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COLORADO / Psychology / PSYC 2606 / What makes a persuasion attempt successful?

What makes a persuasion attempt successful?

What makes a persuasion attempt successful?

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School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Psychology
Course: Social Psychology
Professor: Irene blair
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: PSYC 2606: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: All lecture material and important vocabulary from the textbook
Uploaded: 10/15/2016
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PSYC 2606: Exam 2 Study Guide Emotion 


What makes a persuasion attempt successful?



• Definition: brief, specific psychological & physiological responses  that function to help us reach our goals  

• Emotion Expression – Universality  

o Emotions are biologically based adaptations to promote  survival & reproduction  

o Ex: blind & sighted athletes show similar facial/body  expressions

o Ex: cultures never exposed to The West can identify  Western facial expressions of 6 basic emotions  If you want to learn more check out Define stm.
If you want to learn more check out What are the fixed costs?

• Cultural Specificity

o Emotions are influenced by views of the self, social values &  roles, which vary across cultures  

o So, emotions should be expressed in different ways across  cultures  


Why mimicry?



• Universal & Cultural  

o Basic emotional responses are innate/universal but cultures  have different emotional accents & display rules If you want to learn more check out What is the equity theory?

(when/how emotions should be expressed)

o Collectivists = express shame & embarrassment  

o Individualists = express pride  

o People within “culture of honor” show more anger towards  insults  

• Emotion & Cognition Don't forget about the age old question of What are the sources of ethics and rituals?

o Appraisal theory: emotion is defined by ones appraisal  (evaluation) of the situation particularly w/regard to how it  influences goals & well being  

▪ Situation --> appraisal --> emotion --> response  

o Feelings as info = emotion can also influence cognition  (judgment) when used as a source of info  


Appeal to reciprocity or commitment?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is the first city in the world to fluoridate its community water supply?

▪ Ex: life satisfaction affected by the weather  

▪ For complex or difficult judgments people rely on  

their feelings as a source of fast, easily accessible info

▪ But feelings will be discounted if one attributes them  to another cause & thus aren’t informative about the  

judgment at hand  

• Affective Forecasting: predicting how one will feel during or after  a specific future event  

o Immune neglect: tendency to underestimate ones resilience  during negative life events  

▪ Unaware of stored psychological immune system  

most people possess (self enhancing, downward  

comparison)

o Focalism: tendency to focus only on only aspect of an  experience or event when trying to predict future emotions  ▪ Don’t think about how one will feel after the initial  

impact of the event or the importance of other events  

in determining feelings  

• Emotion & Behavior  

o Mimicry: people imitate others, often unconsciously  ▪ E.g. smiling, laughing, crying, blushing  Don't forget about the age old question of Is it poor people's fault that they're poor?

▪ Botox = blocking mimicry – could interfere  

w/emotional experiences because lack of facial  

muscles (unable to mimic)

o Embodied emotion = interpret physical reactions (muscle  contractions)

▪ Acting can result in feeling  

Attitude 

• Definition: positive or negative evaluation of an “object” o Low negative + low positive = non-attitude  

o High negative + high positive = ambivalent attitude  • Measurement (estimates)

o Self report (surveys)

o Physical response (rxn time)

o Physiological response (facial EMG)

o Behavior (choice of policy/object)

• Negativity Bias: people typically have stronger negative than  positive responses  

o A negative response easily contaminates positive response,  but not in the reverse direction

• Attitude Functions  

o Utilitarian, knowledge, value, & ego  

o Terror management theory: awareness of ones own  mortality that produces anxiety (terror) that motivates a  desire for immortality through support of ones culture &  institutions  

• Attitudes & Behaviors  

o Correlations = like to think that attitudes predict behavior,  but people frequently behave in ways that are discordant  w/their attitudes  

o Poor predictor – behavior has multiple causes (attitudes,  social norms, habit, situations, other attitudes)

o Mismatch in type of attitude & behavior measured  

▪ Implicit (automatic) vs. explicit (controlled) attitudes o Attitudes as feelings vs. beliefs  

▪ Ex: is the flu shot good for you vs. do you like how the  flu shot feels  

o General vs. specific  

▪ I like ice cream  

▪ I like pistachio ice cream at 6am (even though you like  ice cream, you probably wouldn’t eat it at 6am)

Cognitive Dissonance Theory 

• Definition: people want to be consistent in their thoughts, feelings,  & behaviors – inconsistency creates an unpleasant feeling that  motivates one to resolve the inconsistency  

o Once done, behaviors cant be undone; changing ones  thoughts & feelings becomes the only way to reduce  

dissonance  

• In action  

o Initiation rites – positive attitude overrides when negative  behavior occurs  

o Doomsday cults – predictions fail but still strong in their  belief & belief of their group r

• Conditions for dissonance  

o Insufficient justification – clear justification eliminates  inconsistency  

o Free choice – external causes eliminates inconsistency

o Negative consequences & discomfort – positive outcomes  justify  

o Foreseeability – negative consequences not known =  reduced inconsistency  

o If there is an imbalance between the perceived effort (cost)  & the value returned, cognitive dissonance is aroused – justification of effort  

▪ Effort (cost) has already occurred, so balance is  

achieved only if one believes that the return value  

was equally high  

• Additional applications  

o Engaging in negative/risky health behavior, then changing  attitudes to justify it  

o Participating in or failing to prevent harm to others  Persuasion 

• What makes a persuasion attempt successful?

o Eye catching, beautiful model, expertise, emotion, good  arguments

• Central Route (to attitude changes): change attitudes through  deliberation & reasoning  

o Provide logical, high quality arguments  

o Ex: 2004 Honda Accord --> high attention -->  

comprehension --> elaboration --> accept (or reject)

• Peripheral Route (to attitude changes): change attitudes through  feelings & superficial associations – heuristics

o Humor & attractiveness, superficial credibility,  

expensive/exclusive, buzz words (natural, organic), lots of  words or arguments  

o Ex: hot model on BMW --> low attention --> heuristics -->  accept (or reject)

• Components of a persuasion attempt – who (source) said what  (content) to whom (receiver)

1. Source (who)

a. Central:

i. Credibility = knowledge & trustworthy  

ii. Credible sources make one think more about  

the message

b. Peripheral:  

i. Source that generates positivity on a superficial  

level (e.g. appearance of credibility)

ii. Attractiveness, beautiful = good  

2. Message/content (what)

a. Central:  

i. High quality message provides desirable yet  

novel ideas  

ii. Straightforward, clear logical arguments  

iii. Directly refute opposing views  

iv. Link to core values  

v. Vivid messages that provoke more elaboration  

b. Peripheral:  

i. Message must contain persuasive cues,  

heuristics, or associations  

ii. Catch phrase/buzz words

iii. Lots of arguments regardless of quality  

iv. The appearance that others agree  

v. Positive emotion or mildly negative  

c. Does fear work?

i. Fear based messages contain vivid info & can be  

very compelling  

ii. Most effective when combined w/instructions  

on how to avoid negative outcomes  

3. Receiver (to whom)

a. Need for cognition = some people think more deeply  about nearly everything  

b. Mood = messages are more persuasive when they  match the mood of the receiver  

i. Optimistic messages work best on happy people

c. Age = younger people tend to be more persuadable  than older people  

• Persuasion by central

o Source: credible  

o Message: high quality  

o Receiver: have knowledge & ability to process, personal  relevance, high motivation  

• Persuasion by peripheral  

o Source: attractive, funny

o Message: lots of arguments, emotion, apparent social  consensus  

o Receiver: low knowledge, low ability, low  

relevance/motivation  

• Knowing what to resist

o Produce placement works:

▪ People are unaware that they are being targeted &  

peripheral processing is engaged  

▪ Product becomes more cognitively accessible  

▪ Product is positively associated w/characters or  

movie – the more one identifies w/the characters, the  

stronger the effect  

▪ People often fall prey to deceptive advertising tactics  • Motivation to resist  

o Psychological reactance theory  

o Freedom: I am free to think, say, or do this; threat: you are taking away my freedom – reactance – psychological  

discomfort; behavior to restore or assert freedom  

o Reactance may occur even if behavior wasn’t appealing to  the person before  

▪ Ex: 67% of students increase liking for music when  

they were told they couldn’t have it (CD)

Social Influence 

• Definition: the ways in which people impact one another – changing attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or behaviors – due to the real  or imagine presence of other people  

• Conformity: bringing ones behavior in line w/that of others, in the  absence of a request or demand to do so  

o Automatic: behavior mimicry  

▪ More common if in a relationship

• Why mimicry?

o Ideomotor action: seeing a behavior activates the same  behavioral pattern in the brain of the perceiver  

o People are motivated to have smooth social interactions  o Mimicry communicates & increases affiliation  

• Research findings: being mimicked  

o Greater liking & smooth interactions

o More helping behavior for mimicker, another person & even  an abstract charity  

o Infants react more positively to mimickers  

• Automatic mimicry is not for everyone

o Positively associated with: perspective taking,  

interdependent self concept, affiliation goal  

o Negatively associated with: other person is disliked, has  visible social stigma or is a member of a disliked out-group  • Normative social influence: conformity to gain social approval or  to avoid social disapproval  

o Ex: Asch’s line study – people eventually give in & agreed  with others opinion, even when they know the answer is  wrong  

• Informative social influence: conformity based on the desire to be  accurate  

o When we aren’t sure what to think or do, we look to other  people for answers  

o Autokinetic illusion = a stationary point of light in a  completely dark room appears to move  

• Automatic mimicry: conform without awareness  

• Factors reducing conformity  

o Lack of unanimity  

▪ Both types of conformity greatest when everyone is  doing the same thing  

▪ Normative decreased if one person breaks w/the  group  

o Low expertise or status  

▪ Experts = more informational social influence  

▪ High status = more normative social influence  

o Anonymity  

▪ Anonymous behavior = normative is reduced  

o Lack of internalization  

▪ Normative will not continue if people don’t  

internalize norm  

o Clear explanation for behavior  

▪ Conformity reduced when reasons for others  

behaviors are known or when there is an obvious  

difference from others  

• Reducing conformity – independent (“loose”) culture

o Independent = lower rates of normative conformity  o Lower rates of normative conformity found in “loose”  cultures – people are allowed to “get away” with what they  can  

Social Norm 

• Definition: customary rule for behavior that is often both  descriptive (what is done) & prescriptive (what should be done) o Compliance: changing behavior in response to a direct  request  

• Social proof (consensus): everyone is doing it  

o Ex: trying to reduce energy by putting a message on a house  door  

▪ Simply urging people to do it = the same as nothing  ▪ Saying the majority of your neighbors are saving =  

significant difference (reduced the most energy)

• Social norm of reciprocity: the expectation that people will return  benefits for benefits  

o Varies across situations  

o Ex: candy for tips  

▪ Server that brings candy w/check results in an  

increase in tip amount left; increases even more w/2  

pieces of candy; greatest increase when 2nd piece is  

given as a “special treat”

o Door in the face technique: make a large request that is  expected to be refused, followed by a smaller request  

▪ Agreement w/more reasonable request would fulfill  the reciprocity obligation (you owe me)

o That’s not all technique: while people are considering a  request, an extra is offered to “sweeten the deal”

▪ The offer must be truly extra, not part of the original  deal  

▪ Ex: cupcakes for $2, but I’ll throw in 2 cookies with it  • Social norm of commitment: do what you say you’ll do; be  consistent in your values

o Foot in the door technique: get initial commitment, then  follow up w/a related larger request

▪ Ex: homeowners asked to put safety sign in yard –

only 17% did it  

• First asked to put up small sign in window and  

2 weeks later put the safety sign in yard – 76%  

did it  

▪ Culture: Americans show an increase in foot in the  

door compliance than Asians  

• More individualistic = the more foot in the door  

technique worked  

• Norm of commitment

o Low balling: we had an agreement, you cant back out  ▪ Unattractive request presented after deal is made =  less likely to refuse the unattractive request  

▪ Change the terms of agreement  

• Ex: plumbing total will be $80, but there is an  

extra driving fee of $40

• Appeal to reciprocity or commitment?  

o Reciprocity:

▪ Start high, go down

▪ Give gift/extra treat  

o Commitment:  

▪ Start low, go up  

▪ Get agreement, add cost  

Social Norm of Obedience 

• Definition: people typically obey those w/authority (descriptive  norm) & believe that this is how it should be (prescriptive norm) • Stanley Milgram Study  

o Over 65% of participants went to 450 volts  

o BBC video 9/12 participant went to 450 volts  

▪ They went on when they were told by the professor  that it was essential for the experiment (authority  

obedience)  

• Obedience: reduced personal responsibility  

o People see themselves as following the experimenter rather  than taking action  

o Become focused on their responsibility to the experimenter  rather than their responsibility to the learner

o Experimenter takes responsibility & people abdicate their  responsibility to him  

• Personal responsibility  (Milgram Study)

o Proximal: learner in same room, can be seen & heard  ▪ 40% obedience  

o Touch: have to force leaner to take shock after 150 volts  ▪ 30% obedience  

• Salience of authority (Milgram Study)  

o Experimenter uses tone of voice & other non-verbal  behaviors to reinforce command – ignores any reasoning by  participants  

o Experimenter absent: gives orders over the phone  ▪ 25-30% obedience  

o Ordinary man: ordinary man to take experimenters place – man decides to increase shock level for incorrect answers  ▪ 20% obedience  

• Salience of the social norm (Milgram Study)  

o Peers rebel: participant gives shock – peer rebels; 1st peer  quit at 150 volts, 2nd peer quit at 210 volts  

▪ 10% obedience ***

o Peers obey: participant gives shock – peer continues w/o  objection  

▪ 90% obedience ***

• Additional Factors

o Obedience comes in small steps – threshold between good &  bad is difficult to establish in the moment  

o Cognitive dissonance  

▪ Justification for each step of obedience makes the next  step easier  

▪ Typically occurs after “learner” yells & authority  

convinces them to continue on

CHAPTER 6 VOCAB

Emotion: a brief, specific response, both psychological & physiological,  that helps people meet goals (specific goals)

Appraisal process: a component of emotion – patterns of construal for  evaluating events & objects in the environment based on their relation  to current goals  

Emotional accent: a specific way people from different cultures express  a particular emotion  

Focal emotion: an emotion that is especially common within a particular  culture  

Display rules: a culturally specific rule that governs how/when/to  whom people express emotion  

Emotion intelligence (EQ): the ability to express, recognize & use  emotions well within social interactions  

Broaden and build hypothesis: positive emotions broaden thoughts &  actions, helping people build social resources  

Social intuitionist model of moral judgment: people first have fast  emotional reactions to morally relevant events & then they rely on  reason to arrive at a judgment of right/wrong  

Moral foundations theory: a theory proposing that there are 5 evolved  universal moral domains in which specific emotions guide moral  judgments  

Affective forecasting: predicting future emotions – whether an event  will result in happiness or anger and for how long  

Immune neglect: people underestimate their capacity to be resilient in  responding to difficult life events, leading them to overemphasize how  life problems will reduce their well being

Focalism: focus too much on a central aspect of an event while  neglecting the possible impact of other factors/events  

Duration neglect: giving relative unimportance to the length of an  emotional experience – pleasant or not – in judging & remembering the  overall experience  

CHAPTER 7 VOCAB  

Attitude: an evaluation of an object in a positive/negative fashion that  includes: affect, cognition & behavior  

Likert scale: numerical scale used to asses attitudes – includes a set of  possible answers w/labeled anchors on each extreme  

Response latency: amount of time it takes to response to a stimulus – like an attitude question  

Implicit attitude measures: an indirect measure of attitudes that does  not involve a self-report  

Cognitive dissonance theory: inconsistencies among a persons  thoughts/sentiments/actions cause an aversive emotional state that  leads to efforts to restore consistency  

Effort justification: tendency to reduce dissonance by justifying the  time/effort/money devoted to something that turned out to be  unpleasant or disappointing  

Induced compliance: subtly compelling people to behave in a manner  that is inconsistent w/their beliefs/attitudes/values, in order to elicit  dissonance & a change in their original views  

Self-perception theory: people come to know their own attitudes by  looking at their behavior & the context in which it occurred & inferring  what their attitudes must be  

Terror management theory: people deal w/the potentially crippling  anxiety associated w/the knowledge of the inevitability of death by

striving for symbolic immortality through preserving valued cultural  world views & believing they have lived up their standards  

Self-justification theory: people are motivated to see the existing  sociopolitical system as desirable, fair & legit  

CHAPTER 8 VOCAB

Elaboration - likelihood model (ELM): there are 2 routes to persuasion:  the central & peripheral route  

Heuristic – systematic model (HSM): there are 2 routes to persuasion:  systematic & heuristic route  

Central (systematic) route: people think carefully & deliberately about  the content of a persuasive message  

• Logic & strength of arguments  

• Related evidence & principles  

Peripheral (heuristic) route: people attend to relatively easy to process,  superficial cues related to a persuasive message  

• Length, expertise, attractiveness of source  

Source characteristics: characteristics of person who delivers a  persuasive message  

• Attractiveness, credibility, certainty  

Sleeper effect: occurs when a persuasive message from an unreliable  source initially exerts little influence but later causes attitudes to shift  

Message characteristics: aspects of content of a persuasive message  including quality of the evidence & explicitness of its conclusions  

Identifiable victim effect: more moved by the vivid plight of a single  individual than by a more abstract # of people  

Audience characteristics: those who receive a persuasive message  • Need for cognition, mood, age, audience size, diversity

Metacognitions: secondary thoughts that are reflections on primary  cognitions  

Self validation hypothesis: the likelihood of attitude change can depend  not only on the direction & amount of thoughts people have in response  to a persuasive message, but also on the confidence w/which they hold  the thoughts  

3rd person effect: assumption that others are more prone to being  influenced by persuasive messages than they are themselves  

Agenda control: efforts of media to select certain events & topics to  emphasize – shaping which issues & events people think are important  

Thought polarization hypothesis: more extended thought about a  particular issue tends to produce a more extreme entrenched attitude  

Attitude inoculation: small attacks on peoples beliefs that engage their  preexisting attitudes, prior commitments, background knowledge – enabling them to counteract a subsequent larger attack & resist  persuasion  

CHAPTER 9 VOCAB  

Social influence: the many ways people affect one another; including  changes in attitudes, beliefs, feelings & behavior resulting from  comments/actions/presence of others  

Conformity: changing ones behavior or beliefs in response to explicit or  implicit pressure (real or imagined) from others  

Compliance: responding favorably to an explicit request by another  person  

Obedience: an unequal power relationship, submitting to the demands  of the person of authority  

Ideomotor action: merely thinking about a behavior makes performing  it more likely

Informational social influence: influence of others that results from  taking their comments or actions as a source of info about what is  correct, proper, or effective  

Normative social influence: influence of other people that comes from  the desire to avoid their disapproval & other social sanctions  

Internalization: private acceptance of a proposition, orientation, or  ideology  

Norm of reciprocity: a norm dictating that people should provide  benefits to those who benefit them  

Reciprocal concessions technique: door in the face = asking someone for  a very large favor that will be refused then following w/a request for a  smaller favor  

That’s not all technique: compliance approach that involves adding  something to an original offer – creating some pressure to reciprocate  

Foot in the door: making an initial small request followed by a larger  request involving the real behavior of interest  

Negative state relief hypothesis: people engage in certain actions to  relieve their negative feelings & feels better about themselves  

Descriptive norm: behavior exhibited by most people in a given context  

Prescriptive norm: the way a person is supposed to behave in a given  context  

Reactance theory: people reassert their perspectives in response to the  unpleasant state of arousal they experience when they believe their  freedoms are threatened

PSYC 2606: Exam 2 Study Guide Emotion 

• Definition: brief, specific psychological & physiological responses  that function to help us reach our goals  

• Emotion Expression – Universality  

o Emotions are biologically based adaptations to promote  survival & reproduction  

o Ex: blind & sighted athletes show similar facial/body  expressions

o Ex: cultures never exposed to The West can identify  Western facial expressions of 6 basic emotions  

• Cultural Specificity

o Emotions are influenced by views of the self, social values &  roles, which vary across cultures  

o So, emotions should be expressed in different ways across  cultures  

• Universal & Cultural  

o Basic emotional responses are innate/universal but cultures  have different emotional accents & display rules 

(when/how emotions should be expressed)

o Collectivists = express shame & embarrassment  

o Individualists = express pride  

o People within “culture of honor” show more anger towards  insults  

• Emotion & Cognition

o Appraisal theory: emotion is defined by ones appraisal  (evaluation) of the situation particularly w/regard to how it  influences goals & well being  

▪ Situation --> appraisal --> emotion --> response  

o Feelings as info = emotion can also influence cognition  (judgment) when used as a source of info  

▪ Ex: life satisfaction affected by the weather  

▪ For complex or difficult judgments people rely on  

their feelings as a source of fast, easily accessible info

▪ But feelings will be discounted if one attributes them  to another cause & thus aren’t informative about the  

judgment at hand  

• Affective Forecasting: predicting how one will feel during or after  a specific future event  

o Immune neglect: tendency to underestimate ones resilience  during negative life events  

▪ Unaware of stored psychological immune system  

most people possess (self enhancing, downward  

comparison)

o Focalism: tendency to focus only on only aspect of an  experience or event when trying to predict future emotions  ▪ Don’t think about how one will feel after the initial  

impact of the event or the importance of other events  

in determining feelings  

• Emotion & Behavior  

o Mimicry: people imitate others, often unconsciously  ▪ E.g. smiling, laughing, crying, blushing  

▪ Botox = blocking mimicry – could interfere  

w/emotional experiences because lack of facial  

muscles (unable to mimic)

o Embodied emotion = interpret physical reactions (muscle  contractions)

▪ Acting can result in feeling  

Attitude 

• Definition: positive or negative evaluation of an “object” o Low negative + low positive = non-attitude  

o High negative + high positive = ambivalent attitude  • Measurement (estimates)

o Self report (surveys)

o Physical response (rxn time)

o Physiological response (facial EMG)

o Behavior (choice of policy/object)

• Negativity Bias: people typically have stronger negative than  positive responses  

o A negative response easily contaminates positive response,  but not in the reverse direction

• Attitude Functions  

o Utilitarian, knowledge, value, & ego  

o Terror management theory: awareness of ones own  mortality that produces anxiety (terror) that motivates a  desire for immortality through support of ones culture &  institutions  

• Attitudes & Behaviors  

o Correlations = like to think that attitudes predict behavior,  but people frequently behave in ways that are discordant  w/their attitudes  

o Poor predictor – behavior has multiple causes (attitudes,  social norms, habit, situations, other attitudes)

o Mismatch in type of attitude & behavior measured  

▪ Implicit (automatic) vs. explicit (controlled) attitudes o Attitudes as feelings vs. beliefs  

▪ Ex: is the flu shot good for you vs. do you like how the  flu shot feels  

o General vs. specific  

▪ I like ice cream  

▪ I like pistachio ice cream at 6am (even though you like  ice cream, you probably wouldn’t eat it at 6am)

Cognitive Dissonance Theory 

• Definition: people want to be consistent in their thoughts, feelings,  & behaviors – inconsistency creates an unpleasant feeling that  motivates one to resolve the inconsistency  

o Once done, behaviors cant be undone; changing ones  thoughts & feelings becomes the only way to reduce  

dissonance  

• In action  

o Initiation rites – positive attitude overrides when negative  behavior occurs  

o Doomsday cults – predictions fail but still strong in their  belief & belief of their group r

• Conditions for dissonance  

o Insufficient justification – clear justification eliminates  inconsistency  

o Free choice – external causes eliminates inconsistency

o Negative consequences & discomfort – positive outcomes  justify  

o Foreseeability – negative consequences not known =  reduced inconsistency  

o If there is an imbalance between the perceived effort (cost)  & the value returned, cognitive dissonance is aroused – justification of effort  

▪ Effort (cost) has already occurred, so balance is  

achieved only if one believes that the return value  

was equally high  

• Additional applications  

o Engaging in negative/risky health behavior, then changing  attitudes to justify it  

o Participating in or failing to prevent harm to others  Persuasion 

• What makes a persuasion attempt successful?

o Eye catching, beautiful model, expertise, emotion, good  arguments

• Central Route (to attitude changes): change attitudes through  deliberation & reasoning  

o Provide logical, high quality arguments  

o Ex: 2004 Honda Accord --> high attention -->  

comprehension --> elaboration --> accept (or reject)

• Peripheral Route (to attitude changes): change attitudes through  feelings & superficial associations – heuristics

o Humor & attractiveness, superficial credibility,  

expensive/exclusive, buzz words (natural, organic), lots of  words or arguments  

o Ex: hot model on BMW --> low attention --> heuristics -->  accept (or reject)

• Components of a persuasion attempt – who (source) said what  (content) to whom (receiver)

1. Source (who)

a. Central:

i. Credibility = knowledge & trustworthy  

ii. Credible sources make one think more about  

the message

b. Peripheral:  

i. Source that generates positivity on a superficial  

level (e.g. appearance of credibility)

ii. Attractiveness, beautiful = good  

2. Message/content (what)

a. Central:  

i. High quality message provides desirable yet  

novel ideas  

ii. Straightforward, clear logical arguments  

iii. Directly refute opposing views  

iv. Link to core values  

v. Vivid messages that provoke more elaboration  

b. Peripheral:  

i. Message must contain persuasive cues,  

heuristics, or associations  

ii. Catch phrase/buzz words

iii. Lots of arguments regardless of quality  

iv. The appearance that others agree  

v. Positive emotion or mildly negative  

c. Does fear work?

i. Fear based messages contain vivid info & can be  

very compelling  

ii. Most effective when combined w/instructions  

on how to avoid negative outcomes  

3. Receiver (to whom)

a. Need for cognition = some people think more deeply  about nearly everything  

b. Mood = messages are more persuasive when they  match the mood of the receiver  

i. Optimistic messages work best on happy people

c. Age = younger people tend to be more persuadable  than older people  

• Persuasion by central

o Source: credible  

o Message: high quality  

o Receiver: have knowledge & ability to process, personal  relevance, high motivation  

• Persuasion by peripheral  

o Source: attractive, funny

o Message: lots of arguments, emotion, apparent social  consensus  

o Receiver: low knowledge, low ability, low  

relevance/motivation  

• Knowing what to resist

o Produce placement works:

▪ People are unaware that they are being targeted &  

peripheral processing is engaged  

▪ Product becomes more cognitively accessible  

▪ Product is positively associated w/characters or  

movie – the more one identifies w/the characters, the  

stronger the effect  

▪ People often fall prey to deceptive advertising tactics  • Motivation to resist  

o Psychological reactance theory  

o Freedom: I am free to think, say, or do this; threat: you are taking away my freedom – reactance – psychological  

discomfort; behavior to restore or assert freedom  

o Reactance may occur even if behavior wasn’t appealing to  the person before  

▪ Ex: 67% of students increase liking for music when  

they were told they couldn’t have it (CD)

Social Influence 

• Definition: the ways in which people impact one another – changing attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or behaviors – due to the real  or imagine presence of other people  

• Conformity: bringing ones behavior in line w/that of others, in the  absence of a request or demand to do so  

o Automatic: behavior mimicry  

▪ More common if in a relationship

• Why mimicry?

o Ideomotor action: seeing a behavior activates the same  behavioral pattern in the brain of the perceiver  

o People are motivated to have smooth social interactions  o Mimicry communicates & increases affiliation  

• Research findings: being mimicked  

o Greater liking & smooth interactions

o More helping behavior for mimicker, another person & even  an abstract charity  

o Infants react more positively to mimickers  

• Automatic mimicry is not for everyone

o Positively associated with: perspective taking,  

interdependent self concept, affiliation goal  

o Negatively associated with: other person is disliked, has  visible social stigma or is a member of a disliked out-group  • Normative social influence: conformity to gain social approval or  to avoid social disapproval  

o Ex: Asch’s line study – people eventually give in & agreed  with others opinion, even when they know the answer is  wrong  

• Informative social influence: conformity based on the desire to be  accurate  

o When we aren’t sure what to think or do, we look to other  people for answers  

o Autokinetic illusion = a stationary point of light in a  completely dark room appears to move  

• Automatic mimicry: conform without awareness  

• Factors reducing conformity  

o Lack of unanimity  

▪ Both types of conformity greatest when everyone is  doing the same thing  

▪ Normative decreased if one person breaks w/the  group  

o Low expertise or status  

▪ Experts = more informational social influence  

▪ High status = more normative social influence  

o Anonymity  

▪ Anonymous behavior = normative is reduced  

o Lack of internalization  

▪ Normative will not continue if people don’t  

internalize norm  

o Clear explanation for behavior  

▪ Conformity reduced when reasons for others  

behaviors are known or when there is an obvious  

difference from others  

• Reducing conformity – independent (“loose”) culture

o Independent = lower rates of normative conformity  o Lower rates of normative conformity found in “loose”  cultures – people are allowed to “get away” with what they  can  

Social Norm 

• Definition: customary rule for behavior that is often both  descriptive (what is done) & prescriptive (what should be done) o Compliance: changing behavior in response to a direct  request  

• Social proof (consensus): everyone is doing it  

o Ex: trying to reduce energy by putting a message on a house  door  

▪ Simply urging people to do it = the same as nothing  ▪ Saying the majority of your neighbors are saving =  

significant difference (reduced the most energy)

• Social norm of reciprocity: the expectation that people will return  benefits for benefits  

o Varies across situations  

o Ex: candy for tips  

▪ Server that brings candy w/check results in an  

increase in tip amount left; increases even more w/2  

pieces of candy; greatest increase when 2nd piece is  

given as a “special treat”

o Door in the face technique: make a large request that is  expected to be refused, followed by a smaller request  

▪ Agreement w/more reasonable request would fulfill  the reciprocity obligation (you owe me)

o That’s not all technique: while people are considering a  request, an extra is offered to “sweeten the deal”

▪ The offer must be truly extra, not part of the original  deal  

▪ Ex: cupcakes for $2, but I’ll throw in 2 cookies with it  • Social norm of commitment: do what you say you’ll do; be  consistent in your values

o Foot in the door technique: get initial commitment, then  follow up w/a related larger request

▪ Ex: homeowners asked to put safety sign in yard –

only 17% did it  

• First asked to put up small sign in window and  

2 weeks later put the safety sign in yard – 76%  

did it  

▪ Culture: Americans show an increase in foot in the  

door compliance than Asians  

• More individualistic = the more foot in the door  

technique worked  

• Norm of commitment

o Low balling: we had an agreement, you cant back out  ▪ Unattractive request presented after deal is made =  less likely to refuse the unattractive request  

▪ Change the terms of agreement  

• Ex: plumbing total will be $80, but there is an  

extra driving fee of $40

• Appeal to reciprocity or commitment?  

o Reciprocity:

▪ Start high, go down

▪ Give gift/extra treat  

o Commitment:  

▪ Start low, go up  

▪ Get agreement, add cost  

Social Norm of Obedience 

• Definition: people typically obey those w/authority (descriptive  norm) & believe that this is how it should be (prescriptive norm) • Stanley Milgram Study  

o Over 65% of participants went to 450 volts  

o BBC video 9/12 participant went to 450 volts  

▪ They went on when they were told by the professor  that it was essential for the experiment (authority  

obedience)  

• Obedience: reduced personal responsibility  

o People see themselves as following the experimenter rather  than taking action  

o Become focused on their responsibility to the experimenter  rather than their responsibility to the learner

o Experimenter takes responsibility & people abdicate their  responsibility to him  

• Personal responsibility  (Milgram Study)

o Proximal: learner in same room, can be seen & heard  ▪ 40% obedience  

o Touch: have to force leaner to take shock after 150 volts  ▪ 30% obedience  

• Salience of authority (Milgram Study)  

o Experimenter uses tone of voice & other non-verbal  behaviors to reinforce command – ignores any reasoning by  participants  

o Experimenter absent: gives orders over the phone  ▪ 25-30% obedience  

o Ordinary man: ordinary man to take experimenters place – man decides to increase shock level for incorrect answers  ▪ 20% obedience  

• Salience of the social norm (Milgram Study)  

o Peers rebel: participant gives shock – peer rebels; 1st peer  quit at 150 volts, 2nd peer quit at 210 volts  

▪ 10% obedience ***

o Peers obey: participant gives shock – peer continues w/o  objection  

▪ 90% obedience ***

• Additional Factors

o Obedience comes in small steps – threshold between good &  bad is difficult to establish in the moment  

o Cognitive dissonance  

▪ Justification for each step of obedience makes the next  step easier  

▪ Typically occurs after “learner” yells & authority  

convinces them to continue on

CHAPTER 6 VOCAB

Emotion: a brief, specific response, both psychological & physiological,  that helps people meet goals (specific goals)

Appraisal process: a component of emotion – patterns of construal for  evaluating events & objects in the environment based on their relation  to current goals  

Emotional accent: a specific way people from different cultures express  a particular emotion  

Focal emotion: an emotion that is especially common within a particular  culture  

Display rules: a culturally specific rule that governs how/when/to  whom people express emotion  

Emotion intelligence (EQ): the ability to express, recognize & use  emotions well within social interactions  

Broaden and build hypothesis: positive emotions broaden thoughts &  actions, helping people build social resources  

Social intuitionist model of moral judgment: people first have fast  emotional reactions to morally relevant events & then they rely on  reason to arrive at a judgment of right/wrong  

Moral foundations theory: a theory proposing that there are 5 evolved  universal moral domains in which specific emotions guide moral  judgments  

Affective forecasting: predicting future emotions – whether an event  will result in happiness or anger and for how long  

Immune neglect: people underestimate their capacity to be resilient in  responding to difficult life events, leading them to overemphasize how  life problems will reduce their well being

Focalism: focus too much on a central aspect of an event while  neglecting the possible impact of other factors/events  

Duration neglect: giving relative unimportance to the length of an  emotional experience – pleasant or not – in judging & remembering the  overall experience  

CHAPTER 7 VOCAB  

Attitude: an evaluation of an object in a positive/negative fashion that  includes: affect, cognition & behavior  

Likert scale: numerical scale used to asses attitudes – includes a set of  possible answers w/labeled anchors on each extreme  

Response latency: amount of time it takes to response to a stimulus – like an attitude question  

Implicit attitude measures: an indirect measure of attitudes that does  not involve a self-report  

Cognitive dissonance theory: inconsistencies among a persons  thoughts/sentiments/actions cause an aversive emotional state that  leads to efforts to restore consistency  

Effort justification: tendency to reduce dissonance by justifying the  time/effort/money devoted to something that turned out to be  unpleasant or disappointing  

Induced compliance: subtly compelling people to behave in a manner  that is inconsistent w/their beliefs/attitudes/values, in order to elicit  dissonance & a change in their original views  

Self-perception theory: people come to know their own attitudes by  looking at their behavior & the context in which it occurred & inferring  what their attitudes must be  

Terror management theory: people deal w/the potentially crippling  anxiety associated w/the knowledge of the inevitability of death by

striving for symbolic immortality through preserving valued cultural  world views & believing they have lived up their standards  

Self-justification theory: people are motivated to see the existing  sociopolitical system as desirable, fair & legit  

CHAPTER 8 VOCAB

Elaboration - likelihood model (ELM): there are 2 routes to persuasion:  the central & peripheral route  

Heuristic – systematic model (HSM): there are 2 routes to persuasion:  systematic & heuristic route  

Central (systematic) route: people think carefully & deliberately about  the content of a persuasive message  

• Logic & strength of arguments  

• Related evidence & principles  

Peripheral (heuristic) route: people attend to relatively easy to process,  superficial cues related to a persuasive message  

• Length, expertise, attractiveness of source  

Source characteristics: characteristics of person who delivers a  persuasive message  

• Attractiveness, credibility, certainty  

Sleeper effect: occurs when a persuasive message from an unreliable  source initially exerts little influence but later causes attitudes to shift  

Message characteristics: aspects of content of a persuasive message  including quality of the evidence & explicitness of its conclusions  

Identifiable victim effect: more moved by the vivid plight of a single  individual than by a more abstract # of people  

Audience characteristics: those who receive a persuasive message  • Need for cognition, mood, age, audience size, diversity

Metacognitions: secondary thoughts that are reflections on primary  cognitions  

Self validation hypothesis: the likelihood of attitude change can depend  not only on the direction & amount of thoughts people have in response  to a persuasive message, but also on the confidence w/which they hold  the thoughts  

3rd person effect: assumption that others are more prone to being  influenced by persuasive messages than they are themselves  

Agenda control: efforts of media to select certain events & topics to  emphasize – shaping which issues & events people think are important  

Thought polarization hypothesis: more extended thought about a  particular issue tends to produce a more extreme entrenched attitude  

Attitude inoculation: small attacks on peoples beliefs that engage their  preexisting attitudes, prior commitments, background knowledge – enabling them to counteract a subsequent larger attack & resist  persuasion  

CHAPTER 9 VOCAB  

Social influence: the many ways people affect one another; including  changes in attitudes, beliefs, feelings & behavior resulting from  comments/actions/presence of others  

Conformity: changing ones behavior or beliefs in response to explicit or  implicit pressure (real or imagined) from others  

Compliance: responding favorably to an explicit request by another  person  

Obedience: an unequal power relationship, submitting to the demands  of the person of authority  

Ideomotor action: merely thinking about a behavior makes performing  it more likely

Informational social influence: influence of others that results from  taking their comments or actions as a source of info about what is  correct, proper, or effective  

Normative social influence: influence of other people that comes from  the desire to avoid their disapproval & other social sanctions  

Internalization: private acceptance of a proposition, orientation, or  ideology  

Norm of reciprocity: a norm dictating that people should provide  benefits to those who benefit them  

Reciprocal concessions technique: door in the face = asking someone for  a very large favor that will be refused then following w/a request for a  smaller favor  

That’s not all technique: compliance approach that involves adding  something to an original offer – creating some pressure to reciprocate  

Foot in the door: making an initial small request followed by a larger  request involving the real behavior of interest  

Negative state relief hypothesis: people engage in certain actions to  relieve their negative feelings & feels better about themselves  

Descriptive norm: behavior exhibited by most people in a given context  

Prescriptive norm: the way a person is supposed to behave in a given  context  

Reactance theory: people reassert their perspectives in response to the  unpleasant state of arousal they experience when they believe their  freedoms are threatened

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