PSY 260, Study Guide Exam #2
PSY 260, Study Guide Exam #2 PSY 260
Popular in Personality Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 260 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Jill Kaplan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
CHAPTER 4 I. What are Motives and How Can They Be Measured? a. Motives, instincts, and needs i. Instinct: innate biological urges satisfied by a simple action 1. Freud believes all human motives are based on sex and agression ii. Motive: biologically based and environmentally shaped urges to behave in a particular manner 1. “master motive” = self actualization (Maslow) 2. Henry Murray’s 20 motives (used projective/thematic testing) a. Inanimate objects: n Acquisition, n Order b. Ambition: n Achievement, n Recognition c. Superiority: n Inviolacy, n Defendance d. Sado-Masochism: n Aggression, n Abasement e. Affection: n Affiliation, n Rejection b. Projective measures of Motives i. TAT (thematic apperception test): presented with an ambiguous stimuli and you have to tell a story about it; valid and reliable ii. Motives found: n Achievement, n Power, n Affiliation c. Self-Report i. People have a hard time being honest with themselves ii. Motivation Analysis Test 1. List of items you would agree/disagree with iii. Jackson’s Personality Research Form(PRF) 1. Questions for each of Murray’s 20 needs iv. Lei & Skinner 1. Analyzed PRF; came up with 5 dimensions a. Need for order and achievement b. Dominance and exhibitionism c. Autonomy d. Aggression e. Achievement and endurance v. Forced-Choice Scale Design 1. Item selection made to control impact of social desirability 2. Edward’s Personal Preference Inventory (forced choice q’s) II. How are motives expressed? i. High in achievement: set challenging goals ii. Power motive: direct and legit control over other’s behavior iii. Affiliation: tell stories including companionship, mutual interest, and sympathetic understanding; end up less popular iv. Intimacy: better job satisfaction and marital satisfaction v. Sex Drive and Related Motives: Kinsey, Masters and Johnson vi. Those who score high on sexuality scale are more like to be single, higher interest in dating, date for long periods, get over last relationship quicker, and start dating again, more active dating life in early adulthood b. Maslow’s Hierachy of Needs i. Physiological needs (air, food, water) → safety needs (protection, order, security) → love and belonging → esteem → self-actualization III. What are Emotions and why are they important? a. can be direct connections between motivation and emotion (anger often accompanies aggression; happiness and affiliation (joining others); or emotion can amplify motives) b. Plutchik: 8 basic motives common to many animals and important to successful adaptation; include self-protection, destruction, reproduction, and exploration c. 2 brain areas relating to negative and positive emotional feelings i. Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) 1. Associated with negative emotions, especially anxiety and sadness 2. More activity in right prefrontal cortex= negative ii. Behavioral Facilitation System (BFS) 1. Encourages organism to interact with surroundings 2. Positive Emotions: happiness and joy 3. More activity in left prefrontal cortex when resting d. Darwin i. Argued that facial expressions of emotion evolved to function as a signal system; important to purposes of survival; universal ii. Saw commonalities in facial and other emotions across species iii. Harbor Seals and Chimpanzees mouth feeding; anger in cat and dog pics iv. Brain is designed to connect basic emotion to basic facial expressions e. Paul Ekman i. Facial Affect Coding System (FACS) 1. Coding muscular system of the face as it enters various emotional expressions 2. Asked people to identify facial expressions across countries 3. Curb Your Enthusiasm: FBI trained to pick up on microexpressions lie detector, Homeland Security) 4. Cultural display rules: explained slight difference in expressions across countries a. Rules by which people in a certain culture are taught to express their feelings b. “emotion dialect” f. Spielberger i. Emotions/moods can be transitory states ii. Differ from emotion-related traits which are long-term characteristics describing the individual’s tendency to be fearful, sad, happy, etc. iii. He drew attention to difference between momentary feeling (emotional state) and long term likelihood of a feeling (trait) IV. What are emotional traits and how are they expressed? a. Nowlis i. Researcher for drug companies, developed a mood scale, thought there were 8-12 factors for mood ii. Asked people to check off how much they felt each series of feelings to describe their moods b. Two-Factor Approach (James Russell); more modern approach than Nowlis i. Pleasant-Unpleasant Mood (Affect) Factor ii. Activated-Deactivated Mood (Affect) Factor/ Aroused-Calm iii. MORE: Positive vs. Tiredness iv. Negative vs. Relaxed c. Hans Eysenck i. Wanted to be physicist but developed psychological scales ii. Example: “Do you enjoy going to parties on weekends?” “Do you often worry?” iii. 2 factors based on factor analysis 1. Neuroticism- Stability/Emotionality-Stability 2. Introversion-Extroversion iv. The personality traits and the mood traits correspond when they’re rotated 1. Extroversion-arousal 2. Introversion-calmness 3. Neuroticism-unpleasantness 4. Emotional stability- pleasantness d. The Happiest Students Study i. Diener and Seligman screened 222 college students; happiest 24 selected ii. 24 happiest were; highly satisfied with their lives, nearly never thought about suicide, could recall more positive events than negative ones, more happy emotions than unhappy, good relationships with family and friends iii. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) (scale measuring various psychopathologies) – scored within normal range, 1 exception iv. Had consistently happy moods over 51 day period e. Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) i. To assess children’s happiness CHAPTER 5 I. What are mental models? a. Mental models (or schema) influence our thinking in automatic ways, they are crucial to interpersonal contacts: whether we feel trusted, attacked, insulted, and are important to how we see the world – are we naïve, trusting, gullible? b. Prototype i. Model of an object based on its frequent attributes or most typical features c. Script i. Time ordered sequence of actions ii. Example: script when you go to a fast food restaurant iii. Eric Berne: we chooses among roles of parent, child, or adult as we interact d. Life Story i. The way a person represents the drama of his or her life ii. Used to make an impression of us on others iii. Story a person chooses highlights some aspects of their life e. Relationship Structures/Patterns i. Patterns a person uses in interacting with others f. implicit knowledge i. most of them are unconscious and we learn them through doing other things II. what are our models of ourselves? a. William James i. founder of american psych; self is composed of 2 parts 1. “me” - our mental representation of ourselves 2. “I” - part that is aware and watches, watches the “me” b. Hazel Markus i. Desired Self 1. similar to ideal self 2. positive selves we hope we will become ii. Feared Selves 1. extreme negative selves c. Showers i. compartmentalized selves 1. view themselves as all good or all bad under many conditions, versus those who have selves that are more integrated 2. people with integrated selves have fewer emotionally extreme mood changes and appear most healthy and able to adapt to change d. Carl Jung i. people possess both a conscious self and an opposite, unconscious shadow 1. shadow: info about the self the person could not recognize because it makes them feel uncomfortable ii. man’s female side = anima iii. woman’s male side = animus; Federico Fellini’s movie e. self-efficacy i. one’s self-judged ability to perform a certain task in life f. McAdams i. Redemptive Sequences 1. segments of life stories in which a person can redeem the value of a difficult/traumatic experience ii. Contamination Sequences 1. a person emphasizes the injurious, harmful features of an unfortunate life event g. Higgins i. actual self = who you are ii. ought = who society believes you should be iii. ideal = who you would like to be III. What are our models of the world? a. Formal and Implicit Models i. Formal: learned through education, school ii. Implicit/Informal: gradually learned through living and experiences 1. Practical/Tacit Knowledge a. how the world actually works b. Cantor and Mischel’s hypothesis i. people will store information for “Jane” according to an “extrovert” schema ii. they identified traits that were unrelated, moderately, or highly related to extraversion c. Entity vs. Incremental i. Entity Theorists 1. people who believe that individuals are mostly stables, although they can sometimes change a bit ii. Incremental Theorists 1. believe almost everyone is capable of adaptive, flexible, changing qualities d. Jungian Archetypes i. archetype: a special type of schema, to represent another person ii. located in the collective unconscious; largely the same from one person to another iii. evidence: common phobias: snakes, water, heights iv. uncommon: bicycles, knives, cars IV. What are our models of Relationships? a. Significant Other Models i. we develop patterns with these individuals that we then generalize to others ii. Freud and Transference (the generalization) b. Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT) i. Luborsky and Crits-Christoph ii. began with transcripts from psychotherapy iii. examine them for key themes in relationships, identify those relationship themes and watch for pattern reptition c. Attachment Theories i. 3 types: 1. secure attachment: empathic mirroring, good contact 2. anxiously attached: inconsistent, uncertain 3. anxious-avoidant/conflicted attached: apathetic ii. Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) - Shaver and Fraley iii. Jung’s “persona” - who you think you should be (put on a mask) (ex: student) iv. Hogan’s Socio-Analytical Theory 1. without a role to play, social interaction falls apart v. Morality and Moral Behavior 1. Kohlberg’s moral stages of development (preconventional, conventional, postconventional) V. How good are our mental models? a. Constructive Thinking i. degree to which a person’s implicitly learned mental models facilitate solving problems in everyday life at a minimum cost in stress ii. Positive Aspects: 1. Emotional coping: “I don’t let little things bother me.” 2. Behavioral coping: “When I am faced with a difficult task, I think encouraging thoughts that help me do my best.” iii. Neutral Aspect: 1. Naive Optimism: unrealistic beliefs that everything will turn out well iv. Negative Aspects: 1. Categorical Thinking: “I am very judgemental of people.” 2. Personal Superstitious Thinking: “I’ve learned not to hope too hard because what I hope for usually doesn’t happen” 3. Esoteric Thinking: good luck charms, reading horoscope everyday v. Outcome of it: 1. among business people, predicts superior performance, faster advancement, more satisfaction at home 2. among students, predicts performance at part time jobs, but less so in class CHAPTER 6 I. What is a mental ability? A. defined as the capacity to carry out a mental task B. intelligence - one type of a mental ability C. Marilyn vos Savant 1. IQ=228, average=100 2. highly successful, married to inventor of artificial heart (Jarvik) 3. still writes, authored numerous books, succeeded in numerous financial pursuits D. Measuring Mental Abilities 1. Favoring Elites a) society can reward and promote those with with inherited abilities 2. Favoring a Democratic Impulse a) society can identify those who can learn, independent of inherited wealth II. Which Intelligences Were Studied First? A. Verbal-Propositional Intelligence (and Alfred Binet) 1. includes memory for word meanings 2. rejected sensory-motor approaches - concentrated on mental functions 3. Binet examined what students did in school B. Perceptual-Organizational Intelligence 1. used when people perceive visual patterns, organize the perceptual information in them, and are able to divide the patterns into parts and reconstruct them C. Defining Intelligence 1. capacity to carry out abstract reasoning 2. adapt and adjustment 3. learning (Hennon) 4. neural approaches: modifiability of the nervous system (ex: Pinter) III. How Does Intelligence Develop? A. Binet’s Development of IQ Score 1. noticed his older daughter solved problems better than younger one, no one realized intelligence developed with age before; his test was age graded 2. Mental Age B. IQ proposed by Louis Stern 1. (mental age divided by chronological age)* 100 C. Deviation IQ Concept (Wechsler) 1. based on a person’s standing compared to other people of the same age IV. What is g and What Are Broad Intelligences? A. g, General Intelligence 1. Charles Spearman 2. g=general index of a person’s overall intellectual functioning 3. based on idea that there was a hierarchy of intelligences, with specific mental abilities at the bottom and single general intelligence at the top B. John Carroll’s Three Levels 1. Broad Intelligences a) relates to a particular mode or area of thinking, such as auditory intelligence or verbal intelligence 2. Spatial Intelligence a) understanding how objects move in space; examines people’s capacity to accurately rotate objects in their minds and identify what the rotated object would look like 3. Social Intelligence a) understanding social relations and how to carry out social tasks 4. Practical Intelligence a) understand problems in everyday life that are often left poorly defined; operate on tacit (not explicitly stated) knowledge 5. Emotional Intelligence a) ability to reason with emotions 6. Personal Intelligence a) forming models of people, guiding choices with info. relevant to personality 7. Creative Intelligence a) come up with multiple, novel solutions to problems C. Verbal IQ 1. comprehension: you find a letter with address but no stamp, what do you do? 2. picture completion 3. arithmetic: how many hours does it take 2 people to do a 4 hour job? 4. similarities: how are a computer and car alike? D. Performance IQ 1. Block Design: arrange blocks to form an abstract pattern 2. coding: learn to copy an abstract symbol next to another abstract symbol 3. picture arrangement: complete a puzzle E. “Hot” Intelligences 1. motivational, emotional or social information of direct importance or concern to the individual 2. hot mental abilities are abilities to process and cope with such personally meaningful and important information 3. “cool” - verbal, perceptual, and spatial intelligences V. OTHER TERMS A. intellectual absorption 1. concerns capacity to become involved intellectual problems to the point of losing track of other activities B. schizotypal style 1. cognitive style associated with mental disorder involving odd forms of thinking and perceiving, and behavior eccentricities C. crystallized intelligence 1. knowledge stored about the world that can be applied to the solutions of mental problems D. Assortative Mating 1. tendency for people to marry or otherwise mate with those people who are similar to themselves on particular dimensions or traits
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