Bio 1406 For Science Majors
Bio 1406 For Science Majors Biol 1406.006
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marisa Trevino on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 1406.006 at Blinn College taught by Dr. Shepherd in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Study Guide: Chapter 1 1. What is Biology? Biology is the study of life. 2. List and describe the 7 characteristics of life? The seven characteristics of life are: 1. Order 2. Evolutionary 3. Adaptation 4. Respond to Stimuli 5. Regulate itself 6. Energy processing 7. Growth and Development 8. Reproduction 3. What are the different levels of biological organization? There are two different levels of biological organization and they are Reductionism and Emergent Properties. 4. Describe reductionism and emergent properties. Reductionism is the “zooming in,” and reduces complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study. Emergent Properties are the “zooming out,” new properties that arise due to arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases. 5. What is the lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life? The lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life is the Cells. Specifically a single cell. 6. What is feedback regulation? Feedback regulation is the regulation of a process by its output or end product. 7. What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning? Inductive Reasoning draws conclusions via large number of specific observations. Deductive Reasoning is used to test he idea or hypothesis. The difference is that inductive involves many observations to get a small conclusion versus deductive reasoning which is small observations to get one general conclusion. 8. What is a hypothesis and what are the characteristics of a hypothesis? Hypothesis is proposed explanation for a natural phenomenon. A proposition based on pervious observations or experimental studies. The features of a hypothesis is that it can be supported or falsified, it must be testable, and it is not a statement not a question. 9. How is a scientific theory different than a scientific hypothesis? A theory is a broader scope than a hypothesis. It is supported by a large body of evidence in comparison to a hypothesis. 10.What is taxonomy? Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms. It is the branch of biology that names and classifies species into groups of increasing breadth. Didn’t Know Popeye’s Chicken Offered Free Gizzard Strips Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species 11.What are the three domains of life? Which domains encompass eukaryotes and which encompass prokaryotes? The three domains of life are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Bacteria and Archaea encompasses Prokaryotes and Eukarya encompasses Eukaryotes. 12.Darwin’s book, On the Origins of Species, articulated two main points. What are these points? The two main points are “descent with modification,” and “natural selection.” 13.What is inquiry? Inquiry is the search for information and explanation. 14.What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative data? Qualitative data are descriptions rather than measurements, another way to remember is that you are looking for quality. Quantitative data is recorded measurements which are sometimes organized into tables and graphs, and one way to remember is that you are looking for quantity. 15.What is the process of science? Describe each step Step 1: State the problem Find out what your problem is and define the problem as clear as possible. Step 2: Gather Information Gather information or data about the problem and make good observations using the five sense. Step 3: Form a Hypothesis Form a logical idea of the answer to your problem. A hypothesis is a prediction that can be tested. Step 4: Test Your Hypothesis Use an experiment to test your logical answer to the problem. Use controlled conditions (everything in an experiment that is the same except for the variable), a variable (something in an experiment that only you can change, only one per experiment), and a constant (factors in an experiment that stay the same). Step 5: Analyze Data Go over all the data you have and/or go over conclusions. Keep a journal of the records. Step 6: Draw a Conclusion Based on the data and observations, conclude the answer to your hypothesis. It should be logical answers to the question based on data and observations. If needed, you can retest the theory, possibly with a new hypothesis. Step 7: Share Results Report journal to classmates, or publish a journal of findings. 16.Define the following terms: control, independent variable, and dependent variable. A control is a set of subjects that lacks (or does not receive) the specific factor being tested. Ideally, the control group should be identical to the experimental group in other respects. An independent variable is a variable whose value is manipulated or changed during an experiment or other test to reveal possible effects on another variable. A dependent variable is a variable whose value is measured during an experiment or other test to see whether it is influenced by changes in another variable. Study Guide: Chapter 2 1. What is an essential element? What are the essential elements? An essential element is any chemical element required by an organism for healthy growth. The essential elements include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, boron, chlorine, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, and nickel. 2. Name and describe the various subatomic particles. Indicate their charge, size, location within an atom, and what each subatomic particle tells us about the atom. Protons are positively charged, 1 amu, and are a part of the nucleus. Neutrons are electrically neutral, 1 amu, and are a part of the nucleus. Electrons are negatively charged, 1/2000 amu, and make up the “cloud.” 3. Describe the structure of an atom Nucleus contains protons and neutrons, electrons float around nucleus. 4. Determine the atomic number, atomic mass, and number of neutrons for Sodium (Na). Sodium (Na) Atomic Number: 11 Atomic Mass: 22.990 amu Number of Neutrons: 12 5. How do isotopes of an element differ from one another? Isotopes are the same elements but have different atomic masses and different number of neutrons. 6. How do you determine how many electron shells an atom has? How many electron shells does Ca have? Chemical behavior of an atom determined by the distribution within electron shells. Ca has 3 filled orbitals with 2 free electrons, 4 shells in total. 7. Why are valence electrons so important? How many valence electrons does Carbon (C) have? Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom — in the energy level that is farthest away from the nucle. Carbon has 4 valence electrons. 8. Draw an electron distribution diagram for a Potassium (K). 9. What is the difference between a molecule and a compound? Molecules can be bonded from the same elements, whereas compounds can only combine if the elements are different. 10.Describe the three major types of bonds discussed in this chapter (covalent, ionic, and hydrogen)? Covalent bonds involve the sharing of pairs of valence electrons between two atoms. Strength of the bond depends upon the number of shared electrons and type of atoms involved. Ionic bonds results from the gain or loss of electron from atoms. Formed by the attraction between ions of opposite charge and can be easily broken in the presence of water. Hydrogen bonds are polar molecules that have areas of partial positive and partial negative charge. They are very weak transient bonds that forms between a partial positive atom and a partial negative atom. They are very weak individually, but very strong collectively. 11.What are the two types of covalent bonds? Sketch an example of each type of covalent bond and explain why these types of covalent bonds are important. 12.What are reactants and products when talking about chemical reactions? Chemical reactions are the making and breaking of chemical bonds. The starting molecules of a chemical reaction are called reactants and the final molecules of a chemical reaction are called products.
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