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Intro to Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Halia vankirk

Intro to Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide Soci101

Marketplace > Lock Haven University > Scoiology > Soci101 > Intro to Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide
Halia vankirk

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About this Document

This covers everything that were in the 3 chapters for this exam.
Intro to Sociology
Dr. Johnson
Study Guide
Introduction to Sociology, sociology, Exam 2
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Halia vankirk on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soci101 at Lock Haven University taught by Dr. Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Scoiology at Lock Haven University.


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Date Created: 10/16/16
Intro to Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide  Chapter Four - Social Structure & Social Interaction  Macrosociology o Focuses on social structure  The broad features of society  Microsociology o Focuses on social interaction  What people do when they come together  Role o Behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status  Role Set o A number of roles attached to a single status Role Conflict • Incompatibility among roles corresponding to two or more different statuses • Student, mother Role Strain ­ Incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single role set ­ friendship ­ managing Erving Goffman, Dramaturgy & the Self • Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959) • Goffman contributed greatly to the theory of “self” • The theory of “self” is central to symbolic interactionism • One of his major contributions is Dramaturgy • A view of social life as a series of dramatic performance akin to those performed on the stage • Analyzing social life in terms of drama or the stage • In order to maintain a stable self-image, people perform for their audiences • The actors attempt to manage the audience’s impression of them • This is what Goffman called impression management • Front stage • Part of the performance that generally functions in fixed and general ways • Most of our time is spent here • Tend to become institutionalized • Very often actors take on established roles • Back stage • Contains facts suppressed in the front or various kinds of informal actions • Performers can reliably expect no members of their front audience to appear in the back • A performance is likely to become difficult when actors are unable to prevent the audience from entering the back stage • There is also a third, residual domain, the outside, which is neither front nor back • Ethnomethodology • Ethno: folk • Method: how people do something • Ology: the study of • How people use common sense understandings to make sense of life • Background assumptions: your ideas about the way life works • Chapter 5: Social Groups & Formal Organizations • The group • People who have something in common • People who think of themselves as belonging together • The essence if life in society • Also referred to as a social group • Links people to social structure and culture • Aggregate • People who temporarily share the same physical space • Do not see themselves belonging together • Interact little with each other if at all • Category • A collection of people who share characteristics • Do not see themselves belonging together • Do not interact with one another • Primary group • Concept developed by Symbolic Interactionist Charles Horton Cooley • A small group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation • Members think of the group as an end in itself rather than as a means to an end • Secondary groups • As compared with a primary group: • Larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group • Based on some interest or activity • Members are likely to interact on the basis of specific statuses • Members think of the group as a means to an end • Some secondary groups form voluntarily • Voluntary associations • Groups made up of people who voluntarily organize on the basis of some mutual interest • The scale may vary • The US has numerous voluntary associations • A particular type of voluntary association may split into varieties, signified with separate signs • In-group • A social group commanding a member’s esteem and loyalty • Team members develop a sense of group identity and a feeling of belonging • Think of yourselves as “we” • Out-group • A social group to which a person does not belong • Think of them as “them” • Generates loyalty to one’s own in-group, and tension and conflict between the out-group • The historical change from tradition to rationality as the dominant mode of human thought • Max Weber emphasized how human ideas shape society • To compare social patterns, he used the ideal type • Ideal Type • An abstract statement of the essential characteristics of any social phenomenon • Rationalization created the bureaucracy and McDonaldization • Georg Simmel analyzed group size effects on peoples’ behavior • Dyad • The smallest possible group, consists of two people • Triad • A group of three people • Coalition • The alignment of some members of a group against others • Group think • A narrowing of thought by a group of people • Leads to the perception that there is only one correct answer • Even to suggest alternatives is a sign of disloyalty • Usually happens in small groups with powerful leaders • The tendency of group members to conform by adopting a narrow view of some issue • Consensus becomes paramount • Members do not want • to break it • Chapter 6: Deviance & Social Control • Deviance • A behavior, belief, or condition that violates the norms, rules, or expectations of a group or society • Crime • A behavior that violates norms or rules that have been written into law • Stigma • Characteristics or “blemishes” that discredit a person’s claim to a “normal” identity • Used by Erving Goffman • Stigmas can become the master status • Social Order • A groups usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives • Social order and predictability may be undermined by deviance • Social Control • A group’s formal and informal means of enforcing its norms • Attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behaviors • Negative Sanctions • An expression of disapproval for breaking a norm • Used to punish rule breakers and non-conforming acts • Positive Sanctions • An expression of approval for following a norm • Used to reward conforming behavior • Sociobiology • Explain deviance as found within the individual (biology) • Genetic predisposition • Inborn tendencies and inherited propensities • Tendencies and propensities are modified and stimulated by environment • Universal constant: Men commit more violent crimes than women do • Psychology • Explain deviance as abnormalities within the individual (personality) • Personality disorder • The view that a personality disturbance of some sort causes an individual to violate social norms • Sociology • Explain deviance as a result of factors outside the individual (society) • Social influences that “recruit” people to break norms • Examine external influences • Apply the three main sociological theories • Differential Association Theory • Developed by Edwin Sutherland • People who associate with some groups learn an “excess of definitions” of deviance • This increases the likelihood that they will become deviant • All deviance is learned • Control Theory • Developed by Walter Reckless • The idea that two control systems work against our tendencies to deviate • Inner controls • Internalized morality • Outer controls • People who influence us not to deviate and conform to society’s norms • Labeling Theory • The view that the labels people are given affect their own and other’s perceptions of them • Focuses on the significance of labels and reputations • Deviance and conformity result from how others respond to what people do • Some people reject labels • Techniques of neutralization • Ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people deflect society’s norms • Some people embrace labels • Deviance becomes part of identity • Social Bonding Theory • Developed by Travis Hirschi • Seeks to answer the question: Why don’t people commit crime? • Proposes that a key difference between people who conform and those who are deviant is the extent to which they are bonded to social groups • Social bonds are made up of four elements • Attachments • Commitments • Involvements • Beliefs • The stronger our bonds are with society, the more effective our inner controls are • Functionalist Perspective • Most societies think of deviance as dysfunctional • Functional theorists would point out that deviance can actually serve as a function • Emile Durkheim • Deviance, including crime, is functional for society • It contributes to the social order in three ways: • Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms • Deviance encourages social unity • Deviance promotes social change • Functionalists argue that crime is a natural outcome of social conditions • The industrialized world creates cultural goals to motivate skilled people to compete • Cultural goals • The objectives held out as legitimate or desirable for the members of a society to achieve • Not everyone can reach these goals • Lack of access to the institutionalized means • Institutionalized means • Approved ways of reaching cultural goals • Strain Theory • Developed by Robert Merton • Strain is created when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal • Subsequently withholds from some the institutionalized means of reaching that goal • Those that are blocked from access experience anomie • They feel frustration (strain) • They adapt through deviant means


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