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Intro to Psychology, Week 8

by: Hanou Amouzou

Intro to Psychology, Week 8 92963

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Social Science > 92963 > Intro to Psychology Week 8
Hanou Amouzou

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This study guide provides you all with everything that you needs to know and study for the upcoming exam. Good luck you guys!
Introduction to Psychology
Mr. Brian Collins
Study Guide
intro, to, Psychology
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hanou Amouzou on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 92963 at Georgia State University taught by Mr. Brian Collins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Social Science at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 10/16/16
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 5: Sexual Development v Primary sex characteristics: Body structures such as ovaries, testes and  external genitalia that make sexual reproduction possible v Secondary sex characteristics: No reproductive sexual traits, such as  female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair Evolutionary Differences in sex preferences between men and women  Cross culturally, men think more than women about sex, and men are more  likely to think that casual sex is acceptable  Compared with lesbians, gay men (like straight men) report more interest in  uncommitted sex, more responsiveness to visual sexual stimuli, and more  concern with their partner’s physical attractiveness  Gay male couples report having sex more often than do lesbian couples   Men who had the trait of promiscuity were more likely to have their genes  continue, and even spread, in the next generation. There is little cost to  spreading their genes  For women, a trait of promiscuity would not greatly increase the number of  babies, and it would have greater survival costs. Pregnancy was often life  threatening Common sexual dysfunctions  Impair sexual arousal or functioning  Often involve sexual motivation, especially sexual motivation and arousal  Erectile disorder and premature ejaculation (males)  Female orgasmic disorder and female sexual interest/arousal disorder  (females)  Paraphilias (sexual desire directed in unusual ways Sexual Preference  Straight (males and females)  Lesbian, Gay and Transgender  Sexual orientation is our enduring sexual attraction towards members  of one’s own sex (homosexual orientation), the other sex (heterosexual  orientation), or both sexes (bisexual orientation) Sexual Response Cycle (Masters and Johnson) 1. Excitement: The genital areas become engorged with blood, causing a  woman’s clitoris and a man’s penis to swell. 2. Plateau: Excitement peaks as breathing, pulse and blood pressure rates  continue to increase. 3. Orgasm: Muscle contractions appear all over the body, with the increases in breathing, pulse and blood pressure rates. 4. Resolution: The body gradually returns to its unaroused state, both men and women enters a Refractory Period, in which the male lasts from a few  minutes to a day or more, during while they are incapable of another orgasm. In the cases of women, there’s a much shorter refractory period in which she can have more orgasms if so choose. CHAPTER 6: Sensation and Perception Auditory Processing (how sound is processed through the eardrum  and the cochlea) 1. Sound waves strike the ear drum, causing it to vibrate 2. Tiny bones in the middle ear pick up the vibrations and transmit them to the cochlea, a coiled, fluid­filled tube in the inner ear 3. Ripples in the fluid of the cochlea bend the hair cells lining the surface,  which trigger impulses in nerve cells 4. Axons from these nerve cells transmit a signal to the auditory cortex Different soundwaves are perceived through the following:  Loudness  Pitch  Amplitude  Audition  Frequency  Sound Visual Processing (how light is reflected off the lens to the retina) 1. Light rays reflected from a candle pass through the cornea, pupil, and lens 2. The curve and thickness of the lens change to bring nearby or distant objects into focus on the retina 3. Rays from the top of the candle strike the bottom of the retina. Those from  the left side of the candle strike the right side of the retina 4. The candle’s image appears on the retina upside down and reversed Pain Receptors ­ Sense of touch is actually a mix of 4 distinct skin senses: pressure,  warmth, cold, and pain  Sensory receptors (nociceptors) respond to potentially damaging stimuli by  sending an impulse to the spinal cord, which passes the message to the brain, which interprets the signal as pain  Gate­Control theory: The spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that  blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The “gate” is  opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up nerve fibers, and closed  by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain  Biological influences o activity in spinal cord’s large and small fibers o genetic differences in endorphin production o the brain’s interpretation of CNS activity  Social­cultural influences o Presence of others o Empathy for others’ pain o Cultural expectations  Psychological influences o Attention to pain o Learning based on experience o Expectations  Taste Processing o Inside each little bump on the top and sides of the tongue are 200+ taste  buds o Each bud contains a pore with 50­100 taste receptors o Each kind of receptor reacts to different types of food molecules and sends  messages to the brain v Sweet: indicates energy source v Salty: indicates sodium essential to physiological processes v Sour: indicates potential toxic acid v Bitter: indicates potential poisons v Umami: indicates proteins to grow and repair tissues *** Smell + texture + taste = flavor Absolute thresholds • German scientist and philosopher Gustav Fechner (1801­1887) studied our  awareness of these faint stimuli  • The minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular light, sound,  pressure, taste, or odor 50% of the time Subliminal Stimulation are considered to be stimuli you cannot consciously  detect 50% of the time­­­below your absolute threshold  Subliminal sensation exists, but such sensations are too fleeting to enable  exploitation with subliminal messages Subliminal persuasion may produce a fleeting and subtle but not powerful or  enduring effect on behavior Priming: Activating, often unconsciously, associations in our mind, thus setting us up to perceive, remember, or respond to objects or events in certain ways Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing  the behavior of others.  o Albert Bandura, who is known for the classic Bobo doll experiment,  identified this basic form of learning in 1961 o Four elements of observational learning are ­ Attention:  the learner must first pay attention to the model ­ Memory:  the learner must also be able to retain the memory of what was done ­ Imitation:  the learner must be able to reproduce or imitate the  actions of the model ­ Motivation:  the learner must have the desire or motivation to  perform the action Gestalt:  An organized while. Gestalt psychologists propose principles used to  organize sensations into meaningful wholes. In perception, the whole may exceed  the sum of its parts. We tend to filter incoming information and construct  perceptions. ­ People like us tend to organize pieces of information into an organized  whole, or Gestalt Figure­ground:  The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures)  that stand out from their surrounding (the ground) Grouping  is the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups: ▯ Proximity: Grouping nearby figures together ▯ Continuity: Perceiving smooth, continuous patters, rather than  discontinuous ones o For example, when you see geese flying south for the winter, they fly in a  formation that, to us, looks like a big "V". ▯ Closure: Filling in gaps to create a complete, whole object Chapter 7: Learning ­ Classical conditioning: Type of learning in which one learns to link two or  more stimuli and anticipate events. • Neutral stimulus (NS): In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no  response before conditioning • Unconditioned response (UR): In classical conditioning, an unlearned,  naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth) • Unconditioned stimulus (US): In classical conditioning, a stimulus that  unconditionally­­­naturally and automatically—triggers an unconditioned response (UR) • Conditioned response (CR): In classical conditioning, a learned response  to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS) • Conditioned stimulus (CS): In classical conditioning, an originally  irrelevant stimulus, that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US),  comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR) Generalization: Tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli  similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses o Palvov demonstrated generalization by attaching miniature  vibrators to various parts of a dog’s body Discrimination: Learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus  (which predicts the US) and other irrelevant stimuli WHAT IS OPERANT CONDITIONING? ­ Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is  strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher ­ Actions followed by reinforcers increase; those followed by punishment  decrease ­ Operant behavior is a behavior that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli. (In contrast, classical conditioning involves  respondent behavior­­­automatic responses to a stimulus) 1. Behavior operates on the environment to produce rewarding or  punishing stimuli 2. Organisms associate their own actions with consequences 3. Actions followed by reinforcement increase; those followed by  punishments often decrease Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping: Gradually guiding behavior toward closer and closer approximations of  the desired behavior ­ With this method of successive approximations, responses that are ever­ closer to the final desired behavior are rewarded, and all other responses are  ignored Positive Reinforcement: Increases behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcers is any stimulus that, when resented after a response,  strengthens the response Ex: Pet a dog that comes when you call it; pay the person who paints  your house Negative Reinforcement: Increases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative  stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response,  strengthens the response. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IS NOT  PUNISHMENT Ex: Take a painkiller to end pain; fasten seat belt to end loud beeping Reinforcement Schedules • Fixed­ratio schedule ­ Reinforcing a response only after a specified number of responses ­ Take attendance, does not take attendance, takes attendance, does not take  attendance, takes attendance, does not take attendance. ­ For ex: A fixed­ratio schedule might be delivery a reward for every 5th  response or imagining that you are training a lab rat to press button in order  to receive food pellet • Variable­ratio schedule ­ Reinforcing a response after an unpredictable number of responses ­ Takes attendance, takes attendance, does not take attendance, takes  attendance, does not take attendance, does not take attendance (random) ­ Ex: Gambling, slot machines, lottery games, and sales bonuses • Fixed­interval schedule ­ Reinforcing a response only after a specified time has elapsed ­ Paycheck at work • Variable­interval schedule ­ Reinforcing a response at unpredictable time intervals ­ Checking Facebook or your email ­ Ex: Your employer checking your work or pop quizzes Extinction ­ Diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning  when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned  stimulus (CS) ­ Ex: When the dog doesn’t hear the bell anymore when he gets food, the dog  may hear the bell again and not salivate Spontaneous Recovery ­ Reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response ­ Ex: The dog salivates to the sound of the bell after forgetting it even though  it is not reinforced.


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