BIO 1500 Exam Two Study Guide
BIO 1500 Exam Two Study Guide BIO 1500
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maggie Bruce on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1500 at Wayne State University taught by Thomas Dowling in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Basic Life Diversity in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
BIO 1500 Exam Two Study Guide Lecture eight o Microphyll Leaf with single, unbranched vein o Megaphyll Leaf with multiple veins o Parallel venation Veins run parallel to leaf o Net venation Veins branch throughout leaf o Pinnate Small vein branch off the main vein throughout the entire leaf o Palmate Several main vein start at a single point o Simple leaf One undivided blade o Compound leaf Blade is divided into leaflets o Twice compound lead Two compound leaves start at the same place o Palisade mesophylls Tightly packed o Spongy mesophylls Loosely packed o Bundle sheath cells Surround vascular bundle, transport photosynthetic products to phloem o Monocot leaves Parallel venation, cross section shows evenly spaced vascular bundles o Eudicot leaves Net venation, cross section shows vascular bundles cross sectioned and longitudinal o Photosynthesis 6CO +26H O 2 C H O6+12O6, occu2s in chloroplasts o Light dependent reactions Use sunlight as energy o Calvin cycle Use ATP as energy o Chlorophyll Green pigment in leaves o Carotenoids Red, yellow, brown pigment in leaves o Why leaves change color The chlorophyll degrades leaving only carotenoids in the fall when there is not enough light for photosynthesis o Abscission Seasonal detachment of leaves o Abscission layer Forms to physically detach leaves from stem o Bracts Floral leaves that surround flowers o Spines Reduce water loss, deter predators o Reproductive leaves Plantlets that can grow into full sized plants o Thorns Modified stems arising at axils in woody plants o Prickles Extensions of cortex or epidermis o Window leaves Cone shaped, allow photosynthesis to occur underground o Shade leaves Large leaves with less mesophyll than those in the sun o Insectivorous leaves Trap insects o Asexual reproduction Creates genetically identical organisms o Vegetative reproduction New plants come from non-reproductive plant parts Runners, stolons, rhizomes, suckers, adventitious plantlets Lecture nine o Gymnosperms Plants with naked seeds, cones instead of flowers o Four living phyla of gymnosperms Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, and Ginkgophyta o Coniferophyta Pines, spruces, firs, cedars, found in cold, dry regions o Long needle like leaves Grouped in fascicles, pines o Short needle like leaves Spruces and firs o Small scale like leaves Cedars and junipers o Resin duct Secretes resin to repair needles and protect against herbivores o Secondary xylem Gymnosperms do not have vessels o Male pine cone Small, papery, full of pollen, grow on lower limbs o Female pine cone Large, woody, grow on upper limbs o Pine life cycle Pollen is produced in male cone, pollen is carried by wind to mature female cone, pollination occurs, fifteen months late fertilization occurs, pine seed containing embryo is carried by wind, germinates and grows a new tree o Pine pollen Has air bladders to assist in wind dispersal, has two sperm, one sperm will die o Serotinous cones Female cones sealed shut by resin, require high temperatures to open o Modified cones Yew and juniper, require birds to open them o Shatter cones Shatter scales to release seeds o Cycads Slow growing tropical gymnosperms, resemble palms, dioecious, large cones, large flagellated sperm cells o Gnetophytes Have vessels in xylem, dioecious, tropical or dry arid areas o Ginkgophytes Ginkgo biloba, only remaining species, deciduous, dioecious, fan shaped leaves, dichotomous venation, flagellated sperm cells o Evergreen Do not lose their leaves o Deciduous Lose their leaves in winter o Dichotomous venation Vein run parallel to leaf and split at top edge, y shaped Lecture ten o Origin of land plants A single species of freshwater green algae o Bryophytes Non-vascular, seedless, dominant gametophyte generation, sporophyte generation lacks chlorophyll, require water for reproduction, liverworts, hornworts, mosses o Tracheophytes Vascular, seedless, dominant sporophyte generation, ferns, club mosses, horsetails, whisk ferns o Hepaticophyta Liverworts, gametophyte generation is a small leaf like structure called a thallus, reproductive structures are called archegoniophores and antheridiophores that are umbrella shaped, gemmae cups produce gemmae for asexual reproduction, air pores, rhizoids o Bryophyte Mosses, leaf like structures, rhizoids, antheridium and archegonium at the tips of gametophyte, require water for sexual reproduction, sporophyte is a capsule on a seta o Anthocerotophyta Hornworts, sporophyte is in gametophyte thallus, sporophyte is photosynthetic and has stomata, cells have one chloroplast o Importance of vascular tissue Enable plants to distribute water, minerals, and carbohydrates, plants can grow larger o Lycophytes Club mosses, adventitious roots, rhizomes, microphylls o Pterophytes Ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns, require water for sexual reproduction o Whisk ferns Sporophyte is forking green stem, lack true leaves, rhizoids, gametophytes can have vascular tissue o Horsetails Homosporous, photosynthetic stems, rhizomes, adventitious roots, megaphylls, terminal strobili produce spores o Ferns Gametophyte and sporophyte are photosynthetic, adventitious roots, rhizomes, megaphylls called fronds, sori release spore, homosporous, gametophyte is a thallus o Archegonium Female gametangium o Antheridium Male gemetangium o Gemmae Asexual reproductive structure produce in gemmae cups o Protonema Germinating spore of moss, chain of cells o Strobili Where spore are produces in horsetails o Frond Leaf of fern o Fiddlehead Unfurls to become frond o Sori On underside of fern frond, release spores o Rhizomes Modified stems, run horizontal o Rhizoids Root like structures, not true roots o Megaphylly Leaf with multiple veins o Microphyll Leaf with one vein o Thallus Leaf like gametophyte, liver or heart shaped Lecture eleven o Fungi Single or multi cellular, cell walls have chitin, dikaryon stage, nuclear mitosis, heterotrophs, sexual and asexual reproduction o Hyphae Long slender filaments of fungi o Mycelium Large mass of hyphae o Septa Divide hyphae into individual cells, called septate hyphae o Coenocytic Hyphae without septa, also called aseptate o Monokaryotic hyphae One haploid nucleus per cell o Dikaryotic hyphae Two haploid nuclei per cell o Homokaryotic hyphae Nuclei are genetically similar o Heterokaryotic hyphae Nuclei are genetically different o Mitosis in fungi Happens entirely in nucleus, nuclear envelope does not break down o Fungal spores Sexual or asexual, germinate and form threadlike hyphae which grows and branches quickly forming mycelium o External digestion Secrete digestive enzymes and then absorb digested materials o Chitrodomycetes Aquatic fungi, form haploid and diploid flagellated zoospores, aseptate, lack dikaryon stage o Zygosporangium Two different mating hyphae fuse, form sexual zygosporangium, produces spores, found in black bread mold o Glomeromycetes Aseptate, asexual reproduction, fungi present in arbuscular mycorrhizae o Ascocarp Reproductive structure of ascomycetes, forms ascus o Ascus Forms ascospores o Ascospores Sexual spores of ascomycetes o Conidia Asexual spores of ascomycetes o Pathogenic ascomycetes Chestnut blight, dutch elm disease, powdery mildew o Yeasts Unicellular ascomycetes, ferment carbohydrates, reproduce asexually by budding, used in baking and brewing o Basidiocarp Reproductive structure of basidiomycetes o Basidium In basidiocarp, produces basidiospores o Basidiospores Sexual spores of basidiomycetes o Pileus Cap of basidiomycetes o Stipe Stalk of basidiomycetes o Gills Underside of pileus, contains basidium Lecture twelve o Decomposers Break down organic compounds into materials other organisms can use o Obligate symbiosis Necessary for survival o Facultative symbiosis No necessary for survival o Parasite Harms host o Pathogen Causes disease o Commensalism One partner benefits, the other is neutral o Mutualism Both partners benefit o Mycorrhizae Fungi living in and around plant roots, mutualistic, fungi gets photosynthetic products, plant get water and minerals o Arbuscular mycorrhizae Fungi lives inside plant root cells, glomerocytes o Ectomycorrhizae Fungi lives around root and in between cells, basidiomycetes, oaks and pines o Endophytes Fungi that live in between plant cells o Leaf cutter ants Have domesticated fungi, provide food for fungi, fungi is food for ants, mutualistic o Lichen Mutualistic relationship between fungi and photosynthetic partner, ascomycetes, basidiomycete yeast, harsh habitats o Crustose Lichen that grows as a crust o Fruticose Lichen that forms branches o Foliose Lichen with leafy appearance o Fungal pathogens in plants Corn smut, apple scab, wheat rust, brown rot, chestnut blight, dutch elm disease, powdery mildew o Fungal pathogens in humans Nail fungus, ringworm, athlete’s foot o Fungal pathogens in animals Chytridiomycosis, responsible for decline of amphibian populations Lecture thirteen o Soil Highly weathered outer layer of earth’s crust o Topsoil Mixture of minerals, living organisms, and humus o Humus Decaying organic matter o Soil particles and root hairs Negative charge, attracts positive ions, pulls positive ions out of root hairs, active transport pulls positive ions into root hairs o Soil erosion Loss of topsoil o Intercropping Mixing of crops in fields, prevents erosion o Conservation tillage Minimal or no tilling involved in farming, prevents erosion o Saline soils Lead to loss of water and turgor in plants o Acidic soils Release toxic minerals like aluminum o Macronutrients Used in large amounts, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen o Micronutrients Used in small amounts, chlorine, iron o Nitrogen fixation Converting N i2to NH 3 o Legumes Form root nodules to house nitrogen fixing bacteria o Carnivorous plants Venus flytraps, pitcher plants, sundews, aquatic waterwheels, digest insects to obtain nutrients o Parasitic plants Dodder, indian pipe, obtain nutrients from other plants o Photorespiration Oxygen binds to rubisco, nutrients and energy are not stored, wasteful o Carbon-nitrogen balance With more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, there is less nitrogen, leads to low levels of protein and minerals in plant tissue, which leads to low levels in herbivores, which will lead to low levels in humans Lecture fourteen o Plant defenses Protect plant from biotic and abiotic factors o Abiotic factors Nonliving, water, soil, temperature, pH, wind, minerals o Biotic factors Living organisms, bacteria, fungi, animals, plants o Nonnative invasive species Have no predators, can grow exponentially, use up resources o First line defense Dermal tissue, when damaged, creates a pathway into plant o Fungus invades plant leaf Fungal spore lands on leaf, spore germinates, hyphae invades stoma, hyphae grows through cell walls, hyphae differentiates into haustorium to draw nutrients from plant o Defensins Small cysteine rich peptides, antimicrobial o Continuous defenses Always present in plant o Induced defenses Produces in reaction to injury o Resin Continuous defense, resin drips down when bark is injured, makes bark resistant to bacterial and fungal decomposers o Poisons Continuous defense, coat suface with urushiol, some taste bad and interfere with digestive system or nervous system o Cyanogenic glycosides Continuous defense, release cyanide when ingested o Alkaloids Induced defense, triggered by nicotine, caffeine, morphine, and cocaine o Terpenoids Induced defense, triggered by citronella, menthol, and camphor o Sequester toxin Membrane bound structure, produces compounds that are not toxic until metabolized by animals o Allelopathy Roots release chemicals to prevent seed germination of nearby plants, minimizes competition o Poisons to humans Ricin from castor beans, poison hemlock o Acacia trees Mutualistic relationship with ants, ants get a home and food, tree gets protection from herbivores o Parasitoid wasp Attracted to volatile signals released when caterpillar eats leaf, wasp lays eggs on caterpillar, larvae feed on caterpillar o Wound response Rapid production of chemical toxins when leaf is injured, systemin, proteinase inhibitor gene repressed, proteinase produced o Proteinase Produced in plant to bind to digestive enzymes of herbivores o Gene-for-gene hypothesis Pathogen enters cell, R gene from plant binds to arv gene from pathogen, if it binds, R gene triggers hypersensitive response occurs, no disease, if it does not bind, plant gets disease o Systemic required resistance Temporary resistance to pathogen Lecture fifteen o Photomorphogenesis Light triggering non directional movement in plants o Phototropism Light triggering directional movement in plants o Phytochrome Pr absorbs red light, Pfr absorbs far red light, when Pr absorbs red light it becomes Pfr, when Pfr absorbs far red light it becomes Pr o Seed germination Inhibited by far red light, stimulated by red light o Etiolation Elongation of plant stems in complete darkness, trying to find light o Plant spacing Plants grow taller to compete with neighboring plants for red light o Flowering and monitoring Pfr stimulates flowering in long day plants and inhibits in short day plants, Pr accumulates when days shorten to send plant into dormancy o Darwin Found that something at the tip of the stem causes plant to bend towards light o Went Discovered that auxin caused plant to bend towards light o Auxin Moves to shaded part of stem, elongates cells and bends plant towards light, promotes axial dominance, promotes cell division, stimulates formation of adventitious roots, inhibits abscission o Gravitropism Response of plant to gravity o Response to gravity Amyoplasts perceive gravity, becomes physiological signal, signal is transduced to other cells, differential cell elongation occurs up and down o Dormancy Triggered by short days, decreasing temperatures, reduction in rainfall o Chilling Plants produces unsaturated membrane fatty acids, produce antifreeze o High temperatures Produce heat shock proteins, refold proteins o Thigmomorphogenism Permanent form change due to mechanical stress o Thigmotropism Directional growth of plant due to contact with other plant or object, tendrills o Thigmonastic response Direction of response is the same regardless of the direction of stimuli, venus flytrap o Heliotropism Leaves follow suns movement, sunflower o Sleep movements Leaves are turgid during the day and lose turgor at night o Hormones Chemicals produced at one part of the organism and transported to another o Cytokinins Produced in root apical meristem, stimulates cell division and differentiation, promotes growth of lateral buds, delay senescense, can cause crown gall tumor o Gibberelins Affect stem elongation, seed germination, extend internode length o Ethylene Gaseous hormone, stimulated by auxin, suppresses elongation, controls abscission, promotes fruit ripening o Abscisic acid Induces formation of dormant winter buds, promotes dormancy in seeds, regulates stomata closure, promotes senescense Lecture sixteen o Ecology Study of how organisms react with others and their environment o Short term response Lasts a few minutes to a lifetime o Long term response Natural selection o Physiological response Short term, shivering, vasoconstriction, sweating, vasodilation o Morphological response Short term, fur o Behavioral response Moving from one habitat to another o Allen’s rule Mammals in colder climates have shorter ears and limbs o Population Group of individuals of the same species in on place and time o Population range The area a population occurs o Changing population range Environmental changes, dispersal mechanisms, human effect o Demography Quantitative study of populations o Sex ratio Male to female o Generation time Interval between birth of individual and birth of offspring o Life table Shows probability of survival and reproduction o Type 1 survivorship curve Most death occurs at end of life, human o Type 2 survivorship curve Death occurs at any time, hydra o Type 3 survivorship curve Most death occurs at beginning of life, oyster o Exponential growth J shaped, no growth limits, organisms invade new habitats or enemies removed, cannot continue forever, resources will run out o Carrying capacity Maximum number of individuals an environment can support o Density dependent factors Affect population depending on population size, competition, predation, parasitism, disease o Density independent factors Affect population regardless of size, unusual weather, natural disasters, seasonal cycles, human activities o K- selected Resources are hard to get, near carrying capacity o R-selected Resources are easy to get, offspring maximized o Human population growth Exponential since the industrial revolution o Total fertility rate Average number of children women in a population will bear o Replacement level fertility TFR needed to offset number of deaths o Developed countries Replacement level fertility is 2.1 o Developing countries Replacement level fertility is greater than 2.1 o Africa Where most of the human population growth is occuring
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