New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

10/17 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Lily Hall

10/17 Exam 2 Study Guide SOP3004

Lily Hall
GPA 3.45

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Completed answers from the study guide that was posted on blackboard.
Social Psychology
Michael MacKenzie
Study Guide
SocialPsychology, Psychology, psych, social, emotion, Self-Esteem, bias
50 ?




Popular in Social Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lily Hall on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOP3004 at Florida State University taught by Michael MacKenzie in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Florida State University.


Reviews for 10/17 Exam 2 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/16/16
Study Guide - Exam #2  Know the concept of attribution - an explanation why we or others engaged in a certain behavior  Actor/Observer Bias - Tendency to make internal attributions for others negative behaviors and tendency to make external attributions for our own negative behaviors  Fundamental Attribution Error - Tendency to make dispositional attributions for others’ behavior, even when plausible situational explanations exist  Self-Serving Bias - Taking credit for successes (internal attributions) & blaming other people/factors for failures (external attributions)  Stroop Effect (Automatic and Deliberate Thinking section of text) – in this test, the finding that people have difficulty overriding the automatic tendency to read the word rather than name the ink color  Heuristic – mental shortcuts that provide quick estimates about the likelihood of events  Schwarz, Bless, Strack (1991) – wrote down examples of how assertive they are (IV: some wrote 6 examples, some wrote 12), how assertive the person saw themselves was the DV, those who wrote 6 examples rated themselves more assertive  Priming - you can prime a concept in someone’s mind to effect their perceptions/attitudes/thoughts later. Mind influences body  Embodied Social Cognition – body affects mind  Bargh et al. (1996) – some were told they had elderly results after working on scrambled word puzzle, some were not, those who were told they had elderly results walked slower down a hallway after {example of priming}  Brinol & Petty (2003) - P’s heard argument for carrying personal ID cards, half nodded their head up and down while listening, other half shook their head from side to side while listening. There was also strong argument quality vs weak argument quality, people were randomly assigned to one or the other. Those who heard the strong argument and were nodding their head agreed with the argument more. Those who were shaking their head and heard the weak argument agreed with it more. Basically, nodding head up and down helps people agree with their own thoughts more.  Biases, and Fallacies o Confirmation bias – the tendency to notice information that confirms one’s beliefs, and to ignore info that disconfirms one’s beliefs o Base Rate Fallacy – the tendency to ignore or underuse base rate info and instead to be influenced by the distinctive features of the case being judged o Gambler’s fallacy – the tendency to believe that a particular chance event is affected by previous events and that chance events will “even out” in the short run o False Consensus Effect – the tendency to overestimate the number of other people who share one’s opinions, attitudes, values, and beliefs o First instinct fallacy – the false belief that it is better not to change one’s first answer on a test even if one starts to think a different answer is correct How We Gain Self-Knowledge  Looking Glass Self – people learn about themselves from other people (example: politeness norms {bias}, feedback receptiveness {love flattery but choose not to listen to criticism}  Introspection – examining content of mind or mental states; provides “privileged access”; PROBLEM is people don’t know why they think and feel certain things  Social Comparison – examining the different between oneself and another person o Downward social comparison – compare yourself to people worse off than you o Upward social comparison – compare yourself to people better off than you in terms of a certain trait  Self Perception – people observe their own behavior to infer what they are thinking and how they are feeling {example: ask self if you like your job; lists off “I often show up late”, “I act grumpy when I’m there”, etc)  Sociometer Theory – relates to our innate need to belong; the sociometer is a “gauge” that tells us if we are being accepted o Evidence of Sociometer Theory – people who feel accepted by others have higher self esteem, manipulating feelings of belongningness causes similar behaviors as manipulating threats to self esteem  Self Esteem Movement – a nationwide effort to make all children feel good about themselves and feel special; based on the premise that successful people seem to have high self esteem, so making children have high self esteem from the beginning will make more successful people, but there is no evidence! Problem is also that many kids are not learning, only feeling good about themselves.  Diener & Wallbom (1976) – Participants performed anagram task with a chance to cheat. Half participants sat in front of a mirror and the other half did not. 71% of people not sitting in front of a mirror cheated, but only 7% in front of the mirror did. Moral of the story is: Self awareness impacts our behavior. If we see ourselves cheating, we know it is bad and are MUCH less likely to do it.  Overjustification Effect - the tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with rewards. {rewards transform play into work}  Self Regulation (aka Self Control) – the ability to control/regulate/change one’s emotions, thoughts, desires, or behaviors; generally, means changing oneself to meet some standard o Standards – concepts of possible desirable states (goals, ideals, values, social norms)  Strength Model of Self Control – self control is like a muscle; gets fatigued after use but comes back to full strength and gets stronger progressively  Limited Resource Model of Self Control – all types of self control rely on ONE limited energy source; so willpower in other areas of self control can be weakened shortly after exerting self control in one area {areas include: behavior control, thought control, emotion control, impulse control}  Walter Mischel “The Marshmallow Test” Study – kids were sat in a room with a marshmellow in front of them and instructed that they could either eat the one marshmallow immediately or wait 15 minutes alone in a room without eating it so that they can have two. All of the kids successfully controlled themselves not to eat the marshmallow so that they could have two, however some kids had a harder time than others and manipulated the marshmallow while they were waiting.  Delay of Gratification – sacrificing short-term gains to pursue long-term benefits  James-Lange Theory of Emotion – stimulus causes physiological arousal which cases emotion; we infer our emotions from physiological arousal  Cannon Bard Theory of Emotion – stimulus causes either physiological arousal or emotion; happens simultaneously but independently  Schater Singer Theory of Emotion – stimulus separately leads to physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal, these two interact and lead to emotion {currently accepted theory}  Misattribution of arousal – people make a mistake in assuming what is causing them to feel aroused  White et al (1981) – Men ran in place for 15 seconds vs 120 seconds, then saw a video of an attractive women or unattractive woman they expected to meet. Men who went on the 120 second run were much more attracted to the attractive woman than those who ran for 15 seconds. In a nutshell: Your propensity for arousal increases as your physical activity increases. Sometimes humans think one thing is arousing them when it's actually another.  Emotion – a specific evaluative reason to some event {ex: I am afraid of alligators}  Mood – a general disposition or state {ex: I am in a bad mood}  Affect – valence of evaluation toward an event {ex: I have a negative affective response to alligators}  Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEA) – human EEA had many characteristics that ultimately gave rise to various emotions {vulnerability of offpring, monogamous/long-term bonds, benefits of collective actions, threats such as animals and other humans}  Evolutionary View – emotion serves to motivate behavior {ex: sadness leads to seek social support, sexual arousal leads to finding romantic partner, gratitude leads to reciprocal altruism, disgust leads to avoiding disease, love leads to maintaining relationships}  Maner, Rouby, & Gonzaga (2008) – had participants think about a time they were happy vs in love; The results of the study confirmed the proposed hypothesis as it was discovered that individuals thinking about their romantic partner paid less attention to attractive alternatives at early stages of visual processing. In fact, instead of paying attention, the participants thinking about their romantic partner seemed to be repelled by images of attractive members of opposite sex. Emotions play a role in our perception of reality.  Becker et al. (2006) – p’s asked to categorize face by facial expression, some male and some female, reaction time for male happiness was much quicker than male anger and female angry face was much quicker than female happiness  Hedonic Treadmill – a theory proposing that people stay at about the same level of happiness regardless of what happens to them


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.