Study Guide For Test 3
Study Guide For Test 3 BMSP 2135
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jess on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMSP 2135 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Theresa Gillian in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology in Biomedical Sciences at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
CHAPTER 9 NOTES Joints Bony Immovable joint Also known as synostosis When gap between two bones ossifies Occurs in either fibrous or cartilaginous joints Fibrous Bound by collagen fibers 3 types: o Sutures – immovable/slightly movable; bound to the skull Serrate- interlocking Lap- overlapping Plane (butt)- straight, nonoverlapping o Gomphoses – use of a periodontal ligament Tooth to jawbone o Sydesmoses – bound by a longer collagenous fiber; has more mobility Interosseous membrane Cartilaginous 2 types o Synchondroses – bound by hyaline cartilage o Symphyses – bound by fibrocartilage Synovial Separated by a joint cavity Freely movable More complex most familiar contains: o articular cartilage o joint cavity o synovial fluid o joint capsule accessory structures: o tendons o ligaments o bursa o tendon sheaths Mechanical Advantage: advantage conferred by a layer- o to exert more force against a resisting object than the force applied to the lever o to move the resisting object farther or faster than the effort arm is moved o a single lever cannot confer both advantages mechanical advantage (MA) of a lever- the ratio of its output force to its input force calculated from the length of the effort arm divided by the length of the resistance arm MA > 1.0 – the lever produces more force, but less speed and distance, than the force exerted on it MA < 1.0 – the lever produces more speed or distance, but less force than the input Range of Motion Determined by: o Structure of the articular surfaces o Strength and tautness of ligaments and joint capsules o Action of the muscles and tendons Axes of rotation- o Monaxial- one degree o Biaxial- two degrees o Multiaxial- three degrees Types of Synovial Joints- Ball-and-Socket Joints Condyloid Joints Saddle Plane Hinge Pivot Abduction- movement away from the midline Adduction- movement back toward the midline Elevation- raises Depression- lowers Protraction- anterior movement Retraction- posterior movement Temporomandibular Joint- Articulation of the condyle of the mandible with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone The Shoulder Joint- Glenohumeral or humeroscapular joint- the head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula The Coxal Joint The head of the femur inserts into the acetabulum of the hip bone Acetabular labrum Fovea capitis The Knee Joint Tibiofemoral joint- largest and most complex diarthrosis of the body Medial and lateral meniscus absorb shock and shape joint Two ligaments deep within joint capsule that cross each other to form an X Chapter 10 Lecture Notes The Muscular System About 600 skeletal About half of body weight Three kinds: o Skeletal o Cardiac o Smooth Purpose to convert chemical energy in ATP into mechanical energy of motion Myology- study of muscular system Functions Movement Stability Control of openings and passageways Heat production by skeletal muscles Connective Tissue of a Muscle Endomysium o Thin sleeve of loose connective tissue o Surrounds each muscle fiber Perimysium o Slightly thicker layer o Surrounds each fascicle Epimysium o Fibrous sheath surrounding the entire muscle Fascia o Sheet of connective tissue that separates neighboring muscles o Strength of a muscle and the direction of its pill are determined partly by the orientation of its fascicles o Classification of Muscles According to Fascicle Orientation Fusiform muscles Parallel muscles Triangular muscles Pennate muscles Circular muscles Muscle Attachments Tendons o Indirect attachment o Muscle ends and bones o Aponeurosis Tendon is broad, flat sheet o Retinaculum Connective tissue band that tendons from separate muscles pass under Direct fleshy attachment to bone o Little separation o Muscle seems to immerge directly from bone Functional Groups Action o Effects produced by a muscle Produce or prevent movement Prime mover (agonist) o Muscle that produces most of fore during a joint action Synergist o Muscle that aids the prime mover o Stabilizes the nearby joint o Modifies the direction of movement Antagonist o Opposes the prime mover o Relaxes to give prime mover control over an action o Preventing excessive movement and injury o Antagonistic pairs- muscles that act on opposite sides of a joint Fixator o Muscle that prevents movement of bone Intrinsic Muscles o Entirely contained within a region, such as the hand Extrinsic Muscles o Act on a designated region, but has its origin elsewhere Muscle Innervation Innervation of a muscle o Refers to the identity of the nerve that stimulates it o Enables the diagnosis of nerve, spinal cord, and brainstem injuries from their effects on muscle formation Spinal nerves o Arise from the spinal cord o Emerge through intervertebral foramina o Innervate muscles below the neck o Plexus Web-like network of spinal nerves adjacent to the vertebral column Cranial nerves o Arise from the base of the brain o Emerge through skill foramina o Innervate the muscles of the head and neck o Numbered I to XII Muscles of Facial Expression Muscles that insert in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues Tense the skin and produce facial expressions Innervated by facial nerve (CN VII) Paralysis causes face to sag Found in scalp, forehead, around the eyes, nose and mouth, and in the neck Muscles of Chewing and Swallowing Extrinsic muscles o Tongue is very agile organ o Pushes food between molars for chewing (mastication) o Forces food into the pharynx for swallowing (deglutition) o Crucial importance to speech Intrinsic Muscle o Vertical, transverse, and longitudinal fascicles Four pairs of muscles produce the biting and chewing movements of the mandible o Depression o Elevation o Protraction o Retraction o Lateral and medial excursion Innervated by mandibular nerve o Branch of the trigeminal (V) Hyoid Muscles Aspects of chewing, swallowing, and vocalizing 8 pairs of hypoid muscles associated with hyoid bone Digastric o Opens mouth widely Geniohyoid o Depresses mandible Mylohyoid o Elevates floor of mouth at beginning of swallowing Stylohyoid o Elevated hyoid Infrahyoid Group o Fix hyoid bone from below o Allow suprahyoid muscles to open mouth Omohyoid Depresses hyoid after elevation Sternohyid Depresses hyoid after elevation Thyrohyoid Depresses hyoid and elevates larynx Sternothyroid Depresses larynx after elevation Muscles of Pharynx 3 pairs pharyngeal constrictors o Encircle pharynx forming a muscular funnel o During swallowing drive food into the esophagus Muscles Acting on the Head Originate on the vertebral column, thoracic cage, and pectoral girdle Insert on the cranial bones Actions o Flexion o Extension o Lateral flexion o Rotation Contralateral movement o Moving the head towards the opposite side Ipsilateral movement o Moving head toward the same side Neck flexors Neck extensors Muscles of Respiration Use of muscles enclosing thoracic cavity Inspiration Expiration “know which muscles it involves” Diaphragm o Muscular dome between thoracic and abdominal cavities o Muscle fascicles extend to a fibrous central tendon o Contraction flattens diaphragm Enlarges thoracic cavity (inspiration) o In relaxation of diaphragm it rises Shrinks the thoracic cavity (expiration) Intercostals o External Elevates ribs Expand thoracic cavity Create partial vacuum causing inflow of air o Internal Depresses and retracts ribs Compresses thoracic cavity Expelling air o Innermost Same action as internal Muscles Acting on Shoulder and Upper Limb Compartments o Spaces in which muscles are organized and are separated by fibrous connective tissue sheets (fasciae) Muscles of upper limbs divided into anterior and posterior compartments Muscles of lower limbs divided into anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral compartments Intermuscular septa (thick fascia) separates compartments Compartment syndrome o One of the muscles or blood vessels in a compartment is injured Shoulder o Originate on axial skeleton o Insert on clavicle and scapula o Scapula loosely attached to thoracic cage Capable of great movement Rotation, elevation, depression, protraction, retraction o Clavicle braces the shoulder and moderates movements Arm o 9 muscles cross the shoulder joint and insert on humerus o 2 are axial muscles because they originate on axial skeleton Pectoralis major Latissimus dorsi o 7 scapular muscles o Originate on scapula Deltoid Teres major Coracobrachialis Remaining 4 form rotator cuff Forearm o Elbow and forearm capable of flexion, extension, pronation, and supination o Muscles with bellies in the brachium Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Flexor retinaculum o Bracelet-like fibrous sheet that the flexor tendons of the extrinsic muscles that flex the wrist pass on their way to their insertions Carpal tunnel o Tight space between the flor retinaculum and the carpal bones Flexor tendons passing through the tunnel are enclosed in tendon sheaths Carpal tunnel syndrome o Prolonged, repetitive motions of wrist and fingers can cause tissues in the carpal tunnel to become inflamed, swollen, or fibrotic Puts pressure on median nerve of the wrist Muscles Acting on the Hip and Lower Limb Largest muscles found in lower limb Less for precision, more for strength Several cross and act on two or more joints Leg Foot Muscles Acting on the Knee and Leg Anterior (extensor) compartment of the thigh o Contains quadriceps femoris Most powerful muscle in the body Has 4 heads Prime mover of knee extension o Sartorius Longest muscle Intrinsic muscles of the foot Four ventral muscle layers Support for arches o Abduct and adduct toes o Flex toes One dorsal muscle Athletic Injuries Muscles and tendons are vulnerable to sudden and intense stress Proper condition and warm-up needed Common injuries; o Compartment syndrome o Shinsplints o Pulled hamstrings o Tennis elbow o Pulled groin o Rotator cuff injury Treat with rest, ice, compression and elevation (RICE) “no pain, no gain” is a dangerous misconception Chapter 11 Lecture Notes Characteristics of Muscle Responsiveness/excitability Conductivity Contractility Extensibility Elasticity Thin Filaments Actin Troponin Tropomyosin Regulatory proteins Contractile proteins Accessory proteins o Elastic filament (titin) o Dystrophin Most clinically important Links actin in outermost filaments to transmembrane proteins and eventually to fibrous endomysium o 7 others Muscular Dystrophy Group of hereditary disease in which skeletal muscles degenerate and weaken, and are replaced with fat and fibrous scar tissue Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by a sex-linked recessive trait o Most common form o Disease of males o Mutation in gene for muscle protein dystrophin o Rarely live past 20 years of age Nerve-Muscle Relationship Motor unit Average motor unit o 200 muscle fibers per neuron Small motor units o Fine degree of control o 3-6 muscle fibers per neuron o Eye and hand muscles Large motor units o More strength than control o 1000 muscle fibers per neuron o Gastrocnemius The Neuromuscular Junction Synapse o Point where a nerve fiber meets its target cell Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) o When target cell is a muscle fiber Synaptic knob Synaptic cleft Synaptic vesicles o ACh ACh receptors o 50 million o Junctional folds AChE Myasthenia Gravis Autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack neuromuscular junctions and bind ACh receptors together in clusters Disease of women between 20 to 40 Neuromuscular Toxins Toxins that interfere with synaptic function Cholinesterase inhibitors Tetanus is a form of spastic paralysis caused by toxin of Clostridium tetani Electrically Excitable Cells Muscle fibers and neurons are electrically excitable cells Voltage o A difference in electrical charge from one point to another o Resting membrane potential About 90mV Action potential Muscle Contraction and Relaxation Four major phases of contraction and relaxation o Excitation o Excitation-contraction coupling o Contraction o relaxation Rigor Mortis hardening of muscles and stiffening of body beginning 3 to 4 hours after death muscle relaxation requires ATP, and ATP production is no longer produced after death peaks about 12 hours after death, then diminishes over the next 48 to 60 hours Behavior of Whole Muscles myogram o chart of the timing and strength of a muscle’s contraction threshold o minimum voltage necessary to generate an action potential in the muscle fiber and produce a contraction Phases of a Twitch Contraction latent period o 2msec delay between the onset of stimulus and onset of twitch response Contraction phase o Phase in which filaments slide and the muscle shortens Relaxation phase o SR quickly reabsorbs Ca2+, myosin release the thin filaments and tension declines Recruitment Higher voltage applied to a whole muscle will lead to a stronger contraction Recruitment of muscle fibers Increasing the frequency of stimulation o Twitches o Incomplete tetanus Incomplete relaxation between stimuli o Complete tetanus Smooth, prolonged contraction Isometric Contraction Isometric muscle contraction o Muscle is producing internal tension while an external resistance cause sit to stay the same length Isotonic Contraction Muscle changes in length with no change in tension Concentric contraction o Muscle shortens while maintains tension Eccentric contraction o Muscle lengthens as it maintains tension Muscle Metabolism All muscle contraction depends on ATP ATP supply depends on availability of o Organic energy sources as glucose and fatty acids o Oxygen 2 main pathways of ATP synthesis o Anaerobic fermentation o Aerobic respiration Immediate Energy Needs Short, intense exercise Two enzyme systems control these phosphate transfers Phosphagen system- ATP and CP collectively Short-Term Energy Needs As the phosphagen system is exhausted Muscles shift to anaerobic fermentation Glycogen-lactic acid system o The pathway from glycogen to lactic acid Produces enough ATP for 30-40 seconds of maximum activity Long-Term Energy Needs After 40 seconds or so, the respiratory and cardiovascular systems “catch up” and deliver oxygen to the muscles fast enough for aerobic respiration to meet most of the ATP demands Aerobic respiration produces 36 ATP per glucose Fatigue and Endurance Muscle fatigue o Progressive weakness from prolonged use of muscles Fatigue in high-intensity exercise is thought to result from: o Potassium accumulation in the T tubules o Excess ADP and Pi slow cross-bridge movements Fatigue in low-intensity exercise is thought to result from: o Fuel depletion o Electrolyte loss o Central fatigue Endurance o The ability to maintain high-intensity exercise for more than 4 to 5 minutes o Determined in large part by one’s maximum oxygen uptake Strength and Conditioning Muscular strength depends on: o Primarily on muscle size o Fascicle arrangement o Size of motor units o Multiple motor unit summation-recruitment o Temporal summation o Length-tension relationship o Fatigue o Resistance training (weight lifting) o Endurance training (aerobic exercise) Smooth Muscle Composed of myocytes that have a fusiform shape There is only one nucleus, located near the middle of the cell No visible striations Z discs are absent and replaced by dense bodies Cytoplasm contains extensive cytoskeleton of intermediate filament Sarcoplasmic reticulum is scanty and there are no T tubules Some smooth muscles lack nerve supply, while others receive autonomic fibers Capable of mitosis and hyperplasia Injured smooth muscle regenerates well Involuntary Innervated by autonomic nerve fibers
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