Anatomy and Physiology: Mitosis
Anatomy and Physiology: Mitosis
Lorain County Community College
Popular in Anatomy and Physiology I
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sasha Lopez on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Lorain County Community College taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Anatomy at Lorain County Community College.
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Date Created: 10/15/16
A&P Notes Chapter 1: Understanding Mitosis Mitosis can be a bit tricky to understand and learn. I had trouble myself but I continued to reread my textbook and do research online until I finally understood the process. So here is my explanation of Mitosis and hope you will be an expert by the end of these notes. First what is Mitosis? Mitosis is cell division that results in two identical daughter cells. Now don't confuse Mitosis with Meiosis which is sex cell divisions like sperm and eggs. The cell cycle is composed of two main phases called the interphase and the M phase (Mitosis). During interphase, 3 subphases occur called G1, S, G2, and then the final M phase. G1 (or first gap phase): The cell spends most of its time in this phase of interphase. The cell is performing its normal metabolic functions and is growing. It carries out rapid protein synthesis which is used to make new organelles and components of the cytoskeleton. In short, the cell grows. The G in G1 stands for "gap" but if it's helps you remember better, think of the G as "growth". S phase: DNA synthesis takes place in this phase. The "S" stands for synthesis. The cell replicates it's DNA. This is where each chromosome makes a copy of itself or sister chromatid which than fuse together at the centromere and resembles an X. G2 (or second gap phase): This step is just more cell growth. Simple as that. M phase (Mitosis): This is where the cell division occurs. The 4 stages of Mitosis are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. To remember the steps in order, remember "PMAT". It literally is the best way to remember the stages in order! I guarantee if you remember that and a question on a exam tells you to put the stages in order, PMAT will definantly come in handy! Prophase: -Chromatin in the nucleus becomes dense and visible to see. -Centrioles start to move to opposite ends of the cell and the spindle fibers extend from the centromeres. -Some fibers cross the cell to form the mitotic spindle. -Nucleolus disappears. Metaphase: -The longest phase of Mitosis -Spindle fibers from the opposite poles pull the sister chromatids to line them up in the middle of the cell. Anaphase: -Sister chromatids part -daughter chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the cell -complete set of 46 chromosomes Telophase: -daughter cells separate -nuclear envelope reassembles -nucleolus becomes visible and chromosomes are less visible Now during telophase, cytokinesis occurs. Cytokinesis divides the cytosol and organelles equally between the two daughter cells. When the cells split at an indentation, that is called cleavage furrow. Think of cleavage on a woman. It looks just like that. That's it! Hopefully you were able to learn and understand Mitosis better! Keep studying and getting those A's and B's! Happy learning! :)
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