Intro to Psychology, Week 8
Intro to Psychology, Week 8 92963
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hanou Amouzou on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 92963 at Georgia State University taught by Mr. Brian Collins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Social Science at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 5: Sexual Development v Primary sex characteristics: Body structures such as ovaries, testes and external genitalia that make sexual reproduction possible v Secondary sex characteristics: No reproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair Evolutionary Differences in sex preferences between men and women Cross culturally, men think more than women about sex, and men are more likely to think that casual sex is acceptable Compared with lesbians, gay men (like straight men) report more interest in uncommitted sex, more responsiveness to visual sexual stimuli, and more concern with their partner’s physical attractiveness Gay male couples report having sex more often than do lesbian couples Men who had the trait of promiscuity were more likely to have their genes continue, and even spread, in the next generation. There is little cost to spreading their genes For women, a trait of promiscuity would not greatly increase the number of babies, and it would have greater survival costs. Pregnancy was often life threatening Common sexual dysfunctions Impair sexual arousal or functioning Often involve sexual motivation, especially sexual motivation and arousal Erectile disorder and premature ejaculation (males) Female orgasmic disorder and female sexual interest/arousal disorder (females) Paraphilias (sexual desire directed in unusual ways Sexual Preference Straight (males and females) Lesbian, Gay and Transgender Sexual orientation is our enduring sexual attraction towards members of one’s own sex (homosexual orientation), the other sex (heterosexual orientation), or both sexes (bisexual orientation) Sexual Response Cycle (Masters and Johnson) 1. Excitement: The genital areas become engorged with blood, causing a woman’s clitoris and a man’s penis to swell. 2. Plateau: Excitement peaks as breathing, pulse and blood pressure rates continue to increase. 3. Orgasm: Muscle contractions appear all over the body, with the increases in breathing, pulse and blood pressure rates. 4. Resolution: The body gradually returns to its unaroused state, both men and women enters a Refractory Period, in which the male lasts from a few minutes to a day or more, during while they are incapable of another orgasm. In the cases of women, there’s a much shorter refractory period in which she can have more orgasms if so choose. CHAPTER 6: Sensation and Perception Auditory Processing (how sound is processed through the eardrum and the cochlea) 1. Sound waves strike the ear drum, causing it to vibrate 2. Tiny bones in the middle ear pick up the vibrations and transmit them to the cochlea, a coiled, fluidfilled tube in the inner ear 3. Ripples in the fluid of the cochlea bend the hair cells lining the surface, which trigger impulses in nerve cells 4. Axons from these nerve cells transmit a signal to the auditory cortex Different soundwaves are perceived through the following: Loudness Pitch Amplitude Audition Frequency Sound Visual Processing (how light is reflected off the lens to the retina) 1. Light rays reflected from a candle pass through the cornea, pupil, and lens 2. The curve and thickness of the lens change to bring nearby or distant objects into focus on the retina 3. Rays from the top of the candle strike the bottom of the retina. Those from the left side of the candle strike the right side of the retina 4. The candle’s image appears on the retina upside down and reversed Pain Receptors Sense of touch is actually a mix of 4 distinct skin senses: pressure, warmth, cold, and pain Sensory receptors (nociceptors) respond to potentially damaging stimuli by sending an impulse to the spinal cord, which passes the message to the brain, which interprets the signal as pain GateControl theory: The spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The “gate” is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up nerve fibers, and closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain Biological influences o activity in spinal cord’s large and small fibers o genetic differences in endorphin production o the brain’s interpretation of CNS activity Socialcultural influences o Presence of others o Empathy for others’ pain o Cultural expectations Psychological influences o Attention to pain o Learning based on experience o Expectations Taste Processing o Inside each little bump on the top and sides of the tongue are 200+ taste buds o Each bud contains a pore with 50100 taste receptors o Each kind of receptor reacts to different types of food molecules and sends messages to the brain v Sweet: indicates energy source v Salty: indicates sodium essential to physiological processes v Sour: indicates potential toxic acid v Bitter: indicates potential poisons v Umami: indicates proteins to grow and repair tissues *** Smell + texture + taste = flavor Absolute thresholds • German scientist and philosopher Gustav Fechner (18011887) studied our awareness of these faint stimuli • The minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular light, sound, pressure, taste, or odor 50% of the time Subliminal Stimulation are considered to be stimuli you cannot consciously detect 50% of the timebelow your absolute threshold Subliminal sensation exists, but such sensations are too fleeting to enable exploitation with subliminal messages Subliminal persuasion may produce a fleeting and subtle but not powerful or enduring effect on behavior Priming: Activating, often unconsciously, associations in our mind, thus setting us up to perceive, remember, or respond to objects or events in certain ways Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. o Albert Bandura, who is known for the classic Bobo doll experiment, identified this basic form of learning in 1961 o Four elements of observational learning are Attention: the learner must first pay attention to the model Memory: the learner must also be able to retain the memory of what was done Imitation: the learner must be able to reproduce or imitate the actions of the model Motivation: the learner must have the desire or motivation to perform the action Gestalt: An organized while. Gestalt psychologists propose principles used to organize sensations into meaningful wholes. In perception, the whole may exceed the sum of its parts. We tend to filter incoming information and construct perceptions. People like us tend to organize pieces of information into an organized whole, or Gestalt Figureground: The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surrounding (the ground) Grouping is the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups: ▯ Proximity: Grouping nearby figures together ▯ Continuity: Perceiving smooth, continuous patters, rather than discontinuous ones o For example, when you see geese flying south for the winter, they fly in a formation that, to us, looks like a big "V". ▯ Closure: Filling in gaps to create a complete, whole object Chapter 7: Learning Classical conditioning: Type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. • Neutral stimulus (NS): In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning • Unconditioned response (UR): In classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth) • Unconditioned stimulus (US): In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionallynaturally and automatically—triggers an unconditioned response (UR) • Conditioned response (CR): In classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS) • Conditioned stimulus (CS): In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus, that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR) Generalization: Tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses o Palvov demonstrated generalization by attaching miniature vibrators to various parts of a dog’s body Discrimination: Learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus (which predicts the US) and other irrelevant stimuli WHAT IS OPERANT CONDITIONING? Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher Actions followed by reinforcers increase; those followed by punishment decrease Operant behavior is a behavior that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli. (In contrast, classical conditioning involves respondent behaviorautomatic responses to a stimulus) 1. Behavior operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli 2. Organisms associate their own actions with consequences 3. Actions followed by reinforcement increase; those followed by punishments often decrease Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping: Gradually guiding behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior With this method of successive approximations, responses that are ever closer to the final desired behavior are rewarded, and all other responses are ignored Positive Reinforcement: Increases behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcers is any stimulus that, when resented after a response, strengthens the response Ex: Pet a dog that comes when you call it; pay the person who paints your house Negative Reinforcement: Increases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IS NOT PUNISHMENT Ex: Take a painkiller to end pain; fasten seat belt to end loud beeping Reinforcement Schedules • Fixedratio schedule Reinforcing a response only after a specified number of responses Take attendance, does not take attendance, takes attendance, does not take attendance, takes attendance, does not take attendance. For ex: A fixedratio schedule might be delivery a reward for every 5th response or imagining that you are training a lab rat to press button in order to receive food pellet • Variableratio schedule Reinforcing a response after an unpredictable number of responses Takes attendance, takes attendance, does not take attendance, takes attendance, does not take attendance, does not take attendance (random) Ex: Gambling, slot machines, lottery games, and sales bonuses • Fixedinterval schedule Reinforcing a response only after a specified time has elapsed Paycheck at work • Variableinterval schedule Reinforcing a response at unpredictable time intervals Checking Facebook or your email Ex: Your employer checking your work or pop quizzes Extinction Diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS) Ex: When the dog doesn’t hear the bell anymore when he gets food, the dog may hear the bell again and not salivate Spontaneous Recovery Reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response Ex: The dog salivates to the sound of the bell after forgetting it even though it is not reinforced.
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