Psych 101, Study Guide for Exam 2
Psych 101, Study Guide for Exam 2 101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Motz on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at Towson University taught by Beth A. Gallihue in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
Test Review 2 YOU CAN DO IT!!!!!! Here’s to help you review! Ch.4 Sensation and Perception Sensation the process of detecting physical energies like tastes, smells, and sights, from the environment Transduction the process of transforming chemical energy to electrochemical energy Perception the brain’s process of organizing and interpreting sensory information and giving it meaning BottomUp Processing initiated by sensory input *Outside world’s influence on perception, uses stimuli’s appearance, structure and patterns TopDown Processing initiated by cognitive processing *Mental world’s influence on perception, uses expectations and prior understandings Attention: focusing awareness on a narrowed aspect of the environment Selective Attention: putting your focus on a specific aspect, while ignoring other •Cocktail Party Effect when you’re talking to someone at a party you only hear they’re conversation, while your brain blocks out all the other noise •Stroop Effect interference in the reaction time of a task Sensory Adaptation: change in the responsiveness of the sensory system, when your senses get used to their surrounding Synesthesia: when one sense induces an experience in another sense Visual System Cornea: outside cover, protects the eye Sclera: white part of the eye Cones and Rods Pupil: opening that let’s light in Lens: focuses the light on the retina Iris: colored part of the eye Retina: light sensitive surface that houses the light receptors Rods: in charge of light Cones: in charge of color Optic Nerve: transmits electrical impulse from retina to brain Color Blindness one or more cones are in operative Astigmatism misshapen cornea or lens Structure of the Ear Outer Ear Pinna: localization of sound Ear Canal Middle Ear Ear Drum: vibrates in response to soundwaves 3 bones: Hammer, Anvil, and Stirrup Inner Ear Cochlea: where transduction occurs Basilar Membrane: in charge of balance Sense of Touch Temperature and Pressure Acute Pain Thalamus Treatment: analgesics Chronic Pain Limbic System Treatment: distraction, focused breathing, counter stimulation Chemical Senses Taste: receptors on the tongue called papillae Smell (Olfactory Sense): Olfactory epitheliuma specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell Limbic system (memory and emotion), this is why we form “smell memories” Other Senses: Kinesthetic Movement, posture, orientation Muscle fibers and joints “muscle memory” Ch.9 Human Development Prenatal Development Germinal Period (weeks 12) conception/fertilization, zygote, massive cell division Embryonic Period (weeks 38) organs appear, brain and spinal cord, embryo Fetal Period (Month 2 Until Birth) organs mature to a point where life can be sustained outside the mother Adolescent Physical Development PubertyRapid skeletal and sexual maturation, begins at the beginning of adolescence Testosterone(androgen) in boys Genital development, height, voice changes Estradiol (estrogen) in girls Breast, uterine, and skeletal development Adolescent Brain Development Early Development Amygdala: Emotions Late Development Prefrontal Cortex: Reasoning and Decision Making, risk taking Physical Changes in Adulthood Early Adulthood peak of physical development and damaging lifestyle choices Middle Adulthoodsigns of aging become more noticeable and people become less fit, concern for health and youthful appearance, and menopause for women (late 40searly 50s) Late Adulthood accumulated wear and tear, and less ability to repair and regenerate Young Elderlymoderately active, slower mental function, but wisdom Elderly Arthritis, hypertension, osteoporosis, weight loss Frail ElderlyAlzheimer’s and Dementia Socioemotional Development Erik Erikson’s 8 stages of development First Four Stages Childhood 1. Trust V Mistrust (Birth12 to 18 months) Basic needs, comfort, food, and warmth, plus attachment to the caregiver Trust infancy sets the stage that the world is a safe place to live in 2. Autonomy V Shame and Doubt (18 months 3 years) Discover and assert will on their own Beginning of perfectionism and OCD 3. Initiative V Guilt (3 to 6 years) Challenged to assume responsibility Learn how to take risks 4. Industry V Inferiority Mastery of knowledge and intellectual skills Recognized for accomplishments Last Four Stages 5. Identity V Role Confusion (Adolescence) Who am I? Autonomy from parents Importance of peers Independent Decisions 6. Intimacy V Isolation (Young Adulthood) Individuals are forming intimate relationships with others Working on our career Work/lifestyle Childbearing (asking the question if you want kids) 7. Generativity V Stagnation (Middle Adulthood) Managing career and household Legacy assist younger generation Career change Midlife crisis 8. Integrity V Despair (Late Adulthood) Life review Life well spent or regrets Get over your past Developing a viewpoint about death Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Authoritarian parents are controlling and punitive Authoritative parents encourage independence with limits Neglectful parents generally uninvolved Permissive parents are involved, but place few limits Temperament an individual’s behavioral style or characteristic way of responding, either easy, difficult, or slowtowarmup Harlow StudyThe monkey chose the cloth mother every time, proving that contact is more important than nourishment. Cognitive Development Schemas concepts or framework that organize or interpret information Assimilation incorporate new information into existing schemas Accommodation adjust schemas to new information Jean Piaget’s Theory 1. Sensorimotor Stage Coordinate sensations with movements Object permanence (Out of sight out of mind) Progress from reflexive actions to symbolic thought 2. Preoperational Stage Symbolic thinking; words and images Intuitive reasoning (Why? Why? Why?) Egocentrism; can’t share 3. Concrete Operational Stage Operational thinking (conservation) Classification Skills Reason logically in concrete contexts 4. Formal Operational Stage Abstract and idealistic thought Hypotheticaldeductive reasoning Metaphors and allegories Ch.5 Consciousness Levels of Awareness 1. HigherLevel ConsciousnessControlled processing, actively focused towards a goal, requires attention; alert state 2. LowerLevel Consciousness Automatic processes, do not interfere with on going activities 3. Altered States of Consciousnessnotably different from normal awareness Ex: hypnosis, meditating, fatigue, drinking, drugs, trauma, illness, psychological disorder, euphoria, and deprivation 4. Subconscious Awareness just under the surface, low level of consciousness to the outside world Ex: sleep and dreams, coma 5. No AwarenessUnconscious thoughts Sigmund Freud Circadian Rhythms Wakefulness Beta waves (alert) Alpha waves (relaxed) Sleep Stage 1 Theta waves (light sleep) Lasts about 10 min Stage 2 Theta waves (sleep spindles) Lasts about 20 min Stage 3 Delta waves begin to appear (deep sleep) Lasts about 40 min Stage 4 More than 50% delta waves (deepest sleep) Stage 5 REM Sleep (where most dreaming occurs) Sleep Disorders Insomniainability to sleep Nightmaresfrightening dreams during REM Night Terrorssudden arousal from sleep with intense fear Narcolepsythe overpowering urge to sleep Sleep Apneaindividuals stop breathing because the windpipe fails to open or brain process involved in respiration fails to open properly Theories of Dreaming Freud’s Psychodynamic Approach: Wish Fulfillment unconscious attempt to fulfill needs Manifest contentsurface content, symbols that distort the dreams true meaning Latent contenthidden content, dreams unconscious meaning Cognitive Theory: Information processing and memory Mental realm where we solve problems ActivationSynthesis Theory: Brain makes “sense” out of random brain activity Psychoactive Drugs Tolerance: the need to take increasing amounts of a drug to produce the same effect Physical Dependence: a physical need for a drug and an unpleasant withdrawal when the drug is removed Psychological Dependence: strong desire/cravings to continue for emotional reasons Depressants: Slow down mental and physical activity Alcohol, Barbiturates, Tranquilizers, Opiates (Narcotics) Stimulants: increase CNS activity Amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy, caffeine, nicotine Hallucinogens: Modify perceptual experiences Marijuana, LSD, Mushrooms, “spice”
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