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Psych 101, Study Guide for Exam 2

by: Jessica Motz

Psych 101, Study Guide for Exam 2 101

Marketplace > Towson University > 101 > Psych 101 Study Guide for Exam 2
Jessica Motz

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About this Document

This study guide is packed with a lot of information, all which is expected to be on our exam this week.
Introductory Psychology
Beth A. Gallihue
Study Guide
sensation and perception, Human, development, #Psych #Psychology #Consciousness #Sleep #Dream #Conditioning
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Motz on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at Towson University taught by Beth A. Gallihue in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views.


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Date Created: 10/15/16
Test Review 2 YOU CAN DO IT!!!!!! Here’s to help you review! Ch.4 Sensation and Perception Sensation­ the process of detecting physical energies like tastes, smells, and sights,  from the environment Transduction­ the process of transforming chemical energy to electrochemical  energy Perception­ the brain’s process of organizing and interpreting sensory information  and giving it meaning Bottom­Up Processing­ initiated by sensory input *Outside world’s influence on perception, uses stimuli’s appearance, structure  and patterns Top­Down Processing­ initiated by cognitive processing *Mental world’s influence on perception, uses expectations and prior  understandings Attention: focusing awareness on a narrowed aspect of the environment Selective Attention: putting your focus on a specific aspect, while ignoring other •Cocktail Party Effect­ when you’re talking to someone at a party you only hear  they’re conversation, while your brain blocks out all the other noise •Stroop Effect­ interference in the reaction time of a task  Sensory Adaptation: change in the responsiveness of the sensory system, when  your senses get used to their surrounding Synesthesia: when one sense induces an experience in another sense Visual System Cornea: outside cover, protects the eye Sclera: white part of the eye Cones and Rods Pupil: opening that let’s light in Lens: focuses the light on the retina Iris: colored part of the eye Retina: light sensitive surface that houses the light receptors Rods: in charge of light Cones: in charge of color Optic Nerve: transmits electrical impulse from retina to brain Color Blindness­ one or more cones are in operative  Astigmatism­ misshapen cornea or lens Structure of the Ear Outer Ear­  Pinna: localization of sound  Ear Canal Middle Ear­ Ear Drum: vibrates in response to soundwaves 3 bones: Hammer, Anvil, and Stirrup Inner Ear­ Cochlea: where transduction occurs Basilar Membrane: in charge of balance Sense of Touch Temperature and Pressure Acute Pain­ Thalamus Treatment: analgesics Chronic Pain­ Limbic System Treatment: distraction, focused breathing, counter stimulation Chemical Senses­ Taste: ­receptors on the tongue called papillae Smell (Olfactory Sense):  Olfactory epithelium­a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity  that is involved in smell  Limbic system (memory and emotion), this is why we form “smell  memories” Other Senses: Kinesthetic  Movement, posture, orientation  Muscle fibers and joints “muscle memory” Ch.9 Human Development Prenatal Development Germinal Period (weeks 1­2) conception/fertilization, zygote, massive cell division Embryonic Period (weeks 3­8) organs appear, brain and spinal cord, embryo Fetal Period (Month 2­ Until Birth) organs mature to a point where life can be  sustained outside the mother Adolescent Physical Development Puberty­Rapid skeletal and sexual maturation, begins at the beginning of  adolescence  Testosterone(androgen) in boys­ Genital development, height, voice changes Estradiol (estrogen) in girls­ Breast, uterine, and skeletal development Adolescent Brain Development Early Development­ Amygdala: Emotions Late Development­ Prefrontal Cortex: Reasoning and Decision Making, risk taking Physical Changes in Adulthood Early Adulthood­ peak of physical development and damaging lifestyle choices Middle Adulthood­signs of aging become more noticeable and people become less  fit, concern for health and youthful appearance, and menopause for women (late  40s­early 50s) Late Adulthood ­accumulated wear and tear, and less ability to repair and  regenerate  Young Elderly­moderately active, slower mental function, but wisdom Elderly­ Arthritis, hypertension, osteoporosis, weight loss Frail Elderly­Alzheimer’s and Dementia  Socioemotional Development­ Erik Erikson’s 8 stages of development First Four Stages­ Childhood  1. Trust V Mistrust (Birth­12 to 18 months)  Basic needs, comfort, food, and warmth, plus attachment to the caregiver  Trust infancy sets the stage that the world is a safe place to live in  2. Autonomy V Shame and Doubt (18 months­ 3 years)  Discover and assert will on their own  Beginning of perfectionism and OCD 3. Initiative V Guilt (3 to 6 years)  Challenged to assume responsibility  Learn how to take risks 4. Industry V Inferiority   Mastery of knowledge and intellectual skills  Recognized for accomplishments Last Four Stages 5. Identity V Role Confusion (Adolescence)  Who am I?  Autonomy from parents   Importance of peers   Independent Decisions 6. Intimacy V Isolation (Young Adulthood)  Individuals are forming intimate relationships with others  Working on our career   Work/lifestyle   Childbearing (asking the question if you want kids) 7. Generativity V Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)  Managing career and household  Legacy­ assist younger generation  Career change  Mid­life crisis 8. Integrity V Despair (Late Adulthood)  Life review­ Life well spent or regrets  Get over your past  Developing a viewpoint about death Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Authoritarian­ parents are controlling and punitive  Authoritative­ parents encourage independence with limits Neglectful­ parents generally uninvolved Permissive­ parents are involved, but place few limits  Temperament­  an individual’s behavioral style or characteristic way of  responding, either easy, difficult, or slow­to­warm­up Harlow Study­The monkey chose the cloth mother every time, proving that contact is more important than nourishment. Cognitive Development Schemas­ concepts or framework that organize or interpret information Assimilation­ incorporate new information into existing schemas Accommodation­ adjust schemas to new information Jean Piaget’s Theory 1. Sensorimotor Stage  Coordinate sensations with movements   Object permanence (Out of sight out of mind)  Progress from reflexive actions to symbolic thought  2. Preoperational Stage   Symbolic thinking; words and images  Intuitive reasoning (Why? Why? Why?)  Egocentrism; can’t share 3. Concrete Operational Stage   Operational thinking (conservation)  Classification Skills  Reason logically in concrete contexts  4. Formal Operational Stage   Abstract and idealistic thought  Hypothetical­deductive reasoning  Metaphors and allegories  Ch.5 Consciousness Levels of Awareness 1. Higher­Level Consciousness­Controlled processing, actively focused  towards a goal, requires attention; alert state 2. Lower­Level Consciousness ­Automatic processes, do not interfere with on­ going activities  3. Altered States of Consciousness­notably different from normal awareness Ex: hypnosis, meditating, fatigue, drinking, drugs, trauma, illness,  psychological disorder, euphoria, and deprivation 4. Subconscious Awareness ­just under the surface, low level of consciousness  to the outside world Ex: sleep and dreams, coma 5. No Awareness­Unconscious thoughts  Sigmund Freud Circadian Rhythms Wakefulness Beta waves (alert) Alpha waves (relaxed) Sleep  Stage 1­ Theta waves (light sleep) Lasts about 10 min  Stage 2­ Theta waves (sleep spindles) Lasts about 20 min  Stage 3­ Delta waves begin to appear (deep sleep) Lasts about 40 min  Stage 4­ More than 50% delta waves (deepest sleep)  Stage 5­ REM Sleep (where most dreaming occurs) Sleep Disorders Insomnia­inability to sleep  Nightmares­frightening dreams during REM Night Terrors­sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear Narcolepsy­the overpowering urge to sleep  Sleep Apnea­individuals stop breathing because the windpipe fails to open or brain process involved in respiration fails to open properly  Theories of Dreaming Freud’s Psychodynamic Approach: Wish Fulfillment­ unconscious attempt to fulfill needs  Manifest content­surface content, symbols that distort the dreams true  meaning  Latent content­hidden content, dreams unconscious meaning Cognitive Theory:  Information processing and memory  Mental realm where we solve problems Activation­Synthesis Theory:  Brain makes “sense” out of random brain activity Psychoactive Drugs Tolerance: the need to take increasing amounts of a drug to produce the same  effect Physical Dependence: a physical need for a drug and an unpleasant withdrawal  when the drug is removed  Psychological Dependence: strong desire/cravings to continue for emotional  reasons  Depressants: Slow down mental and physical activity  ­Alcohol, Barbiturates, Tranquilizers, Opiates (Narcotics) Stimulants: increase CNS activity  ­Amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy, caffeine, nicotine  Hallucinogens: Modify perceptual experiences ­Marijuana, LSD, Mushrooms, “spice”


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