HY 103 Midterm Study Guide
1. Bering Strait – a strait connecting the Pacific and Arctic oceans between Russia and the United States (Alaskan) of ice in which Paleo Indians traveled to get to the US
2. Paleo Indians – travelled across the Bering Strait; term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas 3. Amerigo Vespucci – an Italian explorer, navigator and cartographer who first found that Brazil and the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern outskirts as initially conjectured from Columbus' voyages (1499). America was named after him
4. Columbian exchange – the widespread exchange of food, animals, plants, diseases, technology and ideas between native Americans, Europeans and Africans following Christopher Columbus’ voyage in 1492
5. Hernan Cortes – Spanish conquistador (wanted to spread Catholicism) who defeated the Aztecs and conquered a lot of present day Mexico 6. Samuel de Champlain – a French explorer and cartographer, first person from France to discover the new world, his journey took him to much of Canada (from Quebec and Ontario to Toronto, and also in South Carolina); had a good relationship with Indians
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7. Virginia company – joint stock company (company empowered by the crown to start own company) created by King James 1 to establish a colonial settlement (Jamestown established in 1607) (folded in 1624)
8. Indentured servants – A person under contract to work for another person for a definite period of time (around 7 years), usually without pay but in exchange for free passage to a new country, had very little freedom, basically slaves; abuse was common including raping of women If you want to learn more check out Who is Marbury v. Madison?
9. Bacon’s rebellion – an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley, this is the first time people started to discriminate by race. Nathaniel Bacon was a colonist of the Virginia Colony, he wanted more land and needed the indigenous people gone in order to get the land; makes slavery a race based system
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10. Anne Hutchinson – a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638; women didn’t usually preach
11. Gate of no return – doors that lead to the belly of ships where slaves are shipped out never to return
12. Which two 18th century developments uncover the ways in which Americans were beginning to think in differing ways about the meaning of life?
a. Enlightenment – a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism
rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton
b. Great Awakening – a wave of 18th century religious enthusiasm that begins as a response to the Enlightenment movement, or growth of intellectual thinking. There are two waves. By the early 19th century, during the second wave, church, membership soars Don't forget about the age old question of To what extent was time a factor?
13. Who wrote a theory challenging biblical notions that said god kept the stars, planets and sun in motion? Isaac Newton 14. Which revolution provided a template for getting rid of a hated monarch? English Civil War We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of law?
15. What did the English bill of rights do? It bars a monarch from getting rid of laws enacted by parliament
16. When did the Seven Years War occur? 1754-1763 a. Seven Years War – battle that bound England and France against Spain; settled Great Britain and France’s battle over land in America (1756-1763)
17. What British leader looked for new sources of funding in British North America? George Grenville who was a British political leader who as prime minister (1763-1765) instigated the Stamp Act (1765), which provoked rebellious activities in the American colonies
18. Via which act did the British receive a new funding source from American colonies?
a. Stamp act of 1764 – A law passed by the British government in 1765 that required the payment of a tax to Britain on a great variety of papers and documents, including newspapers, that were produced in the American colonies
b. Sugar act of 1764 – set a tax on sugar and molasses imported into the colonies which impacted the manufacture of rum in New England
19. Who are the redcoats? members of the British army (because they had red coats)
20. Who is Thomas Paine? A patriot and author in the Revolutionary War, whose pamphlets, such as Common Sense and the American Crisis series, urged American independence
21. What did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 establish? regulated the settlement of the Northwest Territory, which eventually was divided into several states of the Middle West; did not permit slavery If you want to learn more check out When french begin to arrive in North America?
22. Who are the federalists? They defended the principle of a supreme authority (strong centralized government), but assured people there will never be a tyranny, led by Alexander Hamilton
23. When did the French Revolution begin and end? 1789-1815 24. What was the “era of good feeling”? time after War of 1812 of relative peace (1815-1824)
25. Which doctrine found the United States generally telling European powers to keep their hands off Latin America? Monroe Doctrine
26. What is the Missouri compromise? an act of Congress (1820) by which Missouri was admitted as a slave state, Maine as a free state, and slavery was prohibited in the Louisiana Purchase north of latitude 36°30′N, except for Missouri
1. Write an essay analyzing critical turning points in American civilization before 1800, and be prepared to uncover how they incrementally inspire and unveil the colonists’ quest for freedom
2. Analyze how the ‘everyday’ man increasingly gained power in the US in the 1830’s. be sure to name critical developments, conflicts, documents, and key figures that allow us to see the ways in which such an individual established political, social, and economic dominance. Also, you are highly encouraged to consider showing how other individuals