History 1302 - Lynching in the Heartland Notes
History 1302 - Lynching in the Heartland Notes History 1302
Popular in History of the U.S. since 1865
Popular in History
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History 1302 September 21, 2016 Professor Ramirez Notes Guide for Lynching in the Heartland These are some points you should keep in mind for the book exam. Please note: these may or may not be the exact questions in the book exam. However,you should be able to answer the book exam questions by answering the following: 1. What is the thesis of the book? Why did the author write the book? How does the author support his main arguments? 2. Familiarize yourself with the main storyline and the people in the book. 3. What does the author mean by “color lines” or the “lines of color”? How do color lines manifest themselves prior, during, and after the lynching? 4. Citing specific evidence, why do you believethat the two African Americans were lynched? 5. How would you describethe town of Marion? 6. How have the experiences of Marion’s blacks changed over time? ***For every sectionof the study guide that pertains to one of the questions above, you will find a star of that color for referencing*** The Events of Marion, Indiana: - A major scenario occurred in Marion, Indiana inAugust of 1930 (p. 1-4) o Involved 2 white people: Claude Deeter was murdered Mary Ball was allegedlyraped o Involved 3 African American men All three were accused of murder and rape Two of the men, Abe Smith and Tom Shipp, were lynched by a mob The third man, James Cameron, managed to evade lynching; he was the original target of the lynch mob, however because he managed to elude the mob, he came to appear as a survivor and suggested heroic conscience o The town’s geographic and symbolic center was the courthouse square This was the area where the lynchings occurred - Main Tragedy during this time period: America struggles to understand racism (p.1-4) o Lines of Color Made clearlyevident withthe lynchings, investigations, and trials These investigations and trials failedto convict anyone who participatedin the mob lynching African Americans receivedno closure, no wayto make amends for the tragedy that their community experienced during this time period - Events that occurred on August 7 ,1930 (p. 5-7) o Deeter and Ball were enjoying themselves in the town’s “lovers’ lane” o The three African American men ambushed them One of these men fired shots from a handgun, which killedDeeter Ball was (allegedly) pushed to the ground and raped Within hours, the men were thrown into a jail cell o The crowd continued to grow outside the jail The people did not want a trial that would result indelayed justice or a trial that would end in a sentence without death o Other important people: Jake Campbell – Sheriff for Marion; he tried to be somewhat fair and keep the crowd from entering the jail;his attempts however were ultimately unsuccessful Harley Hardin – Prosecuting Attorney; he stood with the sheriff and urged the crowd members to return to their homes Flossie Bailey – president of the town’s branch of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of ColoredPeople); concerned for the men’s safety while awaiting trial - Death Events (p. 9-11) o Tom Shipp’s Death Mob grabs him and beats him as they drag him outside They slip a noose around his neck and hang him His body hangs outside the jailcell windows in order to make a spectacle An individual evenstabbed his body after it was hung o Abe Smith’s Death He, like Tom, was beaten and dragged out of his cell Women would stomp on his head as the men dragging him paused Unlike Tom, he was dragged to the courthouse square where he was hung Following Smith’s hanging, they cut downShipp’s body and placedit next to Smith’s in order to make an even bigger spectacle - James Cameron (p. 10) o Mob returns to the jail and dragged him to a tree for lynching o Sol Ball, Mary’s uncle, calms downthe crowdby claiming that Cameron was innocent - Recruiting Help to Contain the Mob (p. 10) o Police from the Kokomo, Indianapolis, and Muncie areas came to the aid of Sheriff Campbell o By 11:00pm the crowds had died down Lynching and Civilization: (p. 13-20) - Over a 50 year period (1880-1930) over 4500 Americans had been lynched o Over 70% of these lynchings were of African Americans - Why? o Whites feared that blacks would challenge their subordination ineconomic, social, and political areas of society o Whites wanted to convey “White Supremacy” o Wanted blacks to know their place o Lynching could be used as a terror tactic against African Americans - Feeding the Fire o Whites created myths concerning African American sexuality Men wereconveyed as beasts that lusted after white women They were thought of as uncivilized White women were conveyed as “pure” and believedto never willing engage in activity with blackmem Rape, therefore, was the only logical means of African Americans sexually interacting with white women o Backed up lynching motivations Claimed they were protecting their women Their way of maintaining their status at the top of the social,economic, and politicalscenes (above both women and blackmen) In the 1920s, it was hard to use the purity of women to justify lynchings of African Americas They dressedmore promiscuously Listened to jazz Talked about sex openly Developed poor habits (smoking, grooming, etc.) - African American Rape o Black women were most often the victim of rape This was not acknowledged by white men, however Often rapes of these types werecovered up o Ida B. Wells Stood up for African American women Wanted to bring these stats to life Accused whites of using the false accusation of rape as a shield to excuse other crimes that may have been worse - Northern Lynchings o Although largely occurring inthe south, more than 100 lynchings did occur in the North and Midwest o Indian Violence Late 1700s, tomahawking and scalping took place Claimed Indians stole land and resources Men, women, children were murdered and their bodies mutilated Indian resources werestolen for white use Deer Lick Creek Massacre 4 White men tried and convicted for murdering Indians Three of these men were hung Judge WilliamW. Wick o Served on the trials o Dissented the white’s claim to supremacy o 19 Century Vigilantism Men triedto impose their beliefs on others, judged them for breaking community norms Black Lynchings Men who died were not given a trial They were taken from jail without resistance from police and sheriff 1890s law requires sheriff to call the governor for militia protection when threat of a lynching was present o Not abidedby until 1903 when a shooting occurred in Evansville,Indiana o Governor Durbin sent troops to suppress a riot,many were wounded and some died o Durbin didnot take stances on racialjustice but rather overall lawand order o Suppressed lynchings until the ones that occurredin Marion in1930 - Nearly Lynched in Marion in 1885 (p. 20-25) o Frank Wallace 3 white girls insulted him, he reacted but did not hurt them He was put injail that evening Public made speculations about his past Media helped to create hysteria Mob approached the jail and shots were fired A man, James Kiley, was shot and killed inthe crossfire People were debating on whether to blame the mob or Wallace for his death Mob fizzled out when the sheriff refused to lynch Wallace and he protected him Media then portrayed the 3 women as having as much blame as Wallace In this instance justice reigned; in the 1930 instance, passion reigned Why? o This mob was less organized o Didn’t necessarilyhave as clear of a purpose (someone hadn’t diedwhen Wallace reacted) o Crimes were not as extreme: assault vs. rape/murder - Pioneers and their role (p. 25-30) o Built farms and homes inthe Midwest o Hardworking, individualistic,fair, democratic o American Corn Belt Land of promise with a fertile area across the Midwest Grew corn and wheat, raisedlivestock o Knew that native Americans were there before them Centennial History of Grant County, 1914 Documented lackof respect for Indians indestruction of mounds in order to build town buildings Conflict betweenMiami Indians and pioneers Miami Indians destroyed inthe Battle of the Mississinewa,1812 Any left were forced to Kansas territory by the government where they experienced pressure to assimilate to American culture They were strippedof their land, language, and culture - Gas in the Midwest (p. 30-32) o Natural gas discoveredin 1887 o Blacks and whites came from the south for better paying jobs infactories o Marion = “Queen City” of the gas belt o Gas resource died out in1905 o Industrial challenges Child labor (under the age of 16) Stress between labor and money Strikes, violence,unions, riseof socialism - Trouble in Grant County (1920s) (p. 32-37) o Industrialization had brought growth, but alsomany other disappointing qualities: Loss of direction Immorality Increase inthe number of roadhouses, illegitimacy, and drunkenness Jazz movement Crime Gambling, bootleg liquor, prostitution, speakeasies Corruption Police turned blind eye to goings on Couldn’t relyon them for protection o Oct 1929, Conference on Law Observance and Enforcement Discussed deficiencies incontrolling crime o Leadership trends State police of little help Enforcement officials electedby popular vote (goal was to keep the public happy to win re-election) Sheriff Campbell o Kept jailfull but public felt it wasn’t enough to address trends incrime Mayor Jack Edwards o Loved jazz, allowedsale of bootleg liquor and gambling o Even patronized some of these aspects Only when murders went unsolved/unpunished was the public discontent with lawenforcement o Bombings of 1929 October 3, 1929 bomb explodes at labor headquarters and kills 3 men Three weeks later another bomb detonates and kills a union official Feb 1930 a third bomb discoveredbefore it detonates End of Feb 1930, another man dies in a car bombing All 5 victims were members of the Mould Makers Union Mayor Edwards hires a detective to lookinto bombings but the bomber(s) never identified o Murderer at Large Black garage worker shoots a white youth and receives a light sentence Grant county citizens dissatisfiedwiththe court Hired a law student, Thurman Biddinger, to help with the extra work - Ku Klux Klan (p. 37-42) o White protestants, patriots, radical republican o Goal = to unite the good people of the community against the forces of moral, spiritual, and civic decline; forcefully cleanse community of alcohol and sin o Valued family, work, and community o Strongly pro-prohibition It was a symbolic source of immorality and corruption, going against family values, hard work, and religion Condemned saloons, dance halls, adultery, premarital sex, and drunkenness Tipped off police to liquor stills,bootleggers, and other criminals o Marion KKK Didn’t engage ina lot of violence against blacks, Catholics, Jews, etc. First signs of activity began in 1920 1924, many congressional delegates were members of or friendly to the KKK o Burning Cross = symbolizes the intensity of their belief o Members Blue collarworkers Middle-classbusiness men and professionals Town attorney School superintendent o Downfall Decline began in1925 The leader, D.C. Stephenson, was convicted of rape and murder Considered an embarrassing liability Indian rejects the Republican party o KEY POINT The fall of the Indiana KKK happened prior to 1930 Therefore, they cannot be blamed for involvement in the Marion lynchings! - Lines of Color drawn in Marion (p. 43-47) o September 1917, Burden sisters attempted to eat at a local shop: the New York Candy Kitchen o Denied servicebecause of their skin coloring o Filed a law suit against the owner, demanded a trial by jury to publiclyair the issue o Indiana Civil Rights Act 1885 All Indiana residents, regardless of color/race,have the right to eat at restaurants, use public transport, hotels, theaters, and other public places o Lawyers Burden sisters’:Julius Judkins and WilliamAmsden Owner (Chochos): Henry Paulus, Gus Condo, John Browne o Marion Case Jury sided with the Burden sisters in May 1918; owner owedeach $25 Owner decided to appeal the decision o Appellate Court Owner’s attorneys argued that the verdictwas contrary to law and that their establishment was not a restaurant Argued basedon the current definition of “restaurant” November 1920 the appellate court reversedthe verdict rendered in the county court Based on the definition of “restaurant” Also allowedtheir business to deny anyone of color in the future Declaredthat the sisters had no legal right to demand serviceat their establishment o Overall cases lasted more than three years’ time o The cases ended up further drawing lines of separationbetween blacks and the whites of the community - Challenging these Lines of Color (p. 47-50) o W.E.B Du Bois Believed that the separation betweenblack and white was the problem of the century People in the north saw this as just a “southern problem” But segregation was clearlypresent in the north in restaurants, parks, and railroadcars o Indiana Laws over Time 1840 Bill Fined any interracial couples who attempted to marry o Also fined the officiate for the ceremony Remained until 1965 1851 constitution Prohibited blacks from serving in the state militia Defeated in 1921 Sunset laws Did not allowfor any blacks to be intown after dark(they had to be out before dark) Segregation in schools Community Exclusions Denied access to public swimming pools Not allowedin movie theaters, YMCA, YWCA, or white churches o Fighting Back Combatted these customs by creating their own institutions and organizations Also created places to offer safety and community to African Americans In society, if an African American person was considered notable, they were not recognized primarilyby their name They were recognized by “colored”or their name followedby “colored” - Finding Community with the Quakers (p. 50-58) o Assisted black families and created a welcoming environment o Weaver, Indiana Increased residents from 1840(initiallyestablished) to 1860s with over 250 residents Played a role in the underground railroad Soldiers from Weaver fought inthe Civil War directly against slavery African Americans here tend to be light skinned These light skinned people tended to view themselves as higher sociallythan other African Americans who came to town later African Americans felt a sense of community with the whites in Weaver Still had lines of color drawn Black schools, teams, churches, marriages - Characteristics of the Black Community in Marion o Most worked low-paying, tedious, less desirablejobs o A few professionals in the community Lawyers, a physician, a dentist, an architect, several ministers Business owners: funeral home, contractor, grocery store Clients and customers of these business were both black and white Government officials Police officers and firemen o Newspaper Had a “colored news” section Reported funerals, receptions, visits,travels,etc. Announced worship, missionary society, and choir meetings for the all-blackchurches Lodge and club meetings - NAACP (p. 58-61) o Formed in 1909 as a leading civil rights organization Blacks led at local and state levels o New York office approved the Grant County branch in 1919 o Flossie Bailey (also known as Katherine Bailey) Gave keynote address on Theodore Roosevelt A great speaker and efficient organizer Would often have NAACP leaders from Indiana over to their home and even overnight Led the Marion branch Brought Oscar DePriest to Marionin September 1929 He was the only African American member of Congress at the time He urged blacks to vote Within a year, member numbers increased five times, and they even recruited a few white members - NAACP/Flossie Bailey’s Involvement withthe MarionLynchings (p.63-71) o Didn’t trust the sheriff or the city police o Called the Indiana governor’s office within an hour of the first lynching Had trouble getting through but finally reached his assistant L.O. Chasey Chasey refused to send state protection NAACP state officials put together a telegram for Governor Leslie Urged them to use full extent of the law for protection o Officials also alerted the national office in NYC o Walter White (acting head of the NAACP) Comes to Marion on Aug 15 Prepares a reportabout the situation in Marion and sends it to state officials on Aug 22 Stated that Sheriff Campbell should be removed from his position Murders should be tried and punished inorder to remove the stain on the state and county o Officials wouldn’t do that o They feared that it would anger the citizens and incite another mob Put together a listof those involved in the mob/lynchings Believedthere was not enough evidence to support the claims of Mary Ball; lots of info to go against her “innocence” o Rumors that her and Smith were actually dating and would workwith the boys to rob other people o She was rumored to be sexually promiscuous o Believedher testimony degraded blackmen o Aug 20, NAACP leaders presented a petition to remove the sheriff from his position Governor showed indifference Governor’s assistant was friends with the Sheriff and had too many connections/political friendships in the mob to resolve it - Reactions in the Black Community (p. 64-65) o Black residents fled the city o Race riot threatened o Fear present even in whites because the worriedabout African American retaliation - Events that followed the lynchings (p.65-66) o Indiana National Guard arrivedearlySaturday, Aug 9 1930 They were heavily armed and patrolleddowntown Even if 2-3 people gathered, they were broken up o The next day, the bodies of Shipp and Smith were brought home Mayor Edwards offered condolences to each family o County Prosecutor (Hardin) had no desire to prosecute; feared a mob/riot - Supportive White Figures (p. 75-79) o Some whites were sympathetic to what had happened Many offered support to Flossie Baileyand other African Americans o The Balls’ opinion vs. the Deeter’s opinion Ball – justice was done through the lynchings Deeter – God should have been the one to decide how justice would be served o Jack Edwards White city mayor for Marion Advocated for justice However, the blackcommunity was upset due to the fact that he wasn’t present the night of the lynchings o White viewsconcerning the mob Some thought the mob represented lawlessnessand barbarity and was inexcusable HOWEVER, not one of these white people stopped the events that had occurred. Because of the lackof help for justice by the whites, it reliedon the black community to attain justice o Making way with mob participant interviews Indiana Attorney General James Ogden Had his deputy attorney generals interview witnesses in Marion (Merle Wall/Earl Stroup) Last hope for official justice White opposition Wanted to maintain white solidarityand the lynching made that solidaritymore precious Lines of color defined stories for both sides - NAACP continues to grow (p. 76-79) o Second annual meeting, 45 new members 1930 o Keynote speaker: Meredith Nicholson (openly opposedthe KKK) o The only white speaker: Donald Carmony, history professor (came into issues with his school after speaking) o Indiana/Marion newspapers cover the meeting giving full report Marion Chronicle published only an announcement of the meeting AND it was only in the “ColoredNews” section! o Furious with Republicans Held leadershipin Indiana inthe 1920s President Hoover denied Walter White’s plea for justice in the lynching event Indiana republicans backed the president up Flossie Bailey is furious withrepublican party Eventually we see her switchfrom republicanto democrat The Trial Proceedings - August 13, 1930 (p. 81-88) o Interviewed 30 witnesses and created over 300 pages of transcription from these interviews (their questions and answers) o Three men interviewed: HarleyHardin, Sheriff Campbell, Merle Wall/Earl Stroup Assisted by investigator Arthur Bruner Focused on evidence relatedto two issues: Identity of those at the mob Conduct of law enforcement that evening o Roy Collins as first witness o All testimonies provedunhelpful and gave no detail Others unable to link participants to their hometowns If witnesses did name names it was of: Charles Lennon, Robert Beshire, and Asa Davis o City couldn’t agree on a definition for “mob” and they were able to skirt around having to make accusations o There wereconstant contradictions about who was involved o Merle Wall insinuated that there was cooperationin allowingthe mob into the jail Officials backed up a lack of action with fear for race riots like those experienced in Tulsa in1921 Officials tried to un-establish it as a race issue because other blacks in jail were not harmed Claimed the bloody shirt of Claude Deeter was hung inthe city hall window to dry Another issue was that the bodies were left hanging through the night - Grand Jury proceedings (p. 88-89) rd th o Began September 3 , met 15 times before wrappingup on October 9 o Half of the Jury members were from Deeter’s home town in Fairmont, IN o Indictments brought against seven Marion residents (as “mob leaders”) o Ogden filed charges against the sheriff for impeachment and a fine of $1,000 This move was not supported by the governor of Indiana (HarryLeslie) Received hostility from L.O. Chasey the governor’s secretary - Trial Begins (p. 89-92) o December 29 against Robert Beshire first Owned a restaurant; from Turkey Acquitted The jurors All white (9 farmers, 1 clerk, 1 pastor,and 1 real estate dealer) o Flossie Bailey Kept Walter White informed Understood that there was little chance for conviction Happrdthat they evenhad a trial in the first place o February 23 , 1931 second trial against Charles Lennon The jurors 10 farmers, 1 contractor, 1 blacksmith Split decision11-1 but after 18 hours of deliberation, the odd one out changed his vote Lennon acquitted o The acquittal of these two men (Beshire and Lennon) showed there would be little chance of conviction inthe other cases for the mob members No one in the mob was ever brought to justice This showed that the lines of color weremore important to the city than accordance withthe law - Flossie Bailey and the NAACP during these trials (p.94-100) o Focused on bringing legal justice o Bailey won the Madam C.J. Walker Medal For doing the best workin the NAACP during the past year o Strategy Investigate and publicize eachlynching Urge government to pass legislation that holds the sheriff responsible for stopping the mob lynching Campaigned for an anti-lynching law in IN Opponents claimed that such lawswere unenforceable Bill passedin March 1931 o Immediate dismissal of a sheriff inwhich a prisoner from their jailwas lynched o Family of the lynched personcould sue for damages up to $10,000 Indiana newspaper claimed this made it safer to live in Indiana Campaigned for a federal anti-lynching law Fight for racialequality in general Indianapolis hospital not allowingblackpatients to be admitted or for black medical students to train there Movie theater inMarion denying admission to African Americans o Supreme Court rules against those denied admission o The Great Depression Brought hard times for the organization in collectingdues and raising money for civilrights activities o Fought for gender equality All other leadersfor the NAACP were men She faced opposition and wanted better opportunities for women o Downfall of the Bailey family Late 1930s her husband (Dr. Walter Bailey) was in bad health ~1940 he suffered a stroke and closedhis practice He passed awayin1950 Two years later,1952, Flossie Baileydied - James Cameron (p. 100-106) o Was not lynched, but instead had to face the legal system o Charges brought against him were: robbery, murder inthe first degree, accessory, first-degree rape o International Labor Defense (ILD) Protest against the lynching of Negro workers Shipp and Smith Goal = to provide racialequality by working through the American legal and politicalsystem th On August 26 , they conducted their owninvestigation of the lynching 13 residents interviewed(nearly all African American) Their investigation drew same conclusions as Walter White Meetings in Marion to stress the needs of workers (both white and black) to organize together for defense against lynching and other discrimination/exploitation Cameron offered free legal counsel through them, but he and his family rejected this Why? o To their family, the NAACP offered a better chance at justice than the ILD due to their dedication to racial equality not just working equality o NAACP and Cameron at first the NAACP refused to help Cameron (because he had already “confessed” and they couldn’t afford to fight a losing battle) But they reversedthis stance and took his case Lawyers were Robert Baileyand Robert Brokenburr Bailey – studied withJames Odgen who became his patron and appointed him assistant attorney general, alsobecame president of the Indianapolis branch of the NAACP, died of stroke in 1940 Brokenburr – Marion county deputy prosecuting attorney inthe 1920s, republican, Indiana NAACP executive board member Strategy? Use the nation’s laws and ideals of equality as weapons against the line of color Walter White sent $100 to Flossie to help cover trial expenses for Cameron First Victory Change of venue for the trial Moved trial from Marion to Madison County - Cameron’s Trial (p. 106-th9) o Began on June 29 , 1931 o Prosecuting attorney was HarleyHardin and he demanded imprisonment (not a death sentence) o Second Victory Both sides argued about Cameron’s confessional Sheriff stated Cameron confessed Cameron stated he was beaten into submission Eventually the judge struck the confession from evidence o Third Victory Mary Ball’s testimony declaredthat the night was too dark to identify Cameron as one of the rapists th o Verdict – July 7 , 1931 Guilty of accessoryto manslaughter Dropped charges of rape and murder and robbery Sentenced to no less than two or more than ten years in jail (Indiana State Reformatory) Immediately moved him to the reformatory in order to prevent mob action Remembering the Lynching in Marion - The photographic evidence (p. 111-112) o Lawrence Beitler took the iconic photograph that documented the events of that evening (Shipp and Smith hanging from the tree) o Sold and distributed prints - Cameron tells his story years later (p.117-128) o His story became the dominant account of the events that occurred that day o Life goal after prison = to find personal peace and heal the racial divisions he held in himself o Served four years in jail,and as a condition of his release,he was required to leave the state (moved to Detroit initially) Became active in the Detroit NAACP Moved to Milwaukee in 1953 o Return to Marion In 1978, he walked the courthouse square and visited the jail and his old cell In 1981 the old jailclosedand was replacedwitha new jail(separate building) that would hold sixtimes the prisoners The Historic Landmarks Foundation of Indiana placedthe jailon its “Ten most endangered” listin 1995 Cameron wanted the old jail to be the site of the Black Holocaust Museum, but it was renovated for new apartments instead o The Book Wrote a book about the events entitled “A Time of Terror” in 1982 and published it at his ownexpense Discussed it on Oprah in the 1980s Spoke for the Grant County Black History Council in 1983 o The Museum In Milwaukee, he established the BlackHolocaust Museum on June 19 , th 1988 He closed the museum multiple times as he looked for better spaces and more money to fund it New York Times claimed him to be the museum’s star exhibit o Seeking Pardon May 1991, Cameron wrote a request for pardon of his crime to the Governor at the time, Evan Bayh Signed the pardonon February 4 ,1993 Cameron came to Marion for this The Parole Board Commissioner gave him the official pardonand the Mayor, Ron Mowery, gave him a key to the city After this, his story and book receivedso much publicity that published a new edition and made documentaries about the events o His motto in regards to the events Forgive but not forget The Lines of Color Remain - Civil rights movement (1950s-1960s)(p.129-142) o Tom Wise and Oatess Archey Worked together inGrant County politics Although they went to an integrated school, they still experienced separate teams and segregation of public facilities (like swimming pools) Whites thought of people during this time “coloredpeople” were “dirty”…they didnot want to be polluted by their “blackness” Other examples Movie theater main floors off limits Restaurants restricted Roller skating rink off limits o National Urban League Civil rights organization that encouraged employers to hire black workers during the war economy Fair employment practices during the 50s Harley Burden Jr. One of the earliestand most active members Served a term as president o Support from unlikely places Grant County Council of Church Women (all white) Wanted to see the pool open to all kids Cecile Moore o Set up a Human Relations Council and was chairman of the group o 2 African American members and 12 white members o Urged justice and equality for all o Wanted to preserveher friendship with the Caseys (an African American couple) o Brown v. Board of Education May 1954 the Supreme court rules that segregated schools violate the Constitution’s guarantee of equal protection under the law In light of this ruling, leadingfigures inthe Marion pool conflict decided to hold the line and not accept the compromise of a separate but equal pool o June 20 , 1954 Seven African Americas try to swim but are refuse Police were present along withdeputized citizens to prevent the formation of a mob President of the park board warnedAfrican Americans that anyone trying to swimmight be shot A day after the event, the NAACP filedlaw suits against the pool owner the park attempts to evade this by temporarily closing downfor repairsas they try to make it a private facility sothey can regulate members the United States District Court of Northern Indiana rendered their th decisionon July 30 ,1954 stating that all people are allowedto use the facilities inthe parkregardless in accordance withthe 14h amendment o Don Hawkins was the first black swimmer o Professional Gains Teachers In the 1950s there were no blackteachers within integrated schools in Marion First African American teacher = Oatess Archey o Initially the only job offered to him was janitor which then ledto the classroomjob o Leaves jobas teacher in1969 to workfor the FBI and had a 20 year career in law enforcement o Later ran for the sheriff’s positionin 1998 and won Cameron came to his swearing-in ceremony Nevada Pate o Hired a teacher in 1961 Joe Casey o 1965 voters electedhim to the school boardwhere he was the first blackto serve o 1972 he was elected school boardpresident Police men Finally allowedbehind the wheel in 1960 Began hiring more blackcops including Tom Wise o One of fifteen new policemen hired in1970 In the late 1980s, eight of the city’s 63 policemen were African American o Police chief = Amos Randle (AfricanAmerican) o Assistant Police Chief = Tom Wise (African American) o Faced harassment o Summer of 1969 Violent confrontations between blacks and whites Arson, looting, marches, protests, verbal and physical violence July Fire bombings force the city to consider the purchase of police dogs (and they do) Whites petition to revoke charges of police brutality but the NAACP organizes a protest march inresponse o 3000 people turn out for the march o Ended with a rallyon the Grant County Courthouse Square o Presented the city with a manifesto calling for equal employment and educational opportunities, equal housing, more blackteachers, and more blackhistory programs in the schools o Human Relations Commission Established in 1968 Help enforce lawson discrimination injobs, housing and education - Everyday Reminders (p. 142-153) o References to the lynchings of Shipp and Smith Bring back up a sense of fear within older African Americans of the area Not willingto unite and stop disturbances for fear of retaliation like was experienced inthose events Symbols in town Tree, massive jail = signs to stay intheir rightful place,and to be careful with white girls Conveyed to the younger African Americans who didn’t necessarilyknow the stories but knew of the events Older African Americans believedthe lynchings signified the start of Grant County racism Newcomers Called “rushins” Didn’t have any directmemory of the lynchings Had less fear of its meaning Had willingness to push harder and weremore awareof the changing times Democratic, less moderate, less patient Often lighter inskin color o Progress being made Summer 1998 conference of Grant County residents 14 residents (7 African American, 7 White) All agreed that there had beenconsiderable progress made in opportunities for blacks inMarion (especiallywithblack leadershippositions) o Police department All expresseda sense of community that had begun to confront inequalities and fears More optimistic than pessimistic Lines of color still present o Hate crimes o Discrimination inhousing and employment o Black childrenadvisedto have lower expectations inschool Whites lookback at lynchings with regret and embarrassment African Americans lookback at the lynchings as an open wound that still needs healing and still holds us back All proud of the progress made in their community “freedom shrine” Inside the courthouse Includes items like Lincoln’s second inaugural and the declaration of Independence Color line had begun to fade since the beginning of the century References Madison, J. H. (2003). A lynching in the heartland: Race and memory in America. New York: Palgrave.
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