, the taller it is the louder it will be, the shorter is it, the quieter it will be). Amplitude: Strength of sound waves. -Determines loudness (going to make sounds loud or soft). Frequency (pitch- highness or lowness of the sound): Number of wavelengths passing a given point in a given amount of time. – (the closer the sound waves are, the higher the frequency will be) -Determines pitch: Short waves, High-pitch Long waves Low-pitch Sound measured in decibels. Ear Terms: Eardrum: membrane that vibrates with waves. Middle Ear: chamber between eardrum and cochlea. Contains 2 tiny bones – the hammer, anvil, and stirrup—that transfer vibrations from eardrum to cochlea. Cochlea: snail-shaped tube in the inner ear. Filled with fluid, tiny “cilia” hairs (they bend). Inner Ear: innermost part of the ear, contains cochlea. Cilia: tiny hairs attached to auditory nerves, which talk to auditory cortex. How do we hear? 1) Something vibrates, creates sound waves. 2) Wave travels to ear, is caught by outer ear. 3) Wave moves into ear canal. 4) Wave hits eardrum. 5) Eardrum vibrates. 6) Vibrations rattle tiny bones in middle ear. 7) Tiny bones carry vibrations into cochlea. 8) Vibrations hit cilia hairs attached to auditory nerves. 9) Cilia stimulates auditory nerve, signaling to the brain. 10) Brain process signals into sounds we “hear”. d Problems with Hearing: Sensorineural Hearing Loss -Nerve deafness and damage to receptors (cilia) or nerves. Usually caused by disease, old age, hereditary, and in some cases listening to loud music for long periods of times. Conduction Hearing Loss: -Less common and mechanical damage. Loudness and Speed: Determined by how many hair cells vibrate. -Hair cells can lose sensitivity to soft sounds. -Loud sounds interpreted similarly by normal and impaired hearing. Sound Location: -Sound travels at 750 mph. -Strikes =both ears simultaneously -Intensify differs, indicating sound direction. Sense of Touch: Very important to development. Premature infants gain weight faster when held and touched. Remember the Harlow’s Gate control theory, nociceptors. (feeling no pain in your body results in living a younger life, because you don’t know when to slow down) Sense of Taste: 5 types of taste bud receptors: Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami Umami: a savory, meaty taste in foods flavored with MSG. Taste, smell, and feel go through sensory interactions, producing flavor. -Smell + feel (texture) + taste = flavor. (when you are sick your food will not taste the same, same as when you hold your noise while eating) (your expectation will also affect your taste for example wine). Smell: Nose receptors detect odor molecules. Signals are sent to brain. We detect- 10,000 smells (or more?) Attractiveness depends on associations (developed from birth). Powerful experience associated with some smells. Chapter 4: Prenatal Development, infancy, and childhood. Developmental Psychology = The study of how people develop -physically -cognitively -socially Considers role of genetics Continues process v. stages Do early traits stay the same or change through life? -the lifespan perspective Some psychologist believe that you experience stability and change in your characteristics. For example, a certain liking towards a food or a person but that may change. A better example would be Temperament. A temperament- is a trait that you have stays with you throughout your lifespan. Many qualities develop over time. One example for that could be my personality, because I am and have been shy my whole life, but now that I have been in college I have grown to be more social. Prenatal Development: Conception -> Birth Conception Male sperm- 23 chromosomes Female egg- 23 chromosomes Fertilized egg becomes a zygote with 46 chromosomes. Zygote= fertilized egg Goes into 2 week period of rapid cell division -50% survive past first 2 weeks -Survivors become specialized cells Embryo Stage: 2-8 weeks after conception -Zygote attaches to uterine wall -inner-cell of zygote become embryos -outer-cells become placenta Fetal Stage: 9 weeks to birth -most intense period of development -fetus starts to look human -inborn survival skills develop Teratogens= particles or substances that harm the baby. Fetal damage may occur because epigenetic effects, causes mental and/or physical damage (drinking, smoking, and stress). When the baby comes out they know how to smell, breathe, and see, everything else is learned. Habituation: a decrease in responding with repeated stimulation. Maturation: Biological growth process causing natural change in behavior. - Not always due to environment - Can be stunned OR accelerated - “Maturation: sets the basic course of development, and experiences adjusts it”, everyone is different. Brain and Motor Skills Brian has growth spurt after birth. -Ages 3-6: Rapid growth in frontal lobe -Association areas (thinking, memory, language) are last to develop. -Experiences strengthen neural connections. Motor Skills: -Develop in progression -roll over -> sit up without help -> crawl -> stand ->walk ->run! Infantile Amnesia: ∞ First conscious memories 3-5 years. ∞ Unconscious memories form sooner. ∞ We start learning early. Childhood: o Cognitive: mental activities associate with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. o Jean Piaget (1920)- Developmental Psychologist -Mind develops in stages -Core idea: urge to make sense of experiences. Schemas= mental frameworks for organizing information and experiences. -We pour our experiences into these schemas -Helps us make sense of the world. SCHEMAS= RESPRESENTAVTATION -First we assimilate new experiences -Assimilation: interpret things in terms of our current understanding. With new experiences schemas adjust, or accommodates, new information. -Accommodation: Adjust or adapt current schemas to incorporate new information. Sensorimotor: Birth- 2 years Main developmental phenomena: Object Permanence- Aware that objects continue to exists, even when hidden. Stranger Anxiety: Fear of unfamiliar people, 8 months. Primary Developmental phenomena: Egocentrism: Difficulty taking on the point of views of others. Theory of mind: Between ages 3.5-4.5, ability to adopt another’s perspective. Concrete Operational: 7-11 years’ old Primary Developmental Phenomena: Conservation: Quantity remains the same despite changes in shape of container. Mathematical Transformations: Ability to comprehend basic math. For example, 10+2=12, is also 12-2=10. Kids learn to comprehend if-then statements -Solving hypothetical situations -Piaget called this systematic reasoning Develop ability to detect inconsistencies n others’ reasoning, spot hypocrisy. Piaget Today= -Today, development as seen as continuous process. -No broad start-stop age for developmental phenomena. -But general time frame remains similar. PART 2 Social Development: Attachment Attachment: Strong bond between a child and caregiver. Stranger Anxiety: Infant’s fear of stranger (normally around 8 months). -Children seek closeness to caregiver. -Become anxious when separated. ** Imprinting occurs in animals. Babies form an attachment to their human caregivers. ** Attachment Study: Harry and Margret Harlow Harlow’s attachment study Harlow and Harlow, 1950’s Monkeys separated from mother at birth. “Wire” mother provides milk. “Cloth” mother provides comfort. Harlow measured time spent with Cloth and with Wire mother. Attachment: Secure v. Insecure Secure Attachment Child: Insecure Attachment Child: -Comfortable exploring -Clings to caregiver -Anxiety when caregiver leaves, then -Is upset or indifferent when caregiver tries to locate them. Leaves. -Tends to have sensitive, responding -Stays upset or indifferent when Caregivers. Caregiver returns. -Tend to have insensitive, unresponsive caregiver. Secure Attachment- think of a child being dropped off at daycare for the first time. They are going to cling to their mother because they are used to constantly being around her. When it is time for pick up they will be happy or excited to see their mother. For insecure attachment they child will not be thrill to be dropped off and when it is time for pick up then they will still be mad and act distant. Attachment influences: Temperament: Inborn emotional state. Parental Role: Both parents play equal role. Basic Trust: World is predictable and reliable. -Erickson: Securely attached kids develop basic trust. -Basic Trust -> Secure, affectionate adult relationships. -Anxious or Avoidant -> Dysfunctional adult relationships (Anxious= wanting to be excepted by other people, Avoidant= uncomfortable with making attachments). -Resilience: Neglected kids can have emotional scarring, can also “bounce back”. Parenting Styles (also influence attachments): Authoritarian: Impose rules, except obedience, harsh punishment. Permissive: Make few demands, often give in and don’t punish; may be indifferent, unresponsive. Authoritative: Demand respect, yet are open/responsive to child’s needs. - (In Western-based studies) Children with high self-esteem, self-reliance, social skills tend to have authoritative parents (correlation). Lifespan Development: Adolescence Adolescence: Years between childhood and adulthood. -Begins with puberty -Ends with independence G. Stanley Hall (1904)- adolescence could be best conceptualized as “storm and stress” period. “Adolescence” is Culture In some cultures, teens are self-sustaining; adolescence doesn’t exist. The term “teenagers” didn’t appear in common language until early 40’s. Many “pre-industrial” countries have no concept of “adolescence. Physical Development: Puberty: sexual maturity is reached and reproduction is possible. -Girls= age 11 -Boys= age 13 Surge of Hormones: -intensifies mood -triggers physical changes (2-year period). Early Maturation: In Males: In females: -Stronger, more athletic -Body not in same with emotional -More popular and confident maturity. -Increased risk of alcohol, premature -Can be targets of teasing/ bullying. sexual activity. Cognitive Development in Adolescence: Frontal cortex continues to develop into adulthood. -Drinking, drug taking during this period can harm the brain. Synaptic pruning occurs during adolescence “use it or lose it”. Piaget- formal operational stages. May begin to question culture, identity. Part 3: Kohlberg’s Stages of Cognitive Development: -Growing up means learning to think/behave morally. -Lawrence Kohlberg: proposed 3 progressive levels of moral reasoning--- thinking about right and wrong. Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development: -Erik Erikson: proposed 8 stages of Psychosocial Development. -Each stage has a psychosocial task to resolve (trust, autonomy, indicative, etc.) - For Adolescents, task is identity development (your concept of who YOU are). - Social Identity: Our self-concept, as defined by our social groups. Lifespan Development: adulthood -Emerging Adulthood: late teens- early 20’s. -Adulthood: mid-late 20’s. -Middle Adulthood: around age 30. -Later Adulthood: 60’s and older. Emerging Adulthood: -A persons from late teens to mid- 20’s. -Occurs mainly in modern, Western cultures. - Emerging Adulthood” is a new concept. Adulthood: -Our physical peak, occurs in mid-20’s. -Healthy habits and choices during this time help offset feelings like you’re “getting older”. Middle Adulthood: -Occurs around age 30 -Side effects: Muscle mass decreases, metabolism slows, body fat increases, Gradual decline in fertility. -Menopause: primary biological sign of aging in women. -gradual loss of strength/stamina. -decreased sensory abilities (vision, hearing, etc.) -slower thought processing -weakened immune system -decreased sex drive -exercise makes a difference Aging and Memory: -Reminiscence Bump -Difficulties with remembering names -Terminal Decline: Noticeable cognitive decline in final 3-4 years of life. Social Developmental in Adulthood: -Midlife Crisis: early 40’s -Social Clock: Culturally-defined “right time” fir milestones. - Usually these are activated by significant life events. Adulthood: Intimacy and Generativity -According to Erikson’s, adulthood marked by Intimacy: Forming close relationships Generativity: leaving a legacy -Posting feelings increase, negative one decrease. -Successful Aging? Depends on: Genetics Influences, Psychosocial, and Sociocultural Influences. Death and Dying; -Differs by Culture -Life satisfaction tends to drop during year of spouse’s death (but does rebound). -Erikson -> “integrity” – feeling that one’s life has been meaningful and worthwhile. Casey Shore Chapter 10 - Emotions What are emotions? -Bodily Arousal -Expressive Behaviors -Conscious Experiences How do these three fit together? - What came first? -Arousal or emotional feelings? -How do thinking and feeling interact? James- Lange Theory: -Arousal emotion -William James & Carl Lange Cannon- Bard Theory: -Arousal and emotion occur simultaneously. -Walter Cannon & Philip Bard. Schachter-Singer’s Two Factor Theory: -Arousal + Label = emotion -Stanly Schachter & Jerome Singer (1962). -Spillover Effect - Emotion depends on label and interpretation. Zajonic & LeDoux: -2 Neural Pathways -High Road: sensory organ-> thalamus ->cortex -> amygdala. -Low Road: sensory organ -> amygdala. -Lazarus - Cognitive appraisal Psychology of basic emotions: -Sympathetic (ANS) -Ignites that fight or flight response -Adrenal release of hormones -Sugar by the liver -Pupils Dilate -Heart rate, blood pressure increase -Parasympathetic (ANS): -Calms your body back down -Slows your body -Heart rate, blood pressure decreases -Return to homeostasis Non-Verbal Communication: -We are good at detecting emotions in others… most of the time. - Facial expressions, voice tones, gestures = important. -Women’s emotion attribute to disposition. -Men’s emotion attributes to circumstance. -Women are more likely to express empathy Culture and Emotions: -Gestures are cultural -Basic expressions are universal -Happiness -Sadness -Fear -Surprise -Anger -Disgust Motivation: -Need or desire that directs behavior -Instinct theory -Drive-reduction Theory -Arousal theory -Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Instinct Theory: -Fixed pattern, unlearned. -Doesn’t explain most human behaviors. Drives and Incentives: -Drive- Reduction theory -Increase in psychological needs -> want to reduce it - Need for homeostasis -Role of incentives Optimum Arousal: -Seek optimum levels of arousal. -Driven by curiosity. -Yerkes-Dodson Law. -Think test taking. --Too much stimulation can cause stress, you want just the right of motivation and arousal. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: For example, some needs take priority over others. Self-Transcendence is one step above self- actualization (you don’t need to know this).
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