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Biology 114 Exam 2

by: Alexis Elston

Biology 114 Exam 2 BSC 114

Alexis Elston
GPA 4.0

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This is the biggest study guide yet.. ten questions from every chapter on the exam, that requires thinking and problem solving rather than just recognition. This is designed to be a study aid and c...
Principles Of Biology I
Daryl W. Lam
Study Guide
Biology, Bio114, Study Guide, midterm, exam, exam2, multiple choice, Alabama, Chapter9-13
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Elston on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daryl W. Lam in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 362 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology I in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/16/16
Exam 2 – Biology 114 1. Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as __________. a. Carbon b. Heat c. Oxygen d. Energy does not come from sunlight 2. Cells use chemical energy stored in __________ to regenerate _______, which powers  most cellular work. a. Inorganic molecules, ADP b. Organic molecules, ADP c. Inorganic molecules, ATP d. Organic molecules, ATP 3. NAD  functions as a(n) ___________ during cellular respiration.  a. Organic molecule b. Redox agent c. ATP enzyme d. Electron acceptor 4. What is the second step of aerobic cellular respiration? a. Glycolysis b. Oxidative Phosphorylation c. Citric Acid Cycle d. Electron Transport Chain 5. Oxidative Phosphorylation accounts for almost 90% of the ATP generated by  _____________. a. ADP synthase b. Cellular Respiration c. Alcohol Fermentation d. Oxidative Phosphorylation does not account for ATP 6. Obligate Anaerobes carry out fermentation or anaerobic respiration and cannot survive  when ______ is present.  a. Carbon b. Alcohol c. Pyruvate d. Oxygen 7. Chemiosmosis is defined as:  a. The energy­reducing process of oxidative phosphorylation b. The energy­coupling process of oxidative phosphorylation c. The overview of cellular respiration d. The in depth review of cellular respiration  8. In lactic acid fermentation, __________ is reduced by _________, forming lactate as an  end product. Exam 2 – Biology 114 a. NAD , pyruvate b. NADH, pyruvate c. Pyruvate, NAD + d. Pyruvate, NADH 9. The electron donor is called the __________ in Redox Reactions a. Reductant b. Oxidant c. Electron acceptor d. NaCl 10. The citric acid cycle takes place in the ______________________. a. Mitochondrial matrix b. Intermembrane Space c. Outer membrane d. Cristae 11. Which of the following is NOT true about autotrophs? a. Autotrophs are organisms that sustain themselves without consuming anything  derived from other organisms. b. Autotrophs produce organic molecules from CO  a2d other inorganic molecules. c. Autotrophs are the producers of the Biosphere. d. Autotrophs are completely dependent on heterotrophs for food and oxygen. 12. Chloroplasts ______________ into _________ and __________, incorporating the  electrons of one of the products into sugar molecules. a. Take in sunlight and transfer it, hydrogen, oxygen b. Split water, hydrogen, oxygen c. Perform a dehydration synthesis, hydrogen, oxygen d. Split hydrogen, water, oxygen 13. When a pigment absorbs a photon, it goes from a(n) __________ to a(n) _____________. a. Excited state, stable ground state b. Stable ground state, relaxed state c. Relaxed state, stable ground state d. Stable ground state, excited state 14. The Calvin cycle occurs in the _________ of the chloroplast a. Granum b. Thylakoid c. Stroma d. It occurs in the mitochondria, not the chloroplast 15. Photosystem I is best at absorbing a wavelength of __________. a. 680 nm b. 700 nm c. 720 nm d. 740 nm 16. What is a proton gradient and what creates it? a. A force that powers ATP synthase created by a proton pump b. An enzyme that catalyzes a reaction created by a thylakoid membrane Exam 2 – Biology 114 c. A force that powers ATP synthase created by a thylakoid membrane d. An enzyme that catalyzes a reaction created by a proton pump 17. What are the primary products generated by the photosystems of light reactions of  photosynthesis? (choose two) a. ATP b. ADP c. NADPH d. NAD + 18. What is the order of the Calvin Cycle? a. Carbon fixation – Reduction – Regeneration b. Regeneration – Reduction – Carbon Fixation c. Carbon fixation – Regeneration – Reduction d. Reduction – Regeneration – Carbon Fixation 19. Photorespiration Consumes O2 and organic fuel while releasing _______. a. Carbon b. CO 2 c. Water d. NADPH 20. In photosystem I, the system accepts an electron passed down from PSII via the  __________. a. Proton Gradient b. Direct Sunlight c. Primary electron acceptor d. Electron transport chain 21. A signal transduction pathway is… a. A step by which a proton gradient is created from a proton pump in the thylakoid  membrane b. A series of steps by which a signal on the cell surface is converted into a response c. A series of steps that leads into the Calvin Cycle d. A series of steps that targets a cell near the signal­releasing cell 22. A guanine nucleotide­binding protein acts as an on/off switch. Which position is it  inactive? a. When it is bound to GTP b. When it is bound to ATP c. When it is bound to GDP d. When it is bound to ADP 23. Most signal transduction pathways involve multiple steps, often mediated by _______. a. Signals b. Multistep Pathways c. ATP synthase Exam 2 – Biology 114 d. Enzymes  24. What is one of the most widely used second messengers in signal transduction pathways? a. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate b. Adenylyl Cyclase c. Phosphodiesterase d. Protein kinase 25. What are scaffolding proteins? a. Proteins used to program cell death b. Proteins used to amplify the signals sent throughout the cell c. Large relay proteins to which other signal transduction proteins are attached d. A complex chain of proteins branching from the plasma membrane to the nucleus 26. Apoptosis is essential for the development and maintenance of all animals. Apoptosis  refers to.. a. Programmed cell death b. The intake and waste distribution of cells c. Programmed enzyme activation d. The inactive state of a protein 27. Multistep pathways have two important benefits. Circle the two that are true a. Amplifying the signal b. Sending the signal c. Contributing to the specificity of the response d. Generating a response 28. Which of the following is NOT true about Protein Kinases? a. They are enzymes that phosphorylate other proteins b. The majority of regulatory pathways in all eukaryotic cells are regulated by  protein kinases c. They can autophosphorylate themselves d. Oncogenes directly linked to human cancers do not encode protein kinases, but  instead destroy them 29. A cell’s response to an extracellular signal is sometimes referred to as an  ______________. a. Output response b. Transcription factor c. Signal receptor d. Extracellular response 30. What are the main proteases that carry out apoptosis? a. Aspases b. Caspases c. Enzyme Catalyctic Responders d. Apopteases Exam 2 – Biology 114 31. Multicellular organisms depend on cell division for all of the following EXCEPT: a. Cellular respiration b. Development from a fertilized cell c. Growth d. Maintenance and repair of tissues 32. What is the relationship of Gametes to Somatic Cells? a. Gametes have twice as many chromosomes as somatic cells b. Somatic cells have twice as many chromosomes as gametes c. Somatic cells are only found in males, Gametes are only found in females d. Gametes are only found in males, Somatic cells are only found in females 33. At the end of interphase, the interphase _____________ is disassembled, thus making  possible the formation of the mitotic spindle apparatus early in M phase. a. Pre­Mitotic Spindle apparatus b. Spindle Skeleton c. Microtubule Cytoskeleton d. Endoplasmic Reticulum 34. The assembly of spindle microtubules begins in the centrosome, which functions as the  ________. a. Microtubule organizing center (MTOC) b. Microtubule sorting center (MTSC) c. Microtubule packaging center (MTPC) d. Microtubule distribution center (MTDC) 35. What is a kinetochore? a. A constricted region of a mitotic chromosome that holds sister chromatids  together b. Apparatus that serves to attach the chromosome to the spindle c. The name used when referring to one sister chromatid in a homologous pair d. A centromere­associated protein complex that binds to kinetochore microtubules  of the mitotic spindle 36. What is the order of Mitosis? a. Anaphase – Prophase – Telophase – Metaphase b. Prophase – Metaphase – Anaphase – Telophase c. Prophase – Prometaphase – Metaphase – Anaphase – Telophase d. Prometaphase – Metaphase – Anaphase – Telophase 37. What phase does the nuclear envelope reassemble around each set of daughter  chromosomes in Mitosis? a. Metaphase b. Prophase c. Anaphase d. Telophase Exam 2 – Biology 114 38. An example of a checkpoint that monitors an internal signal is the __________________. a. Spindle attachment checkpoint b. Nuclear envelop formation checkpoint c. Mitosis completion checkpoint d. There are no checkpoints monitoring an internal signal 39. There are four classes of cyclins, each defined by the stage of the cell cycle at which they bind Cdks and regulate their functions. Which cyclin bind Cdks and are required for the  initiation of DNA replication a. G 1 Cyclins b. S­Cyclins c. M­Cyclins d. Cdk­Cyclins 40. Prokaryotes reproduce by a type of cell division called ____________. a. Mitosis b. Meiosis c. Cleavage Furrowing d. Binary Fission 41. A gene’s specific position along a chromosome is called the _______. a. Coordinate b. Pin on a map c. Locus d. Centromere 42. Human somatic cells have _____ pairs of chromosomes, which is equal to ____  chromosomes. a. 22, 44 b. 22, 66 c. 23, 46 d. 23, 69 43. Sex chromosomes determine the sex of the individual, and are called X and Y. What are  the remaining pairs of chromosomes called? a. Autologs b. Autosomes  c. Diploid Chromosomes d. Gene Chromosome 44. A gamete contains a ______ set of chromosomes and is haploid. a. Single b. Double c. Triple d. Quarter 45. ________ are the only types of human cells produced by meiosis, rather than mitosis. Exam 2 – Biology 114 a. Diploid Cells b. Gametes c. Zygotes d. Autologs 46. Which of the following is NOT a phase that occurs in meiosis I. a. Prophase I b. Prometaphase I c. Anaphase I d. Cytokinesis  47. Because of crossing over in Meiosis I, the two sister chromatids of each chromosome… a. Contain twice as much DNA b. Are only attached at the kinetochore c. Are no longer genetically identical d. Crossing over occurs in Meiosis II, not in Meiosis I 48. What is a Gene? a. A specific set of instructions that code for a specific protein b. A set of information that is passed throughout a cell c. One piece of DNA d. A specific protein that codes for a certain feature, such as blonde hair 49. Three events are unique to meiosis, which of the following is NOT one of these events? a. Synapsis and Crossing Over b. Homologous pairs at the metaphase plate c. Separation of homologs d. Production of cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell 50. Which of the following contributes to genetic variation in a population? a. Dependent assortment of Chromosomes b. Mitosis c. Random Fertilization d. Heterozygous Influence  KEY: 1. B 7. B 2. D 8. D 3. D 9. A 4. C 10. A 5. B 11. D 6. D 12. B Exam 2 – Biology 114 13. D 38. A 14. C 39. B 15. B 40. D 16. A 41. C 17. AC 42. C 18. A 43. B 19. B 44. A 20. C 45. B 21. B 46. B 22. C 47. C 23. D 48. A 24. A 49. D 25. C 50. C 26. A 51. 27. AC 52. 28. D 53. 29. A 54. 30. B 55. 31. A 56. WHERE TO FIND EACH QUESTION 32. B 57. Chapter 9: 1­10 33. C 58. Chapter 10: 11­20 34. A 59. Chapter 11: 21­30 35. D 60. Chapter 12: 31­40 36. C 61. Chapter 13: 41­50 37. D


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