Introduction to Psychology I: PSYCH 1000 Sections 2, Exam 2 Study Guide
Highlight = Key Terms Highlight = Key Concepts
Chapter 3: Biological Psychology (Last part of the chapter)
Meninges: main function is to protect the central nervous system, and is made up of four parts:
o Dura Matter: the thick outer layer of all the meninges. It is a thin, transparent membrane, and is covered by flat cells. Fluid is unable to pass through.
o Arachnoid Matter: meant to make space between the pia mater and the dura mater.
o Subarachnoid space: the room inbetween the arachnoid membrane and pia mater.
o Cerebral spinal fluid: main function is to clean up everything inside and out of the brain. It is constantly recycled, and goes through all the ventricles and the spinal cord Don't forget about the age old question of What is considered an unsafe environment for a child?
o Pia Mater: A very thin membrane connecting around the brain. It is also wrapped around the spinal cord.
Autonomic Nervous system:
o Sympathetic Nervous System: main function revolves around the “fightor flight” system, which basically how the body reacts to something it considers to be harmful, or a threat to its survival. It is what the body does in order to survive.
o Parasympathetic Nervous System: main function is the “restanddigest” system, which allows blood flow to slow down, relax muscles, save energy, and increase gland activity.
Somatic nervous system: does not include the spinal cord and brain itself, however it includes the spinal nerves and peripheral nerves. All of these nerves come in pairs, such as:
o Sensory Neurons: neurons that enter the central nervous system (afferent) o Motor Neurons: neurons that exit the central nervous system (efferent) o Reflex arc: the nerve pathway that We also discuss several other topics like What is an example of an inductive reasoning?
Endocrine System: produces hormones, and is a system of glands. Its main function is to regulate metabolism, growth and development, sexual function, reproductive functioning, sleep, mood, and stress.
o Hypothalamus: regulates sexual behavior, food, anything related to the “fightor flight” system.
o Pineal Gland: produces melaton, which regulates sleep.
o Pituitary Gland: produces hormones, and controls skin pigment. It also controls the thyroid.
o Thyroid: regulates metabolism.
o Adrenals: releases cortisol (a stress hormone that helps you become more alert) and adrenaline (triggers increase in blood pressure and glucose).
Positive feedback loops: amplifies a system’s changes, causing them to shift away from their balanced state, leading them to become unstable. If you want to learn more check out What are social environmental factors?
Negative feedback loops: lowers a system’s changes, allowing them to maintain more of a balanced state, making them more stable
Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception
What is sensation? Perception? How are they different from one another? o Sensation: the process of sensing our environment through taste, touch, smell, sight and hearing.
o Perception: the brain’s perception of sensational input.
Transduction: converts information of physical energy to neural signals. Absolute Threshold: the lowest stimulus needed to detect a difference. Just noticeable difference: adding to an existing stimulus to notice a bigger difference.
o Weber’s Law: the bigger the stimulus is, the more you notice the difference. Signal detection theory: the ability to detect and focus on a certain stimulus. o Signaltonoise ratio: the more noise there is, the harder it is to pay attention to a signal. If you want to learn more check out How does iodine get into follicular cells?
Sensory adaptation: a change to a stimulus that effects the responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus that changes over time.
Selective attention: the ability to detect what stimuli you want to pay attention to Parts and functions of the eye
o What external stimulus/ physical energy does the eye detect?
Hue: what color something is.
Saturation: how pure that color is
Brightness: how light or dark the color is
o Iris: the colored part around the pupil, and is the muscle that controls how much light goes in
o Lens: focuses light into the retina, and adapts very quickly to how much light we see.
o Pupil: the hole in the iris that decides how much light goes in
o Cornea: the outer layer of the eye, and its job is to focus light into the eye. o Retina: the layer in the back of the eye, and have light sensitive cells. o Optic Nerve: transmits impulses to the brain from the retina. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four stages of resocialization?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the major premises in constructivism?
o Rods and cones
Rods: responsible for black and white vision.
Cones: responsible for color vision.
o Optic chiasm: the structure in the brain where the two optic nerves from the back of the eyes cross over each other.
o Optic tract: transfers information from the optic chiasm to the ipsilateral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN).
Parts and functions of the ear:
o What external stimulus/ physical energy does the ear detect?
Amplitude: the greater the amplitude, the louder the sound, and vice versa.
Frequency: the higher the frequency, the higher the pitch and vice versa. Timbre: the complexity of the sound.
o Pinna: designed to specifically funnel soundwaves that are in the range of human speech.
o Auditory Canal:
o Tympanic Membrane: ear drum, vibrates in response to soundwaves. o Ossicles (hammer, anvil, stirrup): tiny bones in the middle ear, move in response to pressure caused by the tympanic membrane, push on the oval window.
o Oval Window: an opening that leads from the middle ear to the inner ear. o Choclea: a spiral tissue, filled with fluid, shakes after being pushed by the oval window.
∙ Hair cells: detects movement in the area.
∙ Tonotopic organization of basilar membrane & auditory
cortex: the basilar membrane is organized to receive high to low
frequency sounds, and each section responds to a specific pitch.
Tectorial membrane: the celling of the cochlea.
o How does our ability to hear pitch change over time?
Vestibular system: responsible for sound balance.
Somatosensation System: receives sensory information from the skin. o Dermis: Consists of connective tissue, and also protects your body. o Epidermis: the outer layer of the skin. Has no blood supply. Gets nourishment from water. It is also water proof.
o Hypodermis: connects the skin to the muscles
o Free Nerve Endings: has high sensitivity. Detects pain, temperature, and tactile information.
o Root Hair Plexus: receives sensory information that have different distortions on the body, like clothes, warmth or coldness, and so on.
o Meissners Corpuscle: adapts quickly for low threshold sensory. Basically detects a light touch (e.g. putting on a bracelet, watch etc.)
o Pacinian Corpuscle: detects very deep pressure, and has a low threshold. It can get to the point where it will hurt you.
o Ruffini Corpuscle: are sensitive to pressure and distortion of the deep dermis. They adapt slowly, and they have a low threshold.
o Parallel Processing: the ability to interpret information from what we see or hear.
o TopDown Processing: our interpretation of stimuli that is influenced by cognitive processes.
o BottomUp Processing: when you take the basic components of what you are interpreting, in order to figure out what it is.
o Gestalt Principles
1. Proximity: when things are grouped together as a whole when they are close together.
2. Similarity: when things are grouped based on similarity.
3. Continuity: when something is continuous as one item.
4. Closure: when the brain fills in the blanks and we see something else. 5. FigureGround: when we group the background as one thing, and the foreground as another.
o Monocular Cues
1. Relative size: then things are closer to us, they appear to be bigger. 2. Texturegradient: the more detail in a texture, the closer it is to us. 3. Interposition: when something overlaps another thing to give us information on the distance.
4. Linear perspective: when lines converse to a point in the distance. 5. Height in a plane: when things are lower on the plane, they are closer. 6. Light and shadow: the way that light fall onto an object, and the
resulting shadows give us information on what that object is, and what the shape is.
7. Relative motion: if something is moving or not moving, the size that changes rapidly in our vision tells us whether it is coming towards or
farther away from us.
o Depth Perception: our ability to perceive depth, size, and distance. Relies on our Binocular and Monocular cues. Develops in infancy.
Moon Illusion: when the moon is on the horizon, it looks a lot bigger than it actually is.
Ames Room Illusion: when something in a room appears to be bigger than it actually is, due to relative size. The object that looks huge is in
front of a glass wall that is angled to push it closer, and the object behind the glass appears to be small.
MuulerLyer Illusion: when something is closer to you, it looks bigger, but if it is moving away from you, it looks smaller.
Ponzo Illusion: when an object is closer to the converging lines in linear perspective, it appears larger.
EbbinghausTitcher Illusion: when an object is surrounded by large objects, it appears small, and if an object is surrounded by small things, it appears larger.
o Subliminal Perception: when there are very subtle messages you don’t notice right away, but it manages to influence your thoughts.
Chapter 5: Sleep and State of Consciousness (1st part)
o Circadian Rhythm: when certain function in the body at certain times throughout the day.
Morning vs. night people
∙ People with shorter circadian rhythms (23 hrs. and 40 min.
approximately) are morning people.
∙ People with longer circadian rhythms (24 hrs. and 15 min.
approximately) are night people.
o Effects of sleep deprivation:
Low sex drive
Loss of appetite
Memory and Cognitive Impairment
o Theories of dreaming
Freud’s theory of wish fulfillment: the reason we dream could be
because we want things we don’t have in real life.
∙ Manifest content: the things that are actually in the dream.
∙ Latent content: the meaning of the object(s) in the dream.
ActivationSynthesis Theory: when neurons in your brain are activated, your brain creates a story based on them, and they are dreams.
Neurocognitive Theory: dreams are a part of our cognitive process (what our thoughts are made up of).
∙ 5 currently accepted conclusions on why we dream:
o 1. Dreams help us process emotional memories.
o 2. Dreams help us integrate new experiences.
o 3. Dreams help us learn new ways and strategies to do
things in real life. Problem solving.
o 4. Dreams stimulate threatening events to help with coping
and /or surviving.
o 5. Dreams help store memories within our brains.
o Narcolepsy: When someone is spontaneously falling asleep, but not at will. They are cognitively tired.
o Sleep Apnea: When no oxygen goes in while the person is sleeping, leading them to snore really loudly. Because of that, the person will end up more tired than they should be.
o Night Terrors: When people scream while they are asleep, but it’s not because of a nightmare. It is hard to wake the person up, and they have no memory of screaming after they wake up.
o Insomnia: When people can’t fall asleep, or get good consistent sleep.