EAB3002 Chapters 1-6
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Woody on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EAB3002 at University of Florida taught by Stagner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Chapter 1 Introduction: Learning to Change - “Change is the only constant” -Lucretius - Intricate and complex structures produce intricate and complex behaviors - Structures appear to have been “designed for a purpose,” implying a “designer” - There is similarity across structures (arm/wing in human, cat, whale, and bat) - “Order evolves from disorder without intelligent intervention” - The pebbles on a beach are arranged in an orderly fashion by gravity and action of the waves; no designer is necessary, they are ordered by size - Hydrogen bonds readily with oxygen, and H2O readily bonds to itself without intelligent intervention - Soap bubbles form spheres, as does water in zero gravity without intelligent intervention - Order readily arises from disorder due to the structure of the materials- no intelligence is necessary - On a fox farm, foxes were bred based on certain traits; bred foxes to be more or less avoidant • More avoidant fox cries when approached and tries to bite human; less avoidant foxes were bred and 18% were “very tame” after ten generations of breeding • Less avoidant fox is excited when approached by a human, wags its tail; more avoidant foxes that were bred together maintained the avoidant behavior despite living in enclosure - Selective breeding, artiﬁcial selection: artiﬁcial force (humans, in this example) inﬂuence which traits are passed on - Observations and assumptions of natural selection: • Fecundity: animals reproduce • Heredity: traits are passed on • Variation of traits in reproduction; children do not look exactly like parents Fitness: some traits enhance the likelihood of survival and reproduction • - traits may enable an animal to ﬁt an environmental niche - traits may make an animal more sexually attractive (height in human males, color of peacock feathers) - some traits, however, reduce the likelihood of survival and reproduction • Selection: enhancing traits are more likely to be passed on to the next generation - Species diverge (radiation) as different niches in the environment change; species from different evolutionary branches may be similar as they have been changed by similar niches (convergence) in the environment - Reﬂex: a relationship between a speciﬁc event (stimulus) and a simple, involuntary response • Examples: ﬂinching when air in blown in your face; babies throw arms out when startled in Moro reﬂex; muscle jerks; glandular secretions; baby will hold a bar when suspended in air; baby will try to straighten leg to support themselves when stood upright • Stimulus -> Response (-> means causal relationship) • Reﬂexes are inborn behaviors; present at birth or at speciﬁc developmental stages - Reﬂexes protect from heat and pain; creates startles, eye blinks, pupillary reﬂex, sneeze, vomit - Reﬂexes cause rooting, sucking, salivation, swallowing, respiration, and digestion - Overprotection of reﬂexes sometimes manifest in allergies or epileptic seizures (photosensitive) - Reﬂexes are stereotypic (ﬁxed, unvarying form); same stimulus produces th some response (form); variation in strength and latency of response - Relfexes are subject to natural selection; part of our genetic endowment, thus subject to evolutionary selection - Reﬂex intensity changes after repeated stimulus presentations; intensity change is behavior change; reﬂex learning is called “non-associative learning” - Two types of non-associative learning: Sensitization: an increase in intensity or probability of a reﬂex response prior • exposure to the eliciting stimulus - Example: lighter tickle following are harder tickle will yield the same laughter • Habituation: a decrease in intensity or probability of a reﬂex response due to repeated exposure to the eliciting stimulus - a loud noise will startle you less each time you hear it - Model Action Pattern (MAP): a series of interrelated acts found in all or nearly members of a species; AKA ﬁxed action patterns, species-speciﬁc behavior, instinct; releasing stimulus elicits MAP; more complex than a reﬂex, involve more interrelated acts • Defensive: Armadillo jumps defensively when danger approaches • Mating/Courtship rituals: birds do mating dance • Care of young: ducks continue trying to move egg toward nest even after the egg is taken • Procuring food: rooting, “washing” - MAPs appear to be thoughtful acts due to complexity; complexity was evolved • The salmon’s swim to the spawning ground is currently very grueling; however, the river was not always so difﬁcult to navigate, normal erosion and human construction have drastically changed the river; changes to the river produce selection pressure on salmon population; after each change, only the salmon which completed the swim reproduced; new generation with traits that allow return to spawn - Possible MAPs in humans: love of praise, self-preservation, maternal instinct; these examples are not as behaviorally stereotypical in humans as MAPs in other animals; parenting, courting, etc are different in each person - Humans have general behavior traits (GBTs) instead of MAPs; occur in wide situations, no speciﬁc releaser; wide range of stimuli cause same behavior; more plasticity (variety) than MAPs; GBTs are not always the same response unlike MAPs and reﬂexes; best described as behavior tendencies (temperament); humans may be social because isolated ancestors did not survive or reproduce - Natural selection is “behind the times” (individual has genes that helped ancestors survive); works across generations, not for individuals; works for genes, not for individual organisms; does not cope with abrupt changes - We are hostages or our genes: we evolved in a world with little salt and sugar; salt and sugar are necessary; those with a strong preference survived; now salt and sugar are prevalent, but we still have strong preference for them; craving is not helpful - Strong sexual appetite was selected for; most humans died before adulthood, so frequent copulation improved chances of offspring; modern medicine and food production reduce mortality rate but increase world population - “What we call behavior evolved as a set of functions furthering the interchange between organism and environment. In a fairy stable world it could be as much a part of the genetic endowment of a species as digestion, respiration, or any other biological function” -B.F. Skinner - Learning is a change in behavior due to experience; change, not acquisition of behavior; behavior is anything an organism does that can be measured; measurement is necessary for scientiﬁc analysis - Not a change in “cognitive structures”; cognitive structures are inferred from behavior - Experience is exposure to physical events (stimuli) - Behavior change is not always due to learning; sometimes due to aging, injury, drugs, or disease - Learning is a biological mechanism which copes with change in the environment within the lifetime of the individual; learning picks up whirr nature selection left off; natural selection gives us reﬂexes, MAPs, etc; learning allows us to cope with immediate environment (different from ancestors environments) - Ability to learn was evolved; learning is evolved modiﬁability - Nature vs. Nurture is an artiﬁcial dichotomy; not one or the other, always a combination; genes (nature) produce structure and environment (nurture) affects structural development and maintenance; learning depends on heredity and experience - Rats raised in more complex cages have more brain mass; amount of parent-child interaction affects child’s “intelligence” - We are biological and environmental organisms, not one or the other; we are products of our genes and our environments; heredity and learning are part of the same process of coping with change Chapter 2 The Study of Learning and Behavior - Operational deﬁnitions: deﬁning a phenomenon (stimulus or behavior) in terms of its measurement • Examples: measure “lever press” in a rat, 21grams of force from rat counts as a press; fear response is a rise in heart, respiration change in electrical conductivity of the skin (GSR) - Behavior varies in form/ topography, but measures based on operational deﬁnitions can be objective and consistent - Learning is a change in behavior; must measure changes in behavior: • Measure reduction in errors • Measure topography: form of behavior (example: how well someone can trace a shape) • Measure intensity (example: amount of pressure rat puts on lever) Measure speed (example: time for a rat to ﬁnish a maze) • • Measure latency: amount of time it takes a subject to respond to a stimulus • Measure rate, frequency (example: number of letters per minute coded in Morse code) - The primary goal of behavior science is to explain behavior; why do we do what we do; can behavior be predicted; can behavior be controlled - Common-sense/ psychological approach: assume association between stimulus and response; may lead to circular explanation which can lead to explanatory ﬁctions; cannot be positive response is caused by stimulus - Natural science approach: • all behavior is caused; behavior is the result of experience, physiological, and current events causes precede their effects, a future event cannot cause a current event • Causes are natural phenomena; soul, id, will, etc. are concepts, not natural • phenomenon • The law of parsimony: the simplest explanation that ﬁts the data is the best; simple means fewest assumptions, simplistic means to oversimplify or ignore complexities; goal is “simple” explanation - Descriptive study: describe characteristics of a population; use surveys, questionnaires, natural observations, etc; can determine correlation but not causation or cause-and-effect relations; no variables are manipulated - An experiment is a study in which variables are manipulated; the variable that is manipulated is the IV (independent variables); (DV) dependent variable is not changed and is measured; can determine cause-and-effect relationship because only one variable is changed - Between-subjects (group) experiment design: each group received a different level of IV; groups must be equivalent for valid conclusions - Within-subjects design: each participant receives all levels of IV; look for changes in each participant across levels of IV - Single-subject AB design: record behavior before, during, and after; A= baseline; B= treatment; compare same participant before and after treatment strength: participant serves as their own control • weakness: single subject; not necessarily applicable to every instance • - ABA design: ﬁnd baseline, perform treatment, then go back to baseline conditions • if hypothesis is supported, participant will go back to baseline once treatment is withdrawn; can continue altering between A and B - Experiments allow control over variable; can rule out alternative explanations - Criticisms of experiments is that experimental setting is too artiﬁcially simple; but need to be simple in order to isolate variable; conduct laboratory and ﬁeld research to compare natural and artiﬁcial settings - Objections of nonhuman research: people are not rats; no practical value; unethical; can use computer simulations - Reasons for nonhuman research: experimental control of heredity and learning history; can do studies that cannot be done with humans Chapter 3 Pavlovian Conditioning - Ivan Pavlov was a physiologist studying digestion in dogs; measured salivary reﬂex in dogs; won Nobel Prize for surgical procedure on salivary glands - Salivation depends on a substance; “psychic secretions” happened before food was given; glands had intelligence - Conﬁrmed that dogs drooled when their tongue touched food; called the salivation reﬂex; dogs began to salivate before they had food; he introduced another stimulus before food was given, a ticking metronome; eventually, the dogs began salivating before food when it heard the ticking; called this response the conditioned response; replicated the experiment with different stimuli (a bell, light, etc) and got the same results - Unconditional reﬂex: hereditary; occur in all members; relatively permanent; pulling hand away from hot stove • unconditioned stimulus yield unconditioned reﬂex; food yields salivation (not learned) - Conditional reﬂex: acquired/ lost through experience; vary across members of species based on experience; temporary • conditioned stimulus yield conditioned response; sound yields salivation; requires experience - Pairing neutral stimulus (sound) with unconditioned stimulus (food), the neutral comes to elicit an unconditioned response (salivation) (CS-US yields UR) - Eventually neutral stimulus (sound) yields response (now called a conditioned response) (salivation) - Pairing of a stimuli is independent of behavior; regardless of what the organism is doing, stimuli are paired - The behavior is a reﬂex; inherited reﬂex responses are elicited by new stimuli - Measuring Pavlovian conditioning: • measure when response begins (latency) • test trials: present only conditioned response; conditioning occurs if you get the same response • intensity: amplitude, magnitude; larger response means more learning response time (latency) between CS and CR; shorter time, stronger conditioning • - Higher-order (second-order) conditioning: Frolov discovered that after pairing a NS with a CS, the NS (now a CS) came to elicit a CR - Pavlovian conditioning procedures: Trace: unconditioned stimulus (food) is given long after conditioned stimulus (bell) • • Delayed: US is given shortly after CS • Simultaneous: US and CS are given at the same time • Backward: US is given long before CS - Contiguity: nearness in time or space; inter stimulus interval (ISI) is amount of time between CS and US; shorter ISI yields faster conditioning; no ISI in simultaneous procedure, yield no conditioning - Contingency: one appears with the other; high contingency: CS and US always appearing together; more unpaired US presentations: less learning - Variables affecting conditioning: • stimulus intensity: intense stimuli condition more rapidly as long as it doesn’t hurt subject or disrupt learning • number of pairing: more is better; number of trials yields a stronger strength of CR but eventually plateaus • age: younger people will have a stronger eye-blink condition, for example • temperament: excitable vs. sedate subjects; more excitable people experience more conditioning • stress/anxiety: anxious subjects have more conditioned responses - Overshadowing: one CS component is more effectively conditioned than the other; paired stimuli, one yields more response than the other - Blocking: previous pairings of a CS-US pairing blocks new pairing from being learned - Latent inhibition: previous experience with a neutral stimulus; if a subject has been exposed to a neutral stimulus before pairing, conditioning decreases; novel (new) stimuli are most easily conditioned - Sensory preconditioning: a neutral stimulus, previously paired with another neutral stimulus, mat elicit a CR if the second NS is later paired with a US - Extinction: once established, a conditioned reﬂex can endure indeﬁnitely if CS-US are paired on occasion; presenting CS alone will reduce CR; different from forgetting because extinction is lost of association - Spontaneous Recovery: following extinction and a delay, if CS is presented alone, it will produce CR; must extinguish CS more than once to qualify as spontaneous recovery Chapter 4 Pavlovian Applications - Used to be thought that human actions were only product of genetic code; today we know that environment plays a big role - Eugenics were powerful idea in 1900’s (slavery); ancestry played large role in livelihood - Believed people behaved largely by instinct - Treatment for behavioral disorders were nonexistent and ineffective - John B. Watson thought anyone could be raised to be anything regardless of genetics - John Watson was responsible for Little Albert experiment; Fear Conditioning Experiment • NS= rat; US=hitting of metal bar that scared Albert; UR= fear response • Conditioned Albert to associate rat with noise so he eventually became scared of the rat - Conditioned suppression: rat presses lever for food; tone is played when there will be a shock and rat presses lever less; tone suppress lever pressing - Counterconditioning: Mary Cover Jones; Peter was scared of rabbits (before experiment); put rabbit closer to Peter while he ate crackers and drank milk and eventually Peter was petting rabbit; called exposure therapy or systematic desensitization today; standard for treating phobias - Exposure therapy: person is gradually exposed to feared stimulus - Systematic Desensitization: person imagines or is exposed to progressively stronger forms of stimulus while relaxed - Flooding: person is confronted with strongest form of feared stimulus until fear dissipates - Prejudice; Staats and Staats research • Example: 9/11; Muslim extremists paired with the words killing and hijack; conditioned to become prejudiced • Pairing of group names with emotion-evoking words: Positive words paired with a nationality, negative words paired with another nationality; nationality paired with positive words was rated as more positive - Advertising: product paired with celebrity, funny scene, or sexy model yields positive emotion; eventually associate product with positive emotion - Stuart test this with toothpaste brands; pairs one with satellite dish and one with waterfall; toothpaste brand paired with waterfall is rated better by subjects; effects results of taste test too - Politics: news networks pair certain people with positive or negative words - Conditioned Taste Aversion: John Garcia tried licorice then got the ﬂu, then did not like licorice anymore; tested this with sweetened water and rats then exposed then to radiation to induce nausea (rats do not vomit but felt bad); rats exposed to more radiation when drinking the water drank less sweetened water; taste aversion usually only needs one pairing to create association; ISI could be minutes to hours (feeling sick hours after eating something could still create association) - New tastes are more easily conditioned - Rats watch others eat a new food ﬁrst to make sure they did not get sick before they eat it themselves - Monarch butterﬂies are poisonous; birds get sick if they eat one and will avoid it thereafter - Compensatory/Preparatory-Response: routine dosage can cause OD; drug tolerance involves body compensation for altered chemical composition; environment can affect how body reacts to drug because you associate that context with drug and the body overcompensates, counteracting the drug’s effects; leads to contextual tolerance, tolerance only in that context; taking drug outside of context has greater effects, increases risk of death - Siegel test with rats: some rats get heroin in experimental room, some get heroin in different room, some get heroin for ﬁrst time; when given lethal dose, many of rats who got heroin for the ﬁrst time (naive rats) died; rats who were in new room when getting heroin died less than naive rats but more than rats who got drug in room they were used to; physiological tolerance AND context are important for surviving dose - Paraphilia means “incorrect love”; Freud thought they were due to unconscious forces • Exhibitionism: sexual gratiﬁcation by exposing genitals; Freud thought maybe because mother rejected them because genitals were different; gain gratiﬁcation by forcing women to see genitals • Masochism: gratiﬁcation from pain or humiliation; Freud thought result of death drive and guilt of Oedipal urge; not a scientiﬁc analysis - Treatment of paraphilia: aversion therapy, given emetic to induce vomiting while experiencing arousal • inverse of Mary Cover Jones’ counterconditioning • ethical implications: interracial marriage was illegal; homosexuality was illegal and treated with aversion therapy Chapter 5 Reinforcement - Edward Thorndike: interest in animal intelligence; tests on chicks in mazes; then tested cats, dogs, and monkeys with puzzle boxes (animal must use latch to get out of box) - Cat used trial and error to ﬁgure out how to get out; once it learns how to get out, it can do it quickly; action becomes stamped into the mind when it is reinforced (food, in this example) - Solving using insight would result in one moment where something is ﬁgured out, then it can be done in very little time in the future; learning is slower decrease is time needed to ﬁgure out task instead of sharp drop - Law of Effect: responses closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will be more ﬁrmly connected with the situations that when it reoccurs, they will be more likely to reoccur - Trial and success, not trial and error; analogy to natural selection, successful things are passed on - Skinner used operant container and rats; studied stream of behavior, different from Thorndike, which only had one action (getting out of box); allows us to measure over time; free operant trials; Thorndike used discrete trials - Operant behavior is behavior that operates on effects the environment; change in likelihood of a behavior due to its consequences - Reinforcer: stimulus or event that increases or maintain the strength of the behavior upon which they are contingent; to be reinforcer: behavior has consequences • • behavior increases in strength/ frequency • increase in strength due to consequence (reinforcement) - Primary reinforcer: stimuli that are naturally or innately reinforcing; don’t need to be taught; food, water, sexual stimulation - Secondary reinforcers are associated through conditioning; money, paints, grades - Primary reinforcers are situation dependent; food is effective if you are hungry, for example; can satiate (individual will eventually be full); disrupts/ changes behavior - Contiguity: time between response and consequence - Schlinger and Blakely: manipulated delay between response and consequence; more responses with shorter times (contiguity); shorter interval results in faster learning; shorter interval is better for maintaining behavior; other behaviors occur in longer intervals - Contingency: degree to which consequence depends on result; does consequence sometimes occur without response?; Hammond didn’t give food after every lever press; higher contingency: more lever presses; zero contingency: very little lever pressing - Breaking the response-consequence contingency ill disrupt behavior - Pavlovian contingency has two-term contingency: if CS, then US; proceeds independent of behavior; passive learning; involuntary (blinking, salivation, etc) - Operant has three-term contingency; in presence of antecedent (discriminative stimulus), if behavior (response), then consequence (reinforcer); dependent on behavior; active learning; voluntary (winking, eating, etc) - Reinforcement increases rate of response - Positive reinforcer: something added; appearance of this stimulus or event increases or maintains response; not all rewards are reinforcing, not all reinforcers and rewards; giving a child money for good grades - Negative reinforcer: stimulus or event removal of which increases or maintains the rate of the response upon which it is contingent; escape- avoidance learning: one escapes the presence of a stimulus; negative reinforcement is not punishment, behavior is strengthened; child does not have to do chores because they got good grades - Drive-reduction theory: Clark Hull; reinforcement works because it reduces drives; drives for food, water, sleep, etc are reduced by reinforcers • does not work for non-innate/ secondary reinforcers; some do not reduce drive and are not associated with primary reinforcer; requires an assumption of unquantiﬁable drives - Premack Principal/ Relative Value Theory: David Premack; reconceptualized reinforces as behavior; food isn’t reinforcers, eating food in reinforcers; in any situation, some behaviors are more likely than others, eating is more likely than lever pressing; thus, different behaviors have different relative values (probabilities); can be determined by allowing free access and measuring rates; no assumption of drives or internal concepts; high probability behavior will reinforce low probability behavior; access to a preferred behavior is contingent on a non-proffered behavior testing: drinking is higher probability than rat running in a wheel; make water • contingent on running; result is more running - Response Deprivation Theory: Timberlake and Allison: builds off Premack Principal; all behaviors occur at some frequency (reduce from baseline); if access is restricted to below baseline, access will serve as a reinforcer; running access is deprived, running access is contingent on drinking, drinking yields wheel access, result is more drinking - Shuttle-box escape/ avoidance: Solomon and Wynne: dog in divided box; dog is on the side with the light on; when light is turned off, dog is shocked ten seconds later and dog jumps to other side; eventually dog jumps when light is turned off • Pavlovian: CS is light off with US shock, UR is fear; CS yields UR • Operant: Stimulus is lights off, response is jump, yields education of fear • Jumping to other side reduces fear; escape should slow until the dog is shocked again but does not happen; avoidance behavior is persistent, dog will always jump • Fear is being removed when the dog jumps - Escape and avoidance is reinforced by reduction of aversive stimulation; nothing happening is sometimes reinforcing - Hernstein and Hineline: rats in chamber with lever press; when rat presses lever more, there are shocks less often; lever press rates is high to avoid more shocks Chapter 6 Reinforcement: Beyond Habit - Shaping: reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior; reinforce steps toward goal behavior; Skinner rewarded pigeon for getting closer to a full turn and eventually it did a full turn - Tips for shapers: • reinforce small steps • provide immediate reinforcement; don’t wait for more behavior; used conditioned reinforcer like a clicker or praise provide small primary reinforcers like small pieces of food; large reinforcers take • time and divert behavior • do not be hung up on speciﬁc plan; subject may skip steps; plan should not be too speciﬁc • back up when necessary; retrain earlier parts - Chaining: a series of learned actions performed in a particular sequence; like an animal in a maze/ obstacle course’ making a telephone call or dining in a restaurant teaching a subject to perform the chain; task analysis: break the sequence into • parts • forward chaining: train beginning segments ﬁrst • backward training: train last segments ﬁrst • completion of each part sets the occasion for the next part; completion of ﬁrst part signals beginning of second part, etc - Learned Helplessness: Seligman strapped dog into harness and paired a shock to tone; put it in a shuttle box where it can escape, but after being shocked without escape, it does not escape; learns to be helpless/ apathy - Immunization training: immunization group had lever press to escape shock; helpless group could not escape shock; immunization group continued to jump in a shuttle box to try to escape the shock for 200 trials but the helpless rats did not jump at all - Could be analogous to depression - Superstition: any behavior that occurs although it does not produce the consequence; consequence is not contingent upon behavior but are merely contagious with behavior • 6/8 pigeons in Skinner study developed superstition • can explain human superstition - Creativity: deﬁning characteristic is novelty, something new; behavior science looks at the history of reinforcement; Pryor started session with bell sound and reinforced novel behaviors, eventually they would continue to do new things - Problem solving: a situation in which reinforcement i available, but the behavior necessary to produce it is not; behavior necessary to produce reinforcement is emitted to solve problem - Insight: a sudden ﬂash of understanding; a reorganization of the mental representation of the problem; objectively: a problem is solved and there is no known training or experience that accounts for the solution - Kohler placed food outside chimps cage; gave him two bamboo rods that individually could not reach food; when Sultan the chimp put the two rods together, he could reach the food, Kohler called this insight - Kohler hung banana above chimp and eventually they would stack boxes to reach banana; called this insight - Epstein: pigeon required to push box over green dot and to peck banana; gave pigeon a box without the dot and a banana hung out of reach; pigeon exhibits novel behavior of moving box under banana to reach it; due to insight or automatic chaining - Automatic chaining: a situation in which one behavior accidentally produces a stimulus that makes another behavior more likely - Insight cannot be measured; automatic chaining can be seen, is more parsimonious (simple) - Self Control: exhibiting will power, discipline; causation is found in behavior- environmental interactions; immediate vs. delayed reactions • physical restraint: lock it away, throw it away • distancing: leave/avoid situation • monitor behavior: record what you're doing • social consequences: tell other people what your goals are - If behavior is determined by environment and heredity, are humans simply automatons (robots)?; determinism is not fatalism, organisms learn, learning provides choices, choice is autonomy - Self awareness: ability to observe your own behavior; from infancy, we are taught to detect internal sensations like hunger, pain, etc; not uniquely human trait
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