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POLS 2300 Exam 1 study guide PLATO

by: Aurora Walker

POLS 2300 Exam 1 study guide PLATO POLS 3120

Marketplace > Utah State University > Political Science > POLS 3120 > POLS 2300 Exam 1 study guide PLATO
Aurora Walker
Utah State University
GPA 3.87

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About this Document

This includes notes and insights from two of the recent review sessions for the upcoming exam.
Law and Politics
Goelzhauser, Gregory
Study Guide
Plato, Justice, thegoodlife, Socrates, Republic, political science
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aurora Walker on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 3120 at Utah State University taught by Goelzhauser, Gregory in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Law and Politics in Political Science at Utah State University.

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Date Created: 10/15/16
Law and Politics 3120 Study Guide for Exam 1 Notes and insights from Thursday and Friday review sessions Thursday review session with TA Characters: Socrates : the main character of the Republic. He has the same name as the author's teacher. Socrates helps hone ideas to try to find the truth, and is especially concerned about justice. Cephalus : first interlocutor we meet. He is also the first to give his representation of what justice is and the good life is. He represents religion. His definition of justice is ‘giving to each what is owed’ Socrates takes issue with this and points out that if you take away your neighbors gun, and then they want it back to kill someone it would not be just. The deicide it’s never just to harm others. For him the good life is being comfortable, having a clear conscious, being able to offer sacrifice, and feeling relief about the afterlife. With old age he’s is freed from Eros. Polemarchus was Cephalus wealthy, educated and powerful son. He believed that justice first is 1. Agreeing with his father, it’s “giving what is owed.” 2. Doing good to friends and causing harm to enemies But doing harm is never good How do you really know your friends and enemies? What is “good”? He jumps on the Plato train and is on board with him 4 virtues: Wisdom Courage Moderation Justice -both in the city and in the soul In the soul, where is it found and what is it? Wisdom– in the head. Desires and know what’s good for the soul. Set above desires, to keep your desires in check. Courage – preservation of certain ideas or opinions. It’s important because we don’t like that Hilary changes her opinions. We don’t want the city changing its values just because the whims of society change. It’s like the heart. Moderation – found in the body, helps wisdom rule over the desires. It helps the better parts rule over the worse. Justice – each part of the soul keeping to itself. Minding your own business. It’s what prevents factions and war. (drawings of the city and soul) not infringing on the rights of the other virtues. How we treat other people. In the city, what is it and where is it found Wisdom - found in the rulers. They know how to run society. Keeps the city running. Courage – found in the guardians. As political courage. You stick to your believes, and not being swayed Moderation – found in the craftsmen. Import because it keeps the city versatile. Agreement between parts of the soul/city about the respective roles of each part. It helps you agree about what’s better – it helps wisdom rule over desires. Justice – everyone minding their own business, and doing their jobs Thrasymachus – he’s a sophist, he teaches people how to win argument for a living. He has 2 definitions of justice 1. Advantage of the stronger 2. Advantage of the ruling class His authority comes from authority of ruing class – what does it mean to be a ruler. He argues that the good life is being unjust. He sets the stage for all of the others. Not ruling class because rulers get paid – they don’t want to do it. 3 cities st 1 small healthy city. Glaucon calls it a city of pigs. It was self sufficient 2 – bigger – intro of public and private goods. Some of your wants. 3 – must be bigger, needs army and military. Its feverish. You need more for a surplus – you take from your neighbor. Adeimantus on happiness- be the best shoemaker you can be. He’s an interlocutor, and his big beef is there is no happiness. This life sucks for the guardians – there’s no private property. Glaucon He’s an interlocutor, and his big beef is there’s no relish. Excess. Term – the ring of Gyges - It’s a ring that makes the wearer invisible. They can do whatever they want, and if both a just and unjust person could be unjust they would be unjust. People are just because they have pressure to be so. Brought up by Glaucon – if all men could get away with being unjust, they would. Statement about human nature – if we could get away with being unjust, we would. Farmer, sees ground split open from earthquake, puts in ring. When wearing it if you twist it you become invisible. When wearing it, kills king and commits adultery with queen. If you have the ring and don’t use it, you’re an idiot. You should be using it for personal gain. He also brings up that no one practices justice willingly. They all practice it out of an ‘inability to practice injustice.’ 339 e – why he changes his argument from powerful to rulers. Justice is intrinsically good and beneficial – then Socrates starts the city in speech so they can find justice. Review session 2 – with Dr. Ross Thrasymachus st 1 wave Equalizing of the sexes 2 wave Don’t want to replace love of city with love of family- EG not want to go to war because of family You don’t know which kid is yours also – the festival. Marriages – it’s a set lottery, but they don’t know it’s rigged. Detachment of spouses from each other. Marriage becomes about coming together for procreation and that’s about it. 3 wave – why does it come up? – Socrates is proposing radical changes that need to happen for st nd rd city to be just EG 1 wave equalizing sexes, 2 breaking up family, and 3 philosopher kings. He said this is the one that people will hate the most – probably kill and hurt him Why is it important? – They have true knowledge Content and context – is Socrates is going to make a claim, he has to explain how they got there. After the waves, the discussion goes to education. Pretty hardcore, abstract philosophy. The cave is the culmination of the education of the philosophers. rd The 3 wave sets the stage for the discussion on education, and Plato must explain how the philosopher knows what he knows in order to make a legitimate claim to rule Noble Lie 1 part – the whole education they went through is a dream We all sprang from mother earth, so city is mother and everyone in city is our siblings. Different metal in their blood determines if they are a ruler, guardian or craftsman. Born into a class to fulfil a role in society. Rhetorical strategy – he wants people to think about the issue and ask these questions. Deeply engage with the argument and recognize that it wouldn’t work We don’t have metal in our blood - easily falsifiable. What’s the importance? Why it matters to the argument – nationalistic component – how do we get the guardians to be attached to the city? What will convince them to do it? Make them love the city and what they do very best. Others have pride in their city too – sense of purpose for the craftsman and rulers. Not ruthless b/c all brother and sisters. Provides a unifying purpose for the classes and why they all function together for the good of the city. Why else was it important? After the noble lie, Adeimantus has an issue with the fact that they’re not very happy. Leads to discussion why happiness in the city is different and better than individual happiness. Justice vs injustice Glaucon argument, that’s part of Thrasymachus argument, that it’s more beneficial to be unjust. Different classifications – for Socrates, it needs to be both beneficial to the individual and for its own sake. Whole premise of the republic if trying to convince us that it’s better to be a good person than be a downright nasty person and get away with it. Final definition of justice is geared towards the soul – minding your own business Virtues of the city + soul  Wisdom – good council. Good political rule. What’s good for pol. And having leaders who pursue them  Courage – having deeply held beliefs and not throwing them away. esp in the guardians because we don’t want them easily persuaded not to defend the city  Moderation – better part rules over your worse part. Also regulation of wealth. Better part – wisdom. Lessor part – passions and desires found in the craftsmen. Each class allowing the better class to rule over them. Philosopher king led by virtues trumps a democracy led by passions and desires.  Justice – each part minding its own business. Each be the best whatever they can be. Each knows their role and doesn’t meddle in the virtues of the other people. Also in the soul – exact same virtues.  Wisdom in the soul – rational and irrational faculties. Wisdom is part of rational faculty. Make sure our rational facilities are elevated over irrational faculties (desires and passions) letting reason rule the soul. Open to people who have rationality to help guide us  Courage in the soul – having deeply held beliefs and not throwing them away. esp those based on your rational faculties. We’re not all philosophers and dialects, and sometimes need to hold on philosophic faith some of the truths we’re presented with  Moderation in the soul – better part rules over your worse part. Not letting passions and desires rule over wisdom and reason. Don’t give in to eat 20 Buffalo wings at midnight at Buffalo wild wings. (last night, that’s what he did)  Justice – each part minding its own business. Virtues in the city are a product of virtues in the individual souls. Virtue in the soul first = ONE of the reasons it’s important. The people come first. If there are political problems in society, we need to focus on individuals, passing laws won’t solve the problem – it’s cutting the heads off the hydra. Get to the root in peoples souls. About the well-orderedness of the virtues in the soul. The different parts don’t medal with the other parts. Healthy vs feverish city in speech The introduction of relish is the difference, start by saying Socrates proposes a city in speech in order to find justice because it’s larger to find on a larger scale than a smaller city 1 – small city – everyone recognizing they have needs that can’t be fulfilled, work together, division of labor. Each does their part. If we’re going to find justice, its in this city Then – Glaucon points out this is a city for pigs –we want to flourish. We want relish. Relish necessitates – bigger and more stuff, take from neighbor, so you need an army. -View of human nature - Glaucon has a point – humans won’t be happy here. The city needs to account for wants, not just needs. Once we have a military we have to talk about how we’ll train them. Don’t want them to neglect their duties, or to turns on cites. Then the discussion turns to education and how to train the guardians. Image of the Beast – Critique of democracy, Socrates introduces it as part of the education of both the masses and the philosopher. The beast ultimately had a tamer who knew what it liked and disliked, its import because it’s a representation of how Socrates views democracy. What makes it happy vs what’s best for them. The beast represents the people/masses/majority rule. Tamer = sophists or politicians who get into power not because of knowledge or wisdom but because they know how to tickle and make noises that make it happy. Tips: Avoid comparing them superficially – be very clear when you’re making comparisons to modern day. Pull in comparisons more in the essay questions. Understand the concepts in context of the text first, and explain it well. Quality over quantity. Try to avoid “kitchen sink” answers – just start writing everything you know about everything. It takes too long. Be concise.


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