Study Guide 2
1. What is stress? How is it different from stressors?
a. Stress: an organism’s response
b. Stressor: external demand of the environment
2. What are coping strategies?
a. Efforts to deal with stress
3. What factors predispose a person to stress? That is, what factors increase or decrease a person's vulnerability to stress?
a. Factors that Decrease: ability to cope (high level of optimism, greater psychological control, increased self-esteem, better social support)
b. Factors that Increase: type of stress experienced early in life, genetics, history of depression
4. What is a crisis?
a. Refers to times when a stressful situation threatens to exceed or exceeds the adaptive capacities of a person or a group Don't forget about the age old question of What are the factors involved in u.s. economic inequality?
5. What is resilience? Describe three factors that increase resilience and three factors that are associated with reduced resilience.
a. Healthy physiological functioning after a potentially traumatic event
b. Increase resilience: Being male, being older, and being well educated
c. Decrease resilience: being Latino, African American, lower social class
6. Explain the role cortisol and other hormones play in stress reaction and why extended contact can be problematic over the longer term.
a. Cortisol prepares the body for fight or flight and inhibits the innate immune response, but it is does not shut off it can damage the brain cells
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7. How does stress and depression affect the immune system?
a. It can compromise immune function and people tend to get sick more often.
8. What risk factors are associated with coronary heart disease?
a. Depression, anxiety, social factors
9. What is Type A personality? What part of this personality type is most closely linked to heart disease?
a. Characterized by excessive competitive behavior, workaholic, impatient, and hostile b. The hostility component is most closely linked to heart disease
10. What is Type D personality? Are people with this type of personality at risk for developing any health problems?
a. Tendency to have negative emotions, feel insecure and anxious
b. People with this personality are more susceptible to heart attacks
11. What are the main biological interventions for stress-related physical disorders? a. Antidepressants, lowering cholesterol
12. What are the main psychological interventions for stress-related physical disorders? a. Emotional disclosure, cognitive behavior therapy, biofeedback, relaxation and meditation
13. What is adjustment disorder, and what are the main diagnostic criteria? Name three stressors that increase the risk of adjustment disorder.
a. Is a psychological response to a common stressor that results in clinically significant behavioral or emotional symptoms; stressor can be single or multiple events, symptoms must begin within 3 months of the onset of the stressor, person must experience more distress than would expected Don't forget about the age old question of When does santa anas take place?
b. Divorce, death of a loved one, loss of job
14. What is PTSD? What key changes have been made to this diagnosis in the DSM-5? a. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
b. Broadening range of experiences; person’s response must invoke intense fear, helplessness, horror; the event must also be experienced by the person
15. Why is PTSD no longer considered to be an anxiety disorder?
a. Because the symptoms prolong even after the danger is gone and the traumatic event has passed
16. Describe the four main categories of PTSD symptoms.
a. Intrusion-recurrent dreams, images, etc. of the event
b. Avoidance- efftorts to avoid thoughts, feelings of the trauma
c. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood- symptoms as feelings of detachment and negative emotional states
d. Arousal and reactivity- excessive response, aggression, reckless behavior.
17. How is acute stress disorder different from PTSD? We also discuss several other topics like The autonomic nervous system is responsible for what?
a. The symptoms last less than a month
18. Summarize the approaches that have been used to treat PTSD.
a. There are telephone hotlines, crisis interventions, psychological debriefing, medications, and cognitive behavior treatments.
19. What is a trauma narrative?
a. Talking about a traumatic experience to help organize and memories and feelings into a more understandable story.
1. Distinguish between fear and anxiety.
a. Anxiety: general feeling of apprehension about possible future danger b. Fear: an alarm reaction that occurs in response to immediate danger If you want to learn more check out What is george kennan's idea that was the basis of the strategy of the united states to fight the cold war?
2. What are the three components or response systems of fear and panic? a. Cognitive
3. What is a panic attack?
a. When the fear response occurs in the absence of external danger
4. Why is OCD no longer considered to be an anxiety disorder?
a. Anxiety is not generally used as an indicator of OCD severity
5. What are the key features of:
a. Specific phobia (know the 5 subtypes)?
i. Marked fear of anxiety about a specific object or situation
1. Animal- ex. Fear of dogs
2. Situational- ex. Flying, riding in a car, tunnels bridges
3. Natural environment- ex. Fear of storms
4. Blood injection injury- seeing blood or an injury
5. Other- choking, vomiting, space phobia
b. Panic disorder?
i. Recurrent unexpected panic attacks with intense fear or discomfort We also discuss several other topics like What is the primary source of income?
i. Marked fear about two or more of the following, typically lasting more than 6 months
1. Using public transportation
2. Being in open spaces
3. Being in enclosed spaces
4. Standing in line
5. Being outside of the home alone
d. Generalized anxiety disorder?
i. Excessive worry and anxiety occurring more than not and lasting at least 6 months; has three or more of the following symptoms
2. Easily fatigued
3. Difficulty concentrating
5. Muscle tension
6. Sleep disturbance
e. Social anxiety disorder?
i. Fear or anxiety about one or more social situations which the person is exposed to possible scrutiny by others
f. Obsessive-compulsive disorder?
i. Presence of obsessions, compulsion, or both: obsessions are defined by recurrent and persistent thoughts that are unwanted and they attempt to
ignore or suppress these thoughts, urges, or images
ii. Compulsions are
1. Repetitive behaviors- ex. Hand washing, ordering
2. Aimed are reducing the anxiety/stress
g. Body dysmorphic disorder?
i. Preoccupation with one or more perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance that are not observable or appear slight to others
h. Hoarding disorder?
i. Fail to discard possessions that are useless or have limited value their living spaces are extremely cluttered
i. Compulsive hair pulling from anywhere on the body resulting in
noticeable hair loss. The hair pulling is creates gratification or relief.
6. What behavioral principle is key in maintaining anxiety symptoms?
a. Prolonged exposure to feared situations
7. Why do panic disorder and agoraphobia often occur together?
a. People with panic disorder will avoid the places that they’ve had a panic attack in before
b. What is the most important component across effective psychosocial treatments for the anxiety disorders?
i. They all use cognitive behavioral therapy.
8. What is an obsession? What is a compulsion?
a. Obsession- recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are unwanted and intrusive; individual attempts to ignore or suppress such thoughts
b. Compulsion- repetitive behaviors like hand washing, praying, counting, etc., that the person feels they must do; the behaviors are aimed to prevent anxiety/stress but the behaviors are connected in a realistic way
9. What is the primary treatment for OCD?
a. The primary treatment for OCD is exposure and response preventions.
1) What are the key features of:
a. Major depressive episode?
a. Person is markedly depressed or loses interest in formerly pleasurable activities for at least 2 weeks. They can also have other symptoms like
changes in sleep or appetite, or feelings of worthlessness
b. Manic episode?
a. Person shows elevated, euphoric, or expansive mood, often interrupted by outburst of intense irritability or violence especially if others don’t go along with their wishes
c. Hypomanic episode?
a. A person experiences abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood for at least 4 days and must have 3 other symptoms but to a lesser extent
i. Other symptoms include: inflated self-esteem, decreased need for
sleep, flights of ideas, pressured speech
d. Major depressive disorder?
a. Require a person must be in a major depressive episode and never have had a manic, hypomanic, or mixed people
i. 5 or more of the following symptoms have been present during the
same 2-week period and represent change from previous functioning
1. depressed mood most the day almost everyday
2. diminished interest or pleasure in almost all activities
3. significant weight loss when not dieting
4. insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day
5. fatigue or loss of energy nearly everyday
6. psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day
7. diminished ability to think or concentrate
8. recurrent thoughts of death
e. Dysthymic disorder (persistent depressive disorder)?
a. Disorder characterized by persistently depressed mood most of the day, for more days, than not for at least 2 years. They also must have at least 2 of the 6 additional symptoms
1. Poor appetite or overeating
2. Insomnia or hypersomnia
3. Low energy or fatigue
4. Low self-esteem
5. Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions
6. Feelings of hopelessness
f. Bipolar disorder?
a. Two types I and II
g. Cyclothymic disorder?
a. Repeated experience of hypomanic symptoms for a period of at least 2 years i. Less serious than bipolar because it lacks the extreme behavior
2) What is the main difference between unipolar depressive disorders and bipolar depressive disorders?
a) Bipolar disorders have manic or hypomanic episodes which are preceded by long periods of depression
3) Describe how dysthymia (persistent depressive disorder) differs from major depressive disorder.
a) Dysthymia last long than major depressive disorder
4) Be able to recognize the criteria for diagnosing major depressive disorder and the subtypes. 5) What is the difference between bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder? (a) Type I- person has full blown mania and experiences episodes of mania and periods of depression even if the periods don’t reach the threshold for a major depressive setback
ii) Type II- experiences periods of hypomania, but his or her symptoms are below the threshold for full blown mania. They also experience periods of depressed mood that meet the criteria for major depression
6) What are the key features of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression? Behavioral activation? Cognitive-behavioral therapy?
a) It focuses on the client and their relationships with other people, it’s based on the idea that personal relationships are the center of psychological problems
b) Behavioral Activation- treatment approach focuses on getting clients to be more active and engaged with their environment and with their interpersonal relationships; key is that it focuses mainly on changing behavior
c) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy- brief treatment of 10 to 20 sessions, it teaches the client to evaluate their dysfunctional beliefs and negative automatic thoughts
7) What is Beck’s cognitive theory of depression? What is the negative cognitive triad? a) Depression is caused by the person’s view of themselves
b) Irrational and pessimistic view of the three keys elements of a person’s belief system present
i) Negative views about the world->negative views about the future-> negative views about oneself
8) Identify the most effective treatment package for bipolar disorders.
a) Combination of medication and psychotherapy
9) What is bright light therapy, and what does it treat
a) Use of using a light to help treat depression, was originally used to treat seasonal depression.
10) What is the prevalence rates of suicide among people with mood disorders? a) 90-95% of those who die by suicide have had at least one psychological disorder
11) Describe who is likely to attempt suicide and who is likely to complete suicide. a) For every 25 attempts there is one completion
12) Be able to name two myths related to suicide.
a) Depression causes all suicides
b) Suicides always happen in an impulsive moment
13) What role does ambivalence play in thoughts of suicide?
a) Some people don’t take it seriously enough and think that the person is just saying things when really they aren’t joking and are serious about the way they feel
14) Identify prevention and treatment methods for suicide.
a) Treating the underlying mental disorders, referral to inpatient or outpatient mental health facilities.
1. What are the key features of:
Somatic symptom disorder?
a. Bodily symptoms that cause significant psychological distress and
b. Excessive thoughts or feelings related to the behavior related to the
behaviors or health concerns of one or more of the following
i. Disproportioned thoughts about the symptoms
ii. High level of anxiety about the symptoms
iii. Excessive time and energy worrying about the symptoms
a. one or more symptoms of altered voluntary motor or sensory function b. no compatibility between the symptom and neurological or medical condition c. symptom is not better explained by another disorder
d. the symptom causes significant distress or impairment in social, work or other functioning
Illness anxiety disorder?
a. preoccupation with getting a serious illness
b. somatic symptoms are not present or mild
c. high level of anxiety about health
d. illness preoccupation has been present for 6 months
e. preoccupation is not better explained by another mental disorder
a. faking physical or psychological signs or symptoms of injury or disease b. individual tells others they are ill or injured
c. behavior is evident
d. behavior not better explained by another disorder
a. Intentionally producing or exaggerating physical symptoms and is motivated by external incentives, like avoiding work, etc.
Factitious disorder imposed on another?
a. Deliberately causing a medical condition in someone else that they are usually caring for
2. Describe how somatic symptom disorders differ from physical conditions. a. People with actual physical conditions will have a or had a medical condition that caused them, but somatic symptoms usually don’t have a cause.
3. What is the difference between a factitious disorder and malingering? a. The person does not receive external incentives in factitious disorder
4. Compare and contrast the treatments for somatic symptom disorders. What is known regarding their effectiveness as compared to no treatment at all?
a. Cognitive behavior treatments are used a lot to help prevent anxiety and depression and to teach them to cope by teaching relaxation techniques, etc. They also use antidepressant medications. These treatments are more effective than no treatments at all.
5. What are the key features of:
a. Depersonalization/derealization disorder?
a. Depersonalization- One’s sense of own self and own reality is lost
b. Derealization- one’s sense of the reality of the outside world is temporarily lost
b. Dissociative amnesia?
a. Failure to recall previously stored personal information when the failure can’t be accounted for by ordinary forgetfulness
c. Dissociative fugue?
a. Person is only amnesic for some or all aspects of his or her past but also departs from home surroundings, which is accompanied by confusion of
identity or the assumption of a new identity.
d. Dissociative identity disorder?
a. (AKA multiple personality disorder) Disruption of identity characterized by two or more distinct personality states
6. What are the causal factors that contribute to dissociative disorders?
a. Early childhood trauma, stress of war or natural disasters
7. What do we know about the relationship between childhood trauma and dissociative identity disorder?
a. Dissociation is a form of defensive pattern in kids that can persist into adulthood
8. What are the main controversies related to dissociative identity disorder? a. Is DID a real disorder or is it faked?
b. How does DID develop? (like childhood abuse or some kind of social issue) c. Are the memories of child abuse real or false?
d. Did the abuse play a causal role or was something else correlated with the abuse actually the cause?
9. Why has the term "multiple personality disorder" been replaced with "dissociative identity disorder"?
a. Because it had misleading connotations which suggested that the person had fully
organized, coherent different personalities
10. Why is the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder increasing?
a. Its increasing because of the increased ability to recognize the disorder
11. How does the posttraumatic theory of dissociative identity disorder differ from the sociocognitive theory?
a. Posttraumatic theory- DID starts from the child’s attempt to cope with an overwhelming sense of hopelessness and powerlessness
b. Sociocognitive Theory- DID develops when a highly suggestible person learns to adopt and enact roles or multiple identities
12. Are recovered memories always accurate?
a. No they are not.