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Anth 1010 exam 1 study guide

by: Justin Larremore

Anth 1010 exam 1 study guide Anth 1010

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Anthropology > Anth 1010 > Anth 1010 exam 1 study guide
Justin Larremore
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Exam 1 study points, from the beginning to week 7
Intro to Anthropology
Jamie Kathleen Johnson
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Justin Larremore on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 1010 at University of North Texas taught by Jamie Kathleen Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in Anthropology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 10/15/16
Anth 1010 Exam 1 Study Guide What is Anthropology? Study of the human experience in all its aspects Uses Holistic Perspective  ­ Viewing humanity in broadest context possible Holistic Perspective used to explore interconnections and interdependence Four­Field Discipline  Physical Anthropology­ evolution, adaptations, forensics Concerned w/humans as a biological species  Human evolution Modern human variation  Archaeology­material remains prehistoric and historic Study of material culture left behind Artifacts (material remains) and Features (physical marks on landscape)  Linguistic­ grammar and communication Language and linguistic diversity How language is used in society How languages develop over time  Cultural­ history and development of culture/behaviors Culture=behaviors that humans use to adapt to their environment Meanings behind behaviors and symbols All aspects and fields of Anthropology are very interconnected Worldviews Set of beliefs about fundamental facets of reality Members of a culture generally share this collective body of ideas Creation Narratives Not myths, anthropologists recognize all creation narratives as equally valid  Structure of Scientific Revolutions Scientific paradigms Paradigm=ways in which scientists approach and interpret their work Kuhn Cycle, how paradigms shift 1. Model Drift­ New discoveries cause problems w/current model 2. Model Crisis­ problems stack up on model and it suffers criticism 3. Model Revolution­ Someone proposes something new 4. Paradigm Shift­ as research grows, more people jump to new model 3 Paradigms Explained Positivist/Empirical: belief in an objective, bias­free, neutral “Truth”, use info to predict and control Interpretivist/Subjective: the “truth” is historically situated and socially constructed, multiple perspectives mean multiple “truths” Critical Theory: the “truth” is determined by those in power, knowledge does not always benefit the masses so they do not need to know everything  Darwinian Evolution as Paradigm Shift Darwin launched paradigm shift when it came to understanding the way things change Understanding of this process continues to change as more info is gathered Processes that affect Evolution  Genetic Drift: movement of populations or environmental change  Mutation: occurs on chromosome, almost always mistakes  Gene Flow: mixing of genes w/in different groups  Sexual Selection: most attractive continues on through offspring Most creatures do not survive long enough to reproduce. Those that do, do for a reason. Modern Understandings of Evolution Today, adaptation refers to a process of mutual adjustments between organisms and their environments Niche Construction occurs when organisms actively manipulate environment or actively move from one to another Primate Ancestry Modern­day humans, gorillas and chimps all share a common ancestor Humans did NOT evolve from apes All animals are equally evolved in different ways Adaptive Radiation­ diversification of a group of organisms into physical forms suited to a particular environmental niche Prosimians considered most ancient or oldest primates 2 groups of Prosimians Strepshini­ “wet nose”, lemurs, lorises Haplorhini­ “dry nose”, tarsiers Characteristics Arboreal (tree dwelling), Nocturnal (night active), some Diurnal (day and night active), no color vision, large eyes for night vision, keen smell and acute hearing Motor skills: grasping hands and feet New World Monkeys­ Platyrrhines Only found in central and south America Characteristics Arboreal, mostly diurnal Color vision in some Howler monkeys, mostly no color, stereoscopic vision Motor skills: grasping hands and feet w/great dexterity Some species brachiate (move through branches) w/help of prehensile tails Old World Monkeys­ Catarrhines Tropical Africa, Asia, Japan and North Africa Characteristics Arboreal and semi­terrestrial dwelling Grasping hands and feet w/fully opposable thumbs Acute eyesight w/color, stereoscopic, and depth perception Advanced hand­eye coordination Varying degrees of sexual dimorphism (physical differences of male and females) Primate Social Organization Primates have large brain to body ratios but it is cognitive ability and development of cerebral cortex that affects behaviors All Primates live in social groups of varying size and organization Core of primate societies is mother and offspring relationship  Human/Primate Comparison Similarities General anatomy Brain structure Genetics and biochemistry Grasping and dexterity Opposable thumbs, 5 fingers, nails not claws Stereoscopic vision, some color Social Behavior Parental investment and low # of offspring Transmission of info from parent to child Play as a learning tool Communication and learning Ability to learn from experience Tool­use Differences Anatomy Fully Bipedal  Loss of opposable big toe in humans Cranial and post cranial distinctions due to bipedalism Behavior Life­long parent/offspring and sibling bonds Mating­extremely complex mating practices and systems for humans Complex cooperation and sharing of food production and distribution  Culture­only seen in humans Major events of Primate Evolution 65mya: extinction of dinosaurs 23­5mya: Miocene, hominoids, Old World Monkeys and apes 5­1.7mya: Pliocene, Hominids 1.7mya­present: Holocene, Homo sapiens Evidence of early human evolution  Few early ancestors, most evidence confined to Africa Little tool use, no material evidence Limited range of learning Early Hominin distinctions Mandible and dentition Opposable thumbs Increased cognitive ability Bipedalism and Upright stance Physical changes occur for and alongside shift to bipedalism Genus: Australopithecines Members of earliest­recognized hominin genus Oldest: Gracile, 4.2­3.9mya Youngest: Robust, 2.5­1mya General Characteristics Bipedal locomotion Small brain size  Only found in Africa Physically diverse and complex group Gracile Australopithecines Australopithicus afarensis 3.5ft tall, 65­100lbs Protruding faces, large, overlapping canines Bipedal but still well­suited for arboreal dwelling “Lucy” Hadar, Ethiopia Robust Australopithecines Paranthropis Boisei: 2.1­1.1mya P. robustus and P. aethiopicus: 2.6­1.5mya Thick, heavy skulls, short foreheads, larger teeth and jaws Massive jaw muscles, large cheek bones, tall sagittal crest Genus Homo 2.4­1.5mya Anatomy Gracile frame, rounded cranium (680­1000cc brain capacity) Increasingly modern skeleton Behavior Culture Cooperative hunting Early Stone Age tool manufacture and use Shelter construction Control of fire Language  Homo habilis 1.8mya, Olduvai Gorge, Ethiopia Material culture Oldowan tool industry Oldest tool set associated w/fossil human ancestors Homo erectus 1.8/1.7mya­500,000/400,000ya Features more similar to modern humans than habilis Fossil analysis shows erectus brain size increased w/body size Homo erectus Cultural Developments In order to survive specific climatic affects of ice age, erectus developed an increasingly sophisticated and complex material culture Technological Advancement Acheulean stone tool industry  Stone bifaces (hand axes, choppers, scrappers, cleavers) Control of fire Neanderthal Members of a population of archaic humans, Homo neanderthalensis Lived throughout Eurasia 130,000­27,000ya Appeared in Europe roughly same time as modern Homo sapiens Shorter, more robust skeletons, more rounded skeletons than H. erectus Larger cranial capacity than modern humans Acheulean and Mousterian tool industries Neanderthal Culture Intentional burials, high concentrations of pollen indicate flowers in graves One skeleton found had severe injuries, taken care of by other individuals Homo sapiens Species of human found throughout the world By 35,000ya, H. sapiens had spread throughout the range of all other Homo pop. 3 Separate Theories to explain wide spread transition  Multiregional Model States different populations of H. sapiens are descended from H. erectus Consistent w/fossil record and seems to explain anatomical differences  Replacement Model States one subpopulation evolved in Africa then radiated outwards  H. erectus and Neanderthals were outcompeted  Hybridization Model Interbreeding between Neanderthals and H. sapiens  Archaeology What is archaeology? Way of observing and learning about human past through analysis of material remains in spatial and temporal context Modern goals of archaeology ­ To assess and understand evolutionary change, tech innovation and culture  developments ­ To reconstruct, describe and interpret extinct cultures ­ To avoid bias in interpretation of cultures by employing scientific  methodology How do we know what we know? Site identification ­ Surveys: systematic (mapped and grid lay­out) and unsystematic (no grid) ­ Subsurface testing: proton magnetometers, electrical resistivity ­ Remote sensing: aerial photography Excavation­ grid system, test pits, site stratification Artifacts­ tools, weapons, pottery, jewelry, midden piles (garbage) Ecofacts­ fires, floods, ersion=age Features­buildings, firepits, burials, mounds, etc. Epipaleolithic (SW Asia), Mesolithic (Europe), and Archaic (Americas) tool technologies Transition to broad spectrum collecting varied depending on environment Technologies are smaller and more specialized Peopling of the New World Beringia Model­ “ice­free corridor” from Asia to America, 12,000BP Maritime Model­ sea coast of Beringia, 16,000BP Solutrean Model­ from Europe via North Atlantic, 20,000BP Neolithic Revolution Domestication of plants and animals for human consumption 13­10,000ya Move from hunting herds to broad spectrum collecting and cultivation Movement to sedentary, complex social structures are created and social stratification is introduced Origins of Food Production Manipulation of wild foods by artificial selection Storage devices allow for stockpiling Specialization of pottery  Origins of animal domestication  Produced anatomical changes in some animals like cows, goats, sheep and dogs More selective in butchering and breeding Civilization Civilization refers to societies in which large numbers of people live in architecturally  complex cities w/a centralized, organized political institution called a state States have:  Social Stratification  Monopoly on coercion  Central governance by full­time ruling class  Ability to mobilize large populations for collective purpose


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