PSY 201 Exam #1 Study Guide
PSY 201 Exam #1 Study Guide PSY 201
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Adeline Fecker on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Paul Dassonville in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Mind and Brain in Psychology at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Psychology 201 Exam #1 Study Guide Questions to consider… What are some specific examples of the biases in psychological reasons that you have encountered? a . Confirmation Bias (Ignoring Evidence) i. Tendency to place importance on evidence that supports beliefs ii. Tendency to downplay evidence that does not match belief iii. Restricting ourselves to sources that only support our beliefs distorts reality iv. People remember information that supports existing beliefs b . Appeals to Authority (failing to judge credibility i. When we have no opinion we do not know whom to beliefs ii. Advertisements exploit appeals to authority so we believe the information and it’s source is credible iii. Ex. Scientists, celebrities, professors c Misunderstanding Statistics d . Seeing relationships that do not exist i. Misperception that two events that happen at the same time are related ii. Seeing order or a pattern where there is not one e . Using relative comparisons i. Information that comes firsthand has stronger influence on comparison ii. Framing of a question changes our answer iii. People prefer information that is presented positively rather than negatively f . Hindsight bias i. It is easier to make sense of past events than it is to predict the future ii. We are able to explain past events by manipulating evidence of the past iii. Our after the fact explanations tend to distort evidence g . Mental Shortcuts (Heuristics) i. Heuristics allow us to make decisions faster ii. Can lead to inaccurate judgement or bias h. Selfserving Bias i. People want to feel good about themselves ii. People believe they are better than average iii. Credit success to an innate personal strength iv. Credit failure to outside forces beyond our control v. Builds over confidence and inability to see one’s own weakness What is the difference between monist and dualist viewpoints? Monism (Hippocrates, Hobbes) Dualism (Plato, Descartes) There is only one substance There are 2 distinct substances Body and mind are one 1. Mental substance The mind is dependent on the brain 2. Physical substance The mind is the manifestation of the brain External soul controls the body, but does not need the body How did Descartes dualistic theory explain how the soul could communicate with the body? o The body was just an organic machine o Deliberate action was controlled by the rational mind o External soul located in the pineal gland (unitary part of the brain) In what way was Gestaltism a backlash to Structuralism? Gestalt Theory (Wertheimer and Kohler) Structuralism (Edward Titchener) o The whole experience is more than the o Experience can be broken down into its basic sum of its parts underlying components o The whole is different than the sum of its o Understanding basic components of thought can parts help us understand the mind o Understand laws of our ability to acquire o Paved the way for Psychology to be considered a and maintain meaningful perception true science PROBLEMS 1. Everyone experience is subjective and variable 2. Reporting the experience changes the experience Structuralism wanted to find a list of all the possible parts of consciousness. Gestalt theorists believed that the mind cannot be broken down, that it is more than the sum of its parts In what way was Behaviorism a backlash to Introspectionism? Behaviorism (John Watson) Introspectionism (Wilhelm Wundt) o The study of observable environmental o Systematic examination of subjective mental effects on behavior experiences o Study relationship between stimulus and o Study conscious mental events by observing and response recording one’s own thoughts o Only study things that can be directly observed PROBLEMS o Nurture was all 1. Varies from person to person 2. No verification o Mental states were another form of 3. Relies on conscious mind behavior 4. Provides products of thinking rather than underlying processes o Behavior can be shaped through positive and negative consequences PROBLEMS: 1. Cannot account for complex behaviors 2. Scope is too narrow Introspections attempted to understand how and why people thought what they thought. Behaviorists did not see this method as scientific because it relied on a subjective experience rather than something that can be measured and observed. How do Cognitive Psychology & Cognitive Neuroscience treat the mind/brain differently than does Behaviorism (with respect to the “black box” of the mind/brain)? Behaviorism Cognitive Psychology (George Miller) PROBLEMS: o Emphazise mental activity 1. Cannot account for complex behaviors o Concerned with mental functions like intelligence, o The study of observable environmental thinking language memory and decision making effects on behavior o Mental functions are important in understanding o Study relationship between stimulus and behavior response o Learning is more than trial and error o Only study things that can be directly observed o Cognitive neuroscience studies neural mechanisms involved in cognitive processes o Nurture was all o Mental states were another form of behavior Which principles of phrenology apply to modern cognitive neuroscience? Which do not apply? PHRENOLOGY: o The study of the structure of the skull to determine a person’s character and mental capacity o Founded by Franz Gall (1849) ASSUMPTIONS: 1. Size of organ = its power (FOUNDED IN COGNITIVE PSYC) 2. Shape of the brain determined by strength of various organs (UNFOUNDED) 3. Shape of skull can predict personality (UNFOUNDED) How do modern behaviors reflect the evolutionary pressures of our ancestors? EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY: o Explain mental traits as products of natural selection o The brain adapts, behavior adapts EX. People like sweet fatty food because in prehistoric times these foods were rare and had great survival value. Therefore, the preference to sweet and fatty foods was adaptive. How do cultural norms affect mental processes and behaviors? CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY: o Culture shapes beliefs and values (norms) which affects behavior o Culture shapes perception and world view EX. Eastern cultures think of things more holistically, while the western world compartmentalizes information. We rely on rules and logic to explain behavior. How do the biological, individual, social and cultural levels of analyses in psychology differ? Biological Individual Social Cultural o Understand how o Study how o Understand how o Explore similarities and the physical body individual group contexts differences of feelings contributes to differences in affect the way and thoughts across mind and behavior personality and people interact cultures mental processes and influence o Study chemical that affect how each other and genetic people see the processes that world occur in the body What are the goals of psychological science? 1. Description: detail and catalogue mental processes 2. Understanding: Develop explanations and theories on how the mind works 3. Prediction: Use theories to predict behaviors and thougths 4. Application: Apply theories to influence behavior and thought Describe how the scientific method can be used to gain an understanding of some psychological issue. a. Formulate a theory b. Make a hypothesis c. Collect data d. Perform critical evaluation of the results e. Revise theory if necessary f. Communicate findings What makes for a good theory? 1. Falsifiable 2. Testable Define independent and dependent variables. Independent Variable: the variable that is manipulated (cause) Dependent Variable: Variable that is measured (effect) Explain how the scientific method is selfcorrecting. Theory is constantly improved, or rejected with every experiment. Replication of the study or a similar study can strengthen or weaken the theory Why does a correlation not imply causation? 1. Directionality Problem a. A correlates with B, but does B correlate with A 2. Third Variable Problem a. A correlates with B, but A does not cause B b. There could be an unknown third variable that affects the dependent What is the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics? Descriptive Statistics Inferential Statistics o Summarize basic pattern of data o Determine whether effects actually exist in o Central Tendency (mean, median, mode) population of samples o Variability (Range, standard deviation) o Statistically significant results occur by o Correlation chance less than 5% of the time o Metaanalysis (study already performed experiments)
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