Soc 1 Exam 2 Study Guide
Soc 1 Exam 2 Study Guide SOC 101LEC- Introduction to sociology
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Rosenzweig on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101LEC- Introduction to sociology at Pennsylvania State University taught by John Fulton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
Chapter 5 - Concept: a label that is applied to things with similar characteristics or attributes, things that in our minds seems to belong to the same category -Variable: in the first place, that it is a thing of interest in a particular piece of research. A variable is something that is thought to influence or be influence by another thing (ex: income is thought to influence voting behavior… income and voting behavior are the two variables). Additionally variables must have variation or difference among them. -Concepts are related to variables because the variables are chosen through concepts that interest us -Positive relationship: increased eating causes increased weight. This is positive because the two variables move in the same direction. -Negative relationship: increased exercise caused decreased weight. This is negative because the two variables move in opposite directions. -Attribute: characteristic or a quality that describes a thing. For example, the attributes of the variable of religion can be Jewish, catholic, Christian, Muslim, Buddhist, and others. - Dependant variable: the variables that depend on something else and causes something else. For example, in the hypothesis that the more cookies you eat the more likely you are to gain weight, weight is the dependant variable because the amount of weight you gain depends on the amount of cookies you eat - Independent variable: the variable that does not depends on something else and that is the effect of something. In the hypothesis used above, cookies would be the independent variable because the amount of cookies you eat doesn’t depend on the amount of weight you gain - Hypothesis: used to discover the relationship among different variables such as Gender affects occupation. Hypotheses can we either true or false and we create them to test whether the posited relationships between the variables are true or false -Question 5.10 based on table 5.3: the first question is false because the gap between high paying jobs is even larger than the gap between low paying jobs and the second question is false as well because there is not evidence supporting the claim that women are paid less than men because women are more likely than men to have low-paying jobs -5.1: i) variables: number of beers and GPA attributes: 2 beers, a dozen, a case, etc. and 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, etc. ii) variables: frequency of tooth brushing and cavities gotten attributes: once a day twice a day, after every meal and 1 cavity, 2 cavities, etc. -5.3: H10= level of wealth and type of crime H11= religion and views on death penalty H12= martial status and likelihood to own pets H13= weather temperature and amount of ice cream H14= grades the student gets and how much they study -5.4: H15= education H16= income H17= martial status H18= marital status H19= martial status H20= education H21= higher-paying jobs H22= light skin tone -5.5: H25= life span and money you earn, positive H26= social class and education, positive H27= social class and arrests, negative H28= age and amount of naps, negative H29= frequency of attendance at services and frequency of donating to religious causes, positive H30= education and prejudice, negative H31= age and fear of death, negative -5.6: a) age: infant, toddler, child, pre-teen, teen, adult, senior b) race: black, white, Asian, Latino, Native American c) political party affiliation: republican, democratic, independent, green party d) amount of television watched per week: once a day, all day, twice a week, etc. e) attitude toward capital punishment: pro, against, unsure -5.7: a) true b) true c) false -5.12: women were more likely to be victims of such crimes Chapter 6: -Content analysis: interpreting data -Observational research: gathering data by observing situations and scenarios - Survey: if your research question requires knowing who people are an/or what they think about something…. surveys are good to suit obtaining information from large number of people and are good for discovering basic demographics and good for obtaining information that cannot be observed directly such as attitudes. Weaknesses include that is’ not a good way to measure people’s actual behavior - Guidelines for survey questions: 1. Adapt the phrasing of questions to the educational level of respondents but do not be insulting 2. Avoid double negatives in a question 3. Avoid ‘marathon’ questions 4. Don’t ask double-barreled questions (ask one question at a time) 5. Don’t ask leading or loaded questions (don’t word them in a way that sways them) 6. Don’t ask questions that your respondents cannot answer - Artifacts: and unobtrusive measure, by digging up the sites of ancient settlements and look for the artifacts that inhabitants left behind which can tell a lot about a culture - Content analysis: subjecting some text to careful scrutiny to see what it reveals about its author, the times in which it was written, and so on such as personal diaries and radio commercials for example - Existing statistics: U.S. government gathers and publishes incredible amounts of data on everything from how many bedrooms people have in their houses to how many people are arrested for robbery and such data is available in libraries and computer searches - Quantitative social science: gathering data that is expressed in numbers - Qualitative social science: focuses not only on the objective nature of behavior but on its meaning as well (or quality) - 6.1: a) phrasing b) double barreled c) question respondent can’t answer d) question some respondents can’t answer e) bogarting is slang - 6.2: a) survey b) observational c) operational d) observation e) survey f) existing stats g) ask h) survey Chapter 7: -Culture: patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups - Cultural diffusion: the process by which cultural things are adopted. For example Americans have adopted sushi bars from the Japanese culture and the Japanese have adapted baseball from the American culture - Cultural leveling: as cultural diffusion increases, the differences between cultures decrease. For example, seeing someone eating a Big Mac in Singapore. - Subculture: groups of people within society whose shared values, norms, beliefs, or use of material culture sets them apart from other people in that society. For example, police officers may see the world differently from civilians. - Counterculture: a special form of a subculture when members of a subculture hold values, share norms, or utilize material culture in ways that not only set them apart from the larger culture, but are perceived to threaten the parent culture. For example, the Ku Klux Klan - Idioculture: a system of knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and customs shared by members of an interacting group to which members can refer and employ as the bases of further interaction. Members recognize that they share experiences in common and these experiences can be referred to with the expectation that they will be understood other members, and further can be employed to construct a social reality. For example, five different little league teams have their own norms, which make them idiocultures - Material culture: includes all those things that humans make or adapt from the raw stuff of nature such as computers, houses, and utensils - Nonmaterial culture: it is made up of intangible things which vary from simple to complex such as ideas about truth and beauty and what is funny and what is not - Symbols: anything that represents something else to more than one person - Language: organized set of symbols - Norms: rules of social behavior - Values: general or abstract ideas about what is good and desirable, as opposed to what is bad and undesirable in a society - Beliefs: people’s ideas about what is real and what is not real - Folkways: casual norms, violations are not taken seriously such as riding in an elevator you face the door and don’t look at the strangers - Mores: anything but casual, norms against unjustified assaults on other persons for example - Taboos: norms that are so deeply held that even the thought of violating them upsets people - Culture as a product of action: culture systems are created by humans and in this sense are products of action - Culture as a “conditioning element” of action: society has problems and solutions are created to fix such problems such as how to eat food Chapter 8 -Ascribed versus achieved status: achieved status can be considered as becoming a college graduate or a convicted mass murderer and ascribes status is when individuals are placed, generally at birth, in a status such as sex or race -Primary group: how social groups are taught to be functioning members of social group such as family and friendship groups - Secondary group: a group that is larger than a primary group…a primary group would be your family and a secondary group would be a class - Master status: not all statuses are weighted the same in the mind of individuals, some are perceived as superior to others such as a male doctor can be regarded as greater than female -Role: the sum total of expectations about the behavior attached to a particular social status - Role conflict: some combinations of statuses are perceived as inconsistent and that the actual demands of their roles can clash -Status: a position that a person occupies in a social structure such as mother, president, and middle class - Status inconsistency: a situation in which a person with a particular ascribed status achieves an inconsistent status. For example, a woman goes to work as a truck driver or a man becomes a nurse Chapter 9 -Self-sufficiency: no group, no matter how large, qualifies as a society unless it provides the resources to answer all of its members’ basic needs - Social institution: respond to societal needs, generally unplanned, develop gradually, inherently conservative, slowly change, change in one institution tends to bring change in others - Society: totality of people and social relations in a given geographic space -Societal needs: having a continuing supply of new members, socialize new members, deal with members’ sicknesses and health issues, select certain members for specific jobs and tasks, create knowledge, control its members, defend against its enemies, produce and exchange goods and services, promote social unity and the search for higher meanings The Code of the Streets Reading - The function of the code of the streets prescribes both a proper comportment and a proper way and a proper way to respond if challenged. They regulate the use of violence and so allow those who are inclined to aggression to precipitate violent encounters in an approved way. - Street families have a profound lack of faith in the police and judicial system because police are most often seen as representing the dominant white society and not caring to protect inner-city residents - Anderson is describing countercultures because street families and decent families lead such different lives with different morals, values, and norms. - The code of the streets is a cultural adaptation to a profound lack of faith in the police and the judicial system. - Kids witness fights between adults and take mental notes. The person who won is the person that physically won the fight, and that person often enjoys the esteem and respect of onlookers. - Jackets, sneakers, gold jewelry, etc. play an important role in how a person is viewed; to be respected, it is important to have the right look. Additionally, they represent the willingness to possess things that may require defending. - In dealing with contempt and rejection, some youngsters will consciously invest themselves and their considerable mental recourses in what amounts to an oppositional culture to preserve themselves and their self-respect. Once they do, any respect they might be able to garner in the wider system pales in comparison with the respect available in the local system; thus negotiate the mainstream system. - Decent residents ten to accept mainstream values more fully and attempt to instill them in their children. They value hard work and self- reliance and many of them go to church. They encourage children to have respect for authority and strive to maintain a positive mental attitude and a spirit of cooperation. - Street residents often show a lack of consideration for other people and have a rather superficial sense of family and community. Many of them are unable to cope with the physical and emotional demand of parenthood, and find it difficult to reconcile their needs with those of their children. - Respect is defined loosely as being right, or granted the deference one deserves. - Juice is people’s share of respect. If a person is assaulted, it is important, not only in the eyes of his opponent but also in the eyes of his running buddies to him to avenge himself. The Pathology of Imprisonment Zimbardo Reading - It was important that the subjects were assigned their roles with the flip of a coin because it was vital that the subjects not be chosen based on any certain attributes. Random assignment avoided all participant bias. - Individual behavior is largely under the control of social forces and environmental contingencies rather than personality traits, character, will power or other empirically invalidated constructs. Thus we create an illusion of freedom by attributing more internal control to ourselves, to the individual, than actually exists. We thus underestimate the power and pervasiveness of situational controls over behavior. - In the beginning, all of the students were mature, emotionally stable, normal, intelligent college students from middle-class homes throughout the United States and Canada. - At the end of the experiment some of the prisoners suffered from situational traumatic reactions and were emotionally spent and unwell. The students that played guards became tyrannical in their arbitrary use of power, enjoying their control over other people. They were corrupted by the power of their roles and became quite inventive in their techniques of breaking the spirit of the prisoners and making them feel they were worthless. -We often underestimate the power of situational controls because they are often non-obvious and subtle, we can often avoid entering situations where we might be so controlled, and we label as “weak” or “deviant” people in those situations who do behave differently from how we believe we would. - The mere act of assigning labels to people and putting them into a situation where those labels acquire validity and meaning is sufficient to elicit pathological behavior. This pathology is not predictable from any available diagnostic indicator we have in the social sciences, and is extreme enough to modify in very significant ways fundamental attitudes and behavior. Lecture Notes - Statistical questions: help us explore connections between public issues of social structure and personal troubles (ex: poverty is measured by asking what is your income?)…a question, the answer to a question which depends on collecting data with no variability - Variability arises when you ask more than one person the same question - Variability: the answers to the questions we ask in sociology often have variability, which means that people give different answers, variability is the degree to which answers differ from each other - Statistical relationship: using their sociological imagination, sociologists often want to know the relationship between statistical questions (ex: do college graduates earn more than non-graduates?)… The relationship between answers to two statistical questions - If both questions have variability, then the relationship between them has variability. - Concept: a mental image that summarizes a set of similar observations, feelings, and ideas… a mental image is abstract and doesn’t exist in the real world - Variables: come from statistical questions… statistical questions depend on collecting data with variability and that is where variables come from, they are a logical collection of attributes - Attributes: the values a variable can take - Operationalize: list the steps you take to turn a concept into a measurable variable (ex: to opererationalize gender: concept is gender, variable is gender, attributes are male, female, TGQN) - Independent variable: a cause…causes something to happen/influences something - Dependant variable: a result… the result of something happening/influenced by something - Positive relationship: as one variable increases, the other one does too as well as when one variable decreases the other one does to - Negative relationship: variables move in opposite directions - Case: the unit being studies (usually a person) - Distribution: the number of cases at each attribute of a variable - Univariate table: “one variable” describes the distribution of cases across the attributes of one table - Bivariate table: “two variable” uses percents to compare distributions of cases across the attributes of one variable for each attribute of another - Rules for bivariate table: Sex goes across the top in the column… independent variable, grass goes down the side in the row…dependant variable, percents are constructed within columns, percents compared across columns - Hypothesis: a testable expectation that is not the same as theory and is about the relationship between two or more variables - 3 desirable properties of a hypothesis: a) testable expectation with specific variables, measurable, objective and not subjective b) uses two variables c) clearly states the direction of the relationship - Culture is different from society - Society: a group of people, individuals interact mostly with each other and not other groups, this group is self-sufficient - Culture: the distinctive ways of life of a society - Culture is foundational: it determines how we see the world (both physical and social world) such as what you eat, what you eat, who you eat with - Disgust is a common ethnocentric reaction to a different culture - Culture is socialized: when we’re born we have no culture, but as we go on we learn out culture in interaction with others - Cultures differ: distinctive ways of life are specific - Cultures just grow: our distinctive ways of life grow and change randomly and there’s no-one in charge of this - There’s no ultimate purpose for our direction - The picture of orderly change is an illusion - Our distinctive ways of life are always changing - The picture that this is the way is the way it’s always been is also an illusion - But, not always boring (ex: HPV) vaccine can prevent cervical cancer by 90% and only 37% of girls have the vaccination, typically age 12, doctors feel awkward talking to pre-teens about HPV and overestimate parental resistance - Cultures are complex and specialized: there’s a lot going on that is sophisticated and specific, no one fully understands what’s going on - Social Structure…. We’re all actors: If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences- W.I Thomas, how do we define situations as real? We use actor’s tools such as what one says and how they say it - Script: directions for dialogue and action
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