Study Guide #2
Study Guide #2 BIO 301-01
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by carr34 Notetaker on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 301-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Robert H. Stavn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 209 views. For similar materials see Principles of Ecology in Biology at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Study Guide #2 ● Among the results of the coevolution of mutualists in a community is species will become better adapted for “using each other”, continually coevolve as mutualists, and probably increase the number of species that can live in a community. ● Qualitative chemical defense, utilizing the secondary compounds found in various plants, consists of plants producing toxins to ward off predators (herbivores). ● The cyclic oscillation in population numbers of predatory species in northern Canada, the lynxes and foxes for example, do not follow the trends predicted by the LotkaVolterra predatorprey equations. This is the case because the peak numbers of the real predators: coincide with the peak numbers of the prey species, making the predator a “helpless captive of its resources” ● In the coevolution of bees and various flowering plants, bees can be considered: flying penises ● Quantitative chemical defense, utilizing the secondary compounds found in various plants, consists of: silica phytoliths deposited in plant cells, lignin deposited in plant cell walls, and tannins deposited in leaves. ● Fresh water animals noted for reproducing parthenogenetically, water fleas and rotifers, will turn to sexual reproduction when: winter arrives in temperate regions and the freshwater habitat either deteriorates or disappears entirely. ● Tansley, who coined the term ecosystem, performed one of the earliest predator removal experiments in which plots of English pasture were kept rabbitfree for 6 years. The results of this experiment were: decrease in the number of plant species as the tall grass Zerna grew well without rabbitcropping and it then shaded out lowgrowing competitors. ● A large young reproductive strategy necessarily implies: prudential reproduction ● Female animals are generally larger than male animals because of the energetic investment made of eggs. This is not true in the case of: fur seals ● Sexual reproduction is postulated to have arisen in the very ancient Archaen seas flooded with high levels of UV light. The original function of sexual reproduction was to: repair damaged DNA. ● The experiments on predator removal of the starfish (sea star) Pisaster in the intertidal zone of Washington state demonstrated that: the number of prey species decreases after the removal of the predator. ● An altricial bird: must be fed in a nest by the parents for a long time, cannot forage for itself, and is usually found among hawks, eagles, seedeating songbird species. ● In terms of population regulation, territorial behavior: promotes maximum reproduction for individuals possessing territories, prevents reproduction by an often large population that does not possess a territory, usually prevents food resources from being depleted, and sets a nearly constant upper limit to population. ● Clutch size in the European Robin is always: dependent on latitude, the number of eggs in the clutch increasing as one goes north. ● An example of K selection was demonstrated in the Solbrig and Simpson study of dandelions on the University of Michigan campus. The best example was the D biotype which: grew larger and set less seed than the three other biotypes and dominated the remote, rarely visited meadow site. ● Many studies of the effect of predators on large herbivores, such as caribou in northern communities, indicate that predators such as wolves typically: cull the herds only of the old, sick, and very young. Thus the breeding stock tends to be preserved. ● The theory of densitydependent population regulation, as developed by David Lack, was based on the observation that: the numbers of the nesting pairs of birds were remarkably constant from year to year. ● For the natural regulation of numbers of individuals in a population, Davidsen and Andrewartha argued that densityindependence was most important because: thrip populations in south australia had a high correlation with the rainfall of a given season. ● Large adult size Equilibrium ● Much parental careEquilibrium ● Efficient competitor for resourcesEquilibrium ● “Boom” or “bust” population cyclesOpportunist ● Numerous eggsOpportunist ● Mature quickly Opportunist ● Semelparous reproductive strategies available to living organisms; is characterized by a single reproductive episode before death ● Lemming cycle 4 year cycle; go through phases of very low to very high densities; can reproduce and have many large litters every year; As a result, their population grows and grows until it reaches a point at which there are not enough plants anymore to sustain all the animals. At this point the population crashes, the vegetation regenerates and the cycle starts over again. ● Cropping principle predators increase diversity by preventing monopoly competition with competitive exclusion ● Primordial trait hypothesis It is claimed that meiosis is needed for differentiating complex, multicellular organisms ● Philopatrymigrating to birthplace to breed may involve a limited amount of inbreeding with cousinlevel related organisms. ● Red queen hypothesis environment always changing and may need different genetic combinations in next generation to be best adapted. ● The 50% cost of meiosis Sex requires that she give a half genetic interest of all her eggs to another the male Introduction Oikos household Logos study = ecology  Charles Elton (scientific natural history) Nomicos household Economy of nature (Darwin)  Malthus increase in geographic fashion ● Leads you to ideas of natural selection (how living things adapt/ survive in environment) ● “Science of universe” Themes: ● Science of the universe ● Natural selection ○ Over produce ○ Differences (every individual is different from another) ○ Difference often heritable ○ Differential survival of reproduction those that are most “fit” Differential survival and Reproduction Most fit Increased contribution to next generation Probably of grandchildren Altruistic behavior (non breeding contribute to the core of relations) Ecological Niche: variety of species; variety of lifestyles Meadows plants do the same thin, but are separate species ● Different chemical defences ● Some live longer than others ● Producer decomposer herbivore carnivore Division of resources and resource limitation (Charles Elton) Time scale of ecology: past adaptations Darwin million years last Ice Age Ecosystem → Biotic and Abiotic, communities Biotic and Abiotic : interacting and changing each other Energy flow [how they interact] NRG [do work] Alive [capture energy (NRG)]
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