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Reason, Passion, & Cognition, Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Monica Chang

Reason, Passion, & Cognition, Exam 2 Study Guide 88-120

Marketplace > Carnegie Mellon University > Social & Decision Sciences > 88-120 > Reason Passion Cognition Exam 2 Study Guide
Monica Chang

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Lecture 8-13
Reason, Passion, and Cognition
Julie Downs
Study Guide
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monica Chang on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 88-120 at Carnegie Mellon University taught by Julie Downs in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Reason, Passion, and Cognition in Social & Decision Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University.


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Date Created: 10/16/16
REASON, PASSION, & COGNITION EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE LECTURE 8: WHAT IS EMOTION? Overview of emotion (definition and components): - Multifaceted process that unfolds over time - Appraisal triggers emotions (evaluations of reactions that cause certain reactions) - Expressed in multiple channels that have a complex interaction. Theses are not emotions in themselves but are parts of emotion. Channels include: o Subjective feeling o Bodily response o Expression o Cognitive changes o Action tendencies - Appraisal o Components:  Pleasantness (good/bad)  Control (by whom/what?)  Certainty (predictions of future?)  Anticipated effort - Subjective feelings o The root of our experiences o Value is determined by emotional value o Not everyone feels emotion the same way - Bodily response o Endocrine system (glands that secrete hormones: chemical messengers within body that affect the functions of brain and body)  Oxytocin  Female reproduction  Reduces brain activity connected to fear  Increases trust, empathy  Cortisol  Stress hormone, released particularly when we feel lack of control  Gives us energy (brings blood sugar up)  Eases memory  Suppresses immune system  Testosterone  Linked with masculine qualities and sexual development  Connected to aggression (ex. More testosterone given to monkeys increases aggression to other monkeys, although it is selective), testosterone≠aggression  More testosterone and higher risk-taking are correlated o Autonomic nervous system  Sympathetic o Facilitates fight or flight, response to stressor o Increases blood flow to muscles and lungs o Increases heartbeat o Dilates pupils  Parasympathetic o Facilitates “rest and digest” o Increases blood flow to digestive system o Decreases heartbeat o Limits pupils o Coordinated Responses  Fight or Flight  Reaction to stressor  Includes greater heart rate, greater lung function, greater blood flow, repressed digestion, relaxed bladder, reflex acceleration  Orienting  Reaction to unexpected environmental change (not aversive)  Includes greater attention, attention towards stimulus, slower heart rate, greater muscle tension  Startle reflex  Response to unexpected, sudden stimulus (more impactful than what causes orienting response) e.g. crashing sound  Includes closing of eyes, muscle tension in neck, contraction of arm/leg muscles, exaggerated for those w/ PTSD - Expression o Allows other people to tell what we’re feeling o Bodily expression, faces, posture, voices - Cognitive/Informational processing changes o Emotions can cause people to  Rely more/less on heuristics  Adjust more/less from anchors  Change perception of risk - Action tendencies o Ex. Angry people increased tendency to fight, sad people more likely to shop How components fit together - Emotion theories: o Lay intuition  Feelings are most important component o James-Lange Theory  Emotions are feelings of bodily state changes (somatic feeling theory)  Perception of event/situation, body reacts instantly, then you know how to feel (bodily change leading to emotion)  Flaws: No one-to-one correlation, not many bodily states, lots of emotions o Schachter-Singer Two Factor Theory  In a study, some are injected with epinephrine, study gives evidence that emotion includes the bodily state, depends on perception of event  Another study, two different kinds of bridges, at the end subjects are asked to do a survey and asked to call with any questions, more people on scary bridge called  How we think of an event and experience a bodily state can come together to create an emotion  Situation may be same, but depends on context  This theory has flaws o Appraisal Theories  Richard Lazarus  Appraisal theory  Perception of event, appraisals, {subjective feeling, bodily response, expression, cognitive changes, action tendency}  Solves some Two Factor Theory The problem of variety o What can we call an emotion? o We don’t consider hunger an emotion b/c there is no expression o Theories of emotion are nuanced, so we have a multi- part definition of emotion o We can study how emotion affects decision making Key Ideas - Emotions triggered by appraisal of situation - Emotions give value to our experiences - Bodily response is facilitated by physiological systems o Endocrine system - Oxytocin, cortisol, testosterone o Nervous system - sympathetic and parasympathetic systems - Fitting together emotional components (theories) o William James and Karl Lange – says bodily response determines emotions we feel o Schachter-Singer – Two-factor Theory says bodily response is part of emotion o Appraisal theories – outline how we interpret situations, determined multifaceted experience of emotion LECTURE 9: DUAL PROCESS MODELS OF DECISION MAKING Two systems of decision-making: - System 1 - Intuition system (shared by humans and other animals) o Associative  Priming causes response facilitation for associated ideas and response inhibition for other ideas  Ex1. People who were shown a picture of a snake were quicker to recognize fearful face than a happy face b/c the picture primes the idea of fear. o Fast o Parallel processing  Lots of info processed simultaneously o Effortless  Often color, size, similarity, novelty, affective valence (good/bad)  Language o Automatic  E.g. The Stroop Task (saying the color of a word when its ink matches its name is automatic) o Slow-learning o Emotional  Intuition based on affect  Example using affect heuristic: More people are willing to pay for life insurance from death from any reason versus death from a terrorism incident, even though - System 2 - Reasoning system (believed to be unique to humans) o Deductive  Syllogism  Given: o I will either wear a coat or sweater today o I will not wear a coat today  Using system 2, you can conclude: o I will wear a sweater today o Slow o Serial processing  Information processed sequentially, one at a time  Computer use sequential processing o Effortful  Based on subjective difficulty and not objective difficulty  E.g. Playing chess o Controlled  Stroop Task (it’s harder to say the color of the word when the ink is a different color than the name of the color printed) o Flexible  Expertise  You can learn more easily o Neutral  E.g. Syllogism:  Given: o People who attend school in PA aren’t intelligent o CMU is in PA  Conclusion: o People at CMU aren’t intelligent How the systems combine: - Selective design o Persuasion  Elaboration likelihood model  Having the correct attitude requires thinking  Thinking requires effort, which depends on: o Motivation o Ability  When motivation and ability are high, attitude change occurs through system 2 (central route) o Careful examination of message o Makes + and – cognitive responses to message o Attitude change may occur based on the above  When motivation and ability are low, attitude change occurs through system 1 (peripheral route) o Not careful examination of message, low effort o Minimal cognitive responses, uses “cues” (authority, appeal, mood, etc.) o Attitude change may happen based on cues  Just one system contributes to outcome (i.e. either system 1 or system 2 is being used, not both) - Competitive design o Difference from selective design is not in the output o Both systems are ready and produce something inside, but the outcome is only from one system & other system is still doing something - Consolidative design o Both system 1 and system 2 contribute to output o Relative amounts of both system 1 (associations, emotions, etc.) and system 2 (considered arguments, etc.) contribute to judgment - Corrective design o Most associated with decision science and dual processes approach o Combination of two inputs o E.g. The Linda problem o Implication: prejudice  Stereotyping comes from system 1  Racial prejudice was very explicit, but now more people outwardly oppose it b/c of system 2 processing  Prejudice researchers are interested in measuring system 1 processing  Reaction times o Shorter reaction times is evidence of system 1 associations o Longer reaction times is evidence that system 2 comes in to correct system 1 associations o E.g. Tool or weapon test when shown a picture of a black or white person (from lecture 9) o Reaction time correlates w/ behavior, but can be a very noisy measurement Key ideas: - Two systems make up decision making processes: o System 1 – fast, intuitive, uses more emotion, o System 2 – slow, rational, better at learning - Dual processing models: how system 1 and system 2 interact: o There are many models, and there is no one “correct” model o Models help us understand how the two systems are used in decision-making LECTURE 10: Emotion and Decision-making Integral Emotion: - Integral emotions - emotions that actually have to do with the situation pertaining to decision - Corrective design: with lots of options, system 1 uses integral emotion to help with decisions (emotional reaction to options are integral to decision), then system 2 can come in to correct it - In general, it’s hard to find evidence for integral emotion b/c 1. Emotion needs to be measured at time of decision 2. Need to show that motion mediated decision o So typically evidence comes from neuroscience, often from brain damage to emotion - Phineas Gage - Damage to Ventromedial Pre-Frontal Cortex (VMPFC) o Changes social behavior, can’t see social conventions and decide on personal matters o Intellectual abilities preserved – learning, memory, language, attention, etc. o Abnormalities exist mainly in emotions - Iowa Gambling Task o Two decks of cards: one of big wins and one of bigger losses o Two more decks of cards: one of small wins and one of smaller losses o People WITHOUT brain damage will realize that even though there are big wins, the small wins are better because there are smaller losses with them. They subconsciously react to the good decks before they realize they are. o People WITH brain damage did not react to big losses, they kept choosing from the wrong decks even after they know o This suggests that emotion is important in decision- making - We used to believe emotion prevents good decisions, but studies of emotion-impaired patients suggest otherwise - Emotion & Prospect Theory Value function in emotion: o Reference dependence  Emotions are limited in time  Emotions respond to changes (relative)  We habituate to constants: with a constant stimulus, we get used it, so our emotions diminish o Loss Aversion (steeper for losses)  Negative emotions weigh more heavily than positive emotions  Negative emotion has stronger affect on cognitive processes o Concave for gains, convex for losses (s-curve, implies risk aversion)  Affect heuristic  Emotion is minimally impacted by magnitude (more curved): the more emotional people are, the more concave the curve is, the scope of it becomes more insignificant o Evidence of risk aversion in emotion:  Study 1: Buying Madonna CDs  One group given a calculation math problem (to prime rational thinking).  Other group asked about their feelings in reaction to the word “baby” (to prime emotions)  Task: How much would you pay for a Madonna CD? o For people with the calculation mindset, they would pay more for 10 CDs than 5 CDs o For people with the feeling mindset, they would pay about the same for the 10 CDs versus 5 CDs  Emotion is minimally impacted by magnitude (severe risk aversion, more curved) Decision weight function in emotion: o Low probabilities overweighted, high probabilities underweighted  Less emotional  Describe features  Describe consequences  Closer to normative  More emotional  Affect-rich description  Farther from rational Incidental emotion: - Incidental emotion - emotion irrelevant to the actual situation of the decision, comes in from the side (e.g. mood due to other things in life) - Affects integral emotions (thus changing weighting of alternatives) and changes involvement of system 2 (either increasing or decreasing its oversight of system 1 input) - Emotion and risk o Study Example:  Researchers induced negative mood for one group and positive mood for another group  Their emotion affected how much they perceived risk of different events: people primed with negative emotions found higher risks in different events and people primed with positive emotions found lower risks with different events - Emotion and the Endowment Effect o How do incidental emotions affect bias?  Study example:  One group primed with sadness  Second group primed with disgust  Third group is neutral  Some people given highlighters, some not given highlighters. Neutral people tended to want to sell than to buy. Sad people tended to want to buy than to sell. Disgusted people treated selling and buying about the same. - Emotion and Dual processes o Certainty in appraisals will affect whether system 2 will come in o High-certainty emotions  Disgust, anger, happiness, etc.  Less likely to use system 1 (heuristics) than system 2 o Low-certainty emotions  Fear, hope, worry, etc.  More likely to use system 2 than system 1 o People primed with low-certainty emotions will be less certain of other things than those primed with high- certainty emotions Key ideas: - Emotions are essential to decisions - Emotions impact decision in 2 ways: o Integral emotion: triggered by options relevant to situation o Incidental emotion: triggered by holdovers from other sources - Incidental emotions affect in 2 ways: o Changing weight of alternatives o Changing involvement of system 2 LECTURE 11: Regret and Disappointment Regret vs. disappointment: - Cognitively based, negative emotions related to sadness - Comparative component o Show dissatisfaction w/ outcome  Outcome is unexpected o Perceiving outcome is inferior to expectation  Feedback is important  Negative feedback leads to regret & disappointment  Real or imagined  Can ruin an experience you had  Can suggest you made the wrong decision o Can be negative even when you make right decision  Ex1. Usually, if you don’t win the lottery, it doesn’t have an effect on you. But if you don’t buy a lottery ticket and your postcode is chosen, you regret not buying the lottery - Responsibility component o Regret  More personal responsibility, felt like you had control, can cause goal persistence (more motivated to change behavior next time around) o Disappointment  More responsibility on the situation or on others, powerlessness, can cause goal abandonment - Anticipated regret o Regret can help people learn o Anticipated regret is when we want to minimize the possibility of regret, which can lead to both rational decisions and bad decisions o The Minimax Regret Principle (heuristic)  Find maximum possible regret for each option  Choose option where max regret is minimized, leads us to overweight how things may go wrong, we don’t pay attention to which options have the best positive things  Useful when we lack knowledge of probabilities and outcomes  Improbable negative outcomes will be overweighted  Ex1. Movie vs. concert  Regret potential is high for choosing the movie, and low for choosing the concert b/c concert is a one time thing so you want to minimize the possibility of missing out if the concert is good When do we anticipate these emotions?: - Expected feedback o Regret and disappointment come from past outcomes o If there is no feedback, it’s much more difficult to make comparisons o Therefore, we’re less likely to experience these regret & disappointment if there is less expected feedback o Minimax suggest that either way, we should choose option with feedback (the one that has the other option censored and minimizes max regret) o W/ gambles, we are more risk-seeking when they expect feedback about riskier options - Counterfactuals o We make hypothetical alternatives (might have happened, but didn’t) o We make up feedback when don’t have real feedback o More likely to imagine counterfactuals in highly mutable situations (when you feel like you’re more likely to change something) o What makes a situation more mutable?:  Expectation vs. Routine  Near miss vs. far miss  Action vs. inaction o Regret and disappointment result from counterfactuals  Regret is attributed to counterfactuals of changing behavior  Disappointment is attributed to counterfactuals of changing a situation Anticipated versus experienced regret - When people are asked if they’d feel more regret missing a train by 1 min vs. 5 min, people say they’d feel more regret missing a train by 1 min. - Actual people who experienced missing a train by 1 min or 5 min were asked, and there wasn’t a difference Avoiding regret - Temporal patterns of regret: o In the long run, people regret inaction more than actions o In the short run, we regret actions more than inactions o Why?  Factors repair and lessen the pain of regrettable actions over time more than inactions  Behavioral repair work: o We can more easily fix regrettable actions, harder to imagine fixing an inaction  Psychological repair work o More silver linings w/ regrettable actions o More dissonance w/ regrettable actions o Regrettable actions are easier to rationalize  Factors increase the accessibility of regrettable inactions  Ziergarnik Effect o We remember unfinished tasks more than finished ones o A failures to act is more memorable than a regrettable action - Defensive Pessimism o Lower expectations  Tradeoff:  Pessimism can protect us against disappointment  But can make us unhappy while we wait for outcome Expectation Pre-outcome Post-outcome Optimistic Savoring Disappointment (assuming negative outcome) Pessimistic Dread Less disappointment (assuming negative outcome)  Deciding on whether to be pessimistic vs. optimistic depends on the magnitude of the pre- outcome and post-outcome effects  Using defensive pessimism may not be the best strategy in avoiding disappointment, maybe we shouldn’t try to avoid regret… Key Ideas: - Regret & disappointment are cognitively based o They have a comparative component & responsibility component - We anticipate regret o Expected feedback & counterfactuals are the main components - Anticipated regret is more negative than experienced regret - Avoiding regret o We adapt faster than expected o In the long run, people regret inaction more than actions o In the short run, we regret actions more than inactions o This is because of easier repair of regrettable actions (behavioral & psychological) and greater accessibility to regrettable inactions (Ziergarnik Effect) LECTURE 12: Facial Expression History of Facial Expression - Guillaume Duchenne o Electrophysicist o Says that facial expression is universal o Emotion is a language of communication - Darwin o Agreed with Duchenne o Argued that expression is evolved for communicative purposes o Expression are biologically based, innate o Our expression is similar to other animals, biological - Margaret Mead o Emotion is a product of culture as opposed to biology - Paul Ekman o Wanted to prove that emotion is universal Facial Action Coding System (FACS) o Studies used to characterize emotion very imprecisely (ex. smiling or not smiling) o Ekman and his research partner wanted to be more precise o Attempts to identify all ways in which muscles on face change expression, by seeparating movements into action units (AUs) - Faces of Emotion o Ekman argues there are 6 basic emotions that are biologically based and universal:  Surprise  Fear  Happiness  Sadness  Anger  Disgust Context - The context is very important, helps us understand people’s emotions - Context includes: o Situation o Verbal/vocal/postural cues - Study done shows that when context matches the face, people are more likely to label the face correctly Facial Feedback - Intuitively, emotion determine facial expression - Alternative – Facial feedback: people’s facial activity influences emotional responses (similar to James-Lange Theory) Functionality - How did expressions evolve? o Communication  One person needs to make expression  2ndperson needs to read expression o Alternative:  Facial expression first evolved first for other reasons, then became communicative  Fear & disgust are two major candidates  Degree of openness of eyes  Degree of openness of nostrils Culture - Although expression are universal, there are differences in culture - Western culture has better expression recognition accuracy - Studies show east Asian culture expression focuses more on eyes, and western culture focuses more on mouth (evident in the types of emojis used in each culture) Decision-Making Application - Facial expressions can sway decisions - Ex. people donated more money to pictures of kids with sadder faces than happier faces - Lie detection o We think we’re good at detecting lies, but usually we can’t o But when we have contextual info, facial expressions can give a better-than-chance guess Key ideas - Facial expressions are pretty universal - Context is important for interpreting facial expressions - Facial expressions likely evolved for other purposes, but has become communicative LECTURE 13: Happiness Kinds of happiness - Mill says it is better to be a dissatisfied smart person than a satisfied fool (rejects ignorance is bliss, there is no bliss in ignorance). - Two types of happiness (according to Mill): o Experienced happiness (pig)  A feeling, subjective state/experience, pleasure of the moment  Irreducible – only the experience itself can define the experience  Driven by system 1 o Life satisfaction (Socrates)  Reflecting and looking back (system 2)  Partly experienced emotion  Includes other factors:  Virtue, being knowledgeable  Duty (fulfilling duty)  Truth (search for truth  Family o If you don’t have a lot of experienced happiness, you probably don’t have a lot of life satisfaction, and vise versa o Experienced happiness and life satisfaction are different but tend to be correlated What makes people happy? - Demographics o Money  Logarithmic function between money and happiness (diminishing utility)  Income is increasing in the US, but happiness is barely increasing  Easterlin’s Paradox  Modest correlation between income and happiness, but as countries get richer over time, average happiness barely changes o Beauty  Beautiful people are happier on average  Support exists for all of the following o Beauty causes happiness o Happiness causes beauty o Other variable: health, income o Marriage  Married people happier than never married people  Unhappily married people less happy than never married and divorced people  Causality?  Happy people have greater chance to get married  Habituation  People adapt to divorce but not completely (don’t return fully to happiness before divorce) o Children  Summary  Children seem to decrease experienced happiness until they go to college  Children seem to increase life satisfaction  Some countries in Europe don’t have this trend (i.e. experienced happiness is not negatively affected) o Happiness composition:  10% - demographics above  50% - set point  40% - choices/mindset Set point - Set point accounts for 50% o We have a baseline happiness o Largely genetic o Stable, hard to influence - Hedonic adaptation o Study shows that happiness was only affected if good/bad life event happened within 2-3 months; too distant ones couldn’t predict Choices & mindset - How time is spent o Spend time wisely - How money is spent o Experiential o Material o Summary  Should spend $ on experiences & other people  Should spend time w/ close friends & less commuting Living in the moment - Experience sampling o What you’re doing o What you’re thinking about  Not mind-wandering associated with the same happiness as pleasant mind-wandering, but neutral or unpleasant mind-wandering comes with lower happiness than not mind-wandering - Live in the moment Key ideas: - We think demographics are essential to happiness (like money, beauty, marriage, children), but they’re barely impactful in reality - Many happiness factors are beyond our control like set-point & adapting to circumstances - What happiness is is still very unknown


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