PSB 2000 Exam 2 Study Guide
PSB 2000 Exam 2 Study Guide PSB 2000--0001
Popular in Introduction to Brain and Behavior
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Makayla Ratajczak on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSB 2000--0001 at Florida State University taught by Briana Caroll in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Brain and Behavior in Psychology (PSYC) at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Introduction to Brain and Behavior Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 Synaptic Transmission (PP 5b) I. What does it mean that the neuron is said to be polarized? Across what voltage range would a neuron be hyperpolarized? Depolarized? A. hyper polarize from 70mV to 72 mV (negative to rest) B. depolarize from 70mV to 67mV (positive to rest) C. polarized resting potential with the 70mV charge built up across the membrane II. How can synapses be categorized? A. postsynaptic and presynaptic III. What is exocytosis and how does it work? A. exocytosis the process by which neurotransmitters are released from vesicles in the synaptic cleft 1. transport proteins help fill each vesicle with NT prior to exocytosis 2. triggered by a large influx of calcium in terminal button IV. What is a neurotransmitter receptor? What are the two main types of receptors? How do they differ? A. NT receptors proteins that contain binding sites for particular NTs B. Ligandgated channel associated with Ionotropic receptor 1. NT activates channels that allow ions to pass membrane C. Metabotropic receptors associated w/ signal proteins and Gproteins 1. NT action at receptor changes protein signaling inside neurons; a G protein inside the postsynaptic neuron to induce changes. V. Why is neurotransmitter clearance important? How does it occur? A. It’s important to clear out synapse so it’s ready for the next round of neurotransmission 1. allows rate coding 2. prevents receptor desensitization B. Reuptake C. Enzymatic Degradation (like recycling) VI. How can drugs interfere with neurotransmission? A. Agonist drugs blocks the deactivation of NT molecules by blocking degradation or reuptake B. Antagonist drugs are receptor blocker; binds to the postsynaptic receptors and the block effects of NT VII. Know the classes of neurotransmitters, and the features of each class, and which neurotransmitters fall into each group. A. Amino Acids are fastacting, small, and conventional 1. Glutamate a) most common excitatory NT 2. GABA a) most common inhibitory NT B. Monoamines are from a single amino acid 1. Dopamine 2. Epinephrine AKA adrenaline 3. Norepinephrine AKA noradrenaline 4. Serotonin C. Acetylcholine are small, and conventional 1. used in Autonomic, Somatic, and Central Nervous system a) motor neurons synapse onto muscle fibers b) neuromuscular junction D. Unconventional goes form post to pre 1. Gaseous NTs (CO and NO) 2. Endocannabinoids E. Neuropeptides are large proteins 1. Hormones 2. braingut peptides 3. Opioids Understand the following terms: VIII. Endogenous naturally occurring inside the body IX. exogenous not naturally occurring X. Autoreceptor metabotropic receptors that bind to their neurons own NT molecule, and they’re located on the presynaptic. XI. Gap junction narrow spaces btwn adj cells that are bridged by fine, tubular, cytoplasm filled protein channels XII. Neurotransmitter system specific chemicals and the receptors at which they act Chapter 5 Techniques for altering neural activity I How can electrical stimulation tell us about the function of a brain structure? A. Clues about the function of a neural structure can be obtained by stimulating it electrically. B. Electrical stimulations of the brain is an important biopsychological research tool because it often has behavioral effects, usually opposite to those produced by a lesion to the same site. XIII. Relate to the action potential/neural activity. A. MultipleUnit Recording 1. A small electrode records the action potentials of many nearby neurons. These are added up and plotted on a graph. XIV. How can we measure natural activity of a single neuron? A. Intracellular Unit Recording 1. records the membrane potential from one neuron as it fires. XV. Understand the optogenetic experiment by Von Dort (2015). A. Optogenetics – Precisely timed neuronal activation (or inactivation) 1. Von Dort 2015 2. Gene for channel rhodopsin inserted into genetic code but only expressed in Ach Neurons. 3. Genetic manipulation allows control of activity of specific neurons. 4. Optogenetics provides a way to active certain neurons with precise timing to determine their role in behavior. Chapter 6 The Visual System I What qualities of the stimulus correspond the perceptions of color and brightness? B. Wavelength is perceived as color. C. The number of photons is perceived as brightness, or intensity. XVI. How does visual transduction occur, and how does it affect the activity of photoreceptors and other retinal cells? A. Visual transduction conversion of light to neural signals XVII. Photoreceptors, bipolar and ganglion cells have a function that differs from that of amacrine and horizontal cells. What are these 2 general functions? A. Photoreceptors, bipolar, and ganglion cells carry information towards the brain by moving it from the back of the retina where the signal is transduced towards the optic nerve. B. Instead of carrying information forward, amacrine and horizontal cells modify the signal as it moves forward because of lateral inhibition. XVIII. What is lateral inhibition, how does it occur in the retina, and how does it influence perception? A. lateral inhibition inhibition of adj neurons or receptors in a topographic array. B. this process greatly increases the visual system's ability to respond to edges of a surface. 1. neurons responding to the edge of a stimulus respond more strongly than do neurons responding to the middle. The "edge" neurons receive inhibition only from neighbors on one side the side away from the edge. 2. Neurons stimulated from the middle of a surface get inhibition from all sides. XIX. How do rods and cones differ in: Activity? Stimulus? Location? Input to bipolar cells? A. Cones: 1. provides high acuity colored perceptions (in good lighting) 2. only a few cones converge on each retinal ganglion cell to receive input from only a few cons. B. Rods: 1. Provides high sensitivity (in dim lighting) but lacks detail and color 2. output of several hundred rods converge on a single retinal ganglion cell XX. What is trichromacy and how is it influenced by three different cone types A. Trichromacy suggests that their are 3 different types of color receptors (cones), and each with a differential spectral sensitivity. B. long wavelengths are seen as red light C. medium wavelengths are seen as green light D. short wavelengths are seen as blue light XXI. Why do afterimages occur? A. Since cones respond to specific wavelengths of light, they can become fatigued if exposed to that one wavelength for a while XXII. Be able to diagnose lesions in the optic nerve, tract, and chiasm based on their effect on the visual field. A. Optic nerve right side B. optic Chiasm C. right optic tract XXIII. Where does visual information travel from the retina? A. The retinageniculatestriate pathways conducts signals from each retina to the primary visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nuclei. XXIV. How does hierarchical organization and functional segregation occur in the visual system? In particular know how damage to the dorsal vs ventral streams might disrupt perception/behavior. A. Hierarchical Organization 1. flow of visual information a) Thalamus b) 1st visual (striate) cortex c) 2nd visual (prestriate) cortex d) visual association cortex 2. as visual information flows through hierarchy, neurons respond to more distinct visual features B. Functional Segregation: 1. Dorsal stream: pathway from primary visual cortex into posterior parietal cortex a) The “where” pathway (location and movement), or b) Pathway for the control of behavior (e.g., reaching) c) Damage results in Hemispatial neglect Don’t attend to part of visual field 2. Ventral stream: pathway from primary visual cortex into inferotemporal cortex a) The “what” pathway (color and shape), or b) Pathway for the conscious perception of objects c) damage results in Visual Agnosia Can’t visually recognize objects Understand these terms: I Pupil hole in center of iris. controls light entry XXV.Lens refracts light dynamically. changes to adjust focal distance A. Accommodation flattens lens to focus on far away objects, biconvex lens to focus on close objects XXVI. Retina lightsensitive neural tissue, transduce light to electrical signals, and sends information to brain via optic nerve XXVII. Photoreceptors rods and cones XXVIII. Optic nerve transmits impulses to the brain from the retina at the back of the eye. XXIX. Fovea indentation at center of retina that’s specialized in highacuity XXX. Peripheral retina outside of fovea and has poor acuity, but high sensitivity Chapter 7 Section 1 Sensory System Organization I What is the difference between sensation and perception? Where does each occur? A. Sensation the physical detection of a stimulus by the receptors of a sensory system and unconscious processing of that stimulus 1. outside world B. Perception conscious understanding of the stimulus, higher cortical processing required. 1. inside our bodies XXXI. We talked about 4 ways sensory systems are similar; be able to give an explanation of each. A. They are limited 1. Light 2. UV rays B. input = stimulus 1. nervous system perceptually labels senses differently; labels do not necessary reflect the nature of the stimulus. a) we perceive sound as audition which is really just movement of air particles. Same for color which is really just radiation. C. Stimulus triggers electrochemical signals 1. transduction D. Similarities in how input is coded and analyzed 1. hierarchical organization XXXII. What is transduction and where does it occur? A. Transduction the conversion of one form of energy to another form. B. occurs when stimulus encounter receptor cells/sensory cells 1. receptor cells are located in sensory organs/sensory structures in peripheral nervous system XXXIII. Know the features of hierarchical organization. A. Association cortex, secondary sensory cortex, and primary sensory cortex are all involved in perception. B. Functional Segregation Each level in hierarchy organization contains different functional areas C. Parallel Processing Each functional area processes it input simultaneously More complex & specific Less complex & specific with other areas 1. also some topdown connections which allow for attentional modulations Chapter 7 Section 2 Audit ory System I. What are amplitude, loudness, frequency, and pitch. How are they related to each other? A. Frequency the speed at which these vibrations travel. 1. measured in Hz 2. also known as pitch B. Amplitude the strength of these vibrations 1. measured in dB 2. also known as loudness II. What do the outer ear, middle ear and inner ear consist of? What is the main function of each of those 3 areas? A. Outer Ear 1. Pinna 2. External auditory canal B. Middle Ear amplifies the signal & mechanically links outer and inner ear 1. Tympanic Membrane (eardrum) 2. Ossicles (malleus/hammer, incus/anvil, stapes/stirrups) C. Inner Ear 1. Cochlea (for audition) 2. Semicircular Canal (for vestibular sensations like balance, motion detection) III. What is the sequence of events from the sound wave entering the ear canal to the hair cell being stimulated? A. Sound enters outer ear and vibrates tympanic membrane ossicles B. Ossicle movement starts wave at oval window C. Wave travels down vestibular canal and tympanic canal D. Along its way, the wave moves flexible membranes E. Propagates a second wave in middle canal F. Second wave moves tectorial membrane, activates hair cells G. Initial wave is released at round window IV. What kind of channels allow hair cell activation A. When hairs bend, ion channel are pulled open then potassium enters and depolarizes the hair cell V. What pathway does auditory information take in the brain? A. activated hair cells release glutamate onto the auditory nerve B. Auditory nerve cell bodies are in spiral ganglion and they synapse at cochlear nucleus in hindbrain (1) C. bilateral projections to superior olives (2) 1. sound localization. D. Superior olive neurons synapse in inferior colliculus (3) 1. IC neurons helps orient towards sound source E. Inferior colliculus neurons synapse in the thalamus (4) 1. Medial geniculate nucleus 2. relay to primary auditory cortex VI. What is tonotopicity? How does it relate to the cochlea and cortex? What does the association cortex do with auditory information? A. Tonotopicity is the spatial arrangement of where sounds of different frequencies are processed in the brain. B. The Cochlea and the auditory cortex are organized tonotopically. C. Sensory actions, such a hearing, do occur in the association cortex, and there is a lot of evidence of sensory interactions in the areas of the primary sensory cortex. Chapter 8 Motor Output I. Compare the hierarchy of motor output to the hierarchy of sensory input. A. motor output is guided by sensory input B. the signals flow down through each level of the hierarchy and each tier has their specific task to complete. II. What are the functions of the two sensorimotor association cortices? A. The Posterior Parietal Association Cortex and the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Association Cortex both get input from the sensory cortex, and provides input to the motor cortex III. What are the functions of the primary and secondary motor cortices? A. Primary motor cortex 1. located in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe 2. major point of convergence of cortical sensorimotor signals 3. major, but not the only, point of departure of sensorimotor signals from the cerebral cortex 4. The somatotopic (organized according to the map of the surface of the body) layout is commonly referred to as the motor homunculus B. Secondary motor cortex 1. input mainly from the Association cortex 2. output mainly to Primary motor cortex 3. Is comprised of the supplementary motor area and the premotor cortex 4. complex bilateral movements 5. active prior to and throughout movement IV. What is contralateral neglect? A. the disturbance of a patient’s ability to respond to stimuli on the side of the body opposite to the side of the brain lesion, in the absence of simple sensory or motor deficits. V. What are mirror neurons? A. neurons that fire when an individual performs a particular goaldirected hand movement or when he or she observes the same goaldirected movement performed by another. VI. Compare and contrast the 2 descending motor pathways. A. the descending dorsolateral and ventromedial pathways are similar because both are composed of two major tracts. one descends directly to the spinal cord and the other whose axon synapse in the in the brain stem on neurons that in turn descend to the spinal cord B. Ventromedial tracts 1. innervate interneurons on both sides of spinal gray matter and in several different segments. 2. activated motor neurons project to proximal muscles of trunk and limbs a) shoulder muscles C. Dorsolateral tracts 1. axons terminate in the contralateral half of one spinal cord segment, sometimes directly onto a motor neuron. 2. activated motor neurons projects to distal muscles a) finger muscles VII. What is the neuromuscular junction and what cells and neurotransmitters are involved? What is a motor unit, and why do motor units differ in size? A. neuromuscular junction where motor neurons synapse on muscle fibers at 1. Acetylcholine allows calcium to enter muscles fiber 2. Calcium, and ATP, mediate interaction btwn thick and thin filaments B. Motor unit the smallest units of motor activities 1. comprised of a single motor neuron and all of the individual skeletal muscles 2. motor units differ appreciably in the number of muscles fibers contained a) few fibers permits the higher degree of selective motor control (1) fingers, face muscles, etc VIII. Be able to identify the cortical lobes that contain the primary sensory and motor cortices. Which regions contains a homunculus? A. The frontal lobe contains primary sensory and motor cortices B. the precentral gyrus contains primary motor cortex aka homunculus IX. What are upper and lower motor neurons. Which would be involved in conscious movement vs. a reflexive movement? A. Upper motor neurons 1. neurons of the primary motor cortex 2. activity causes conscious movement B. Lower motor neurons 1. motor neurons of the spine 2. activity causes reflexive movement C. upper motor neurons fires a command to the lower motor neurons which fires to appropriate area Techniques I. Compare MRI and fMRI. How does each work? Which is structural vs functional imaging and why? A. MRI magnetic resonance imaging, shows high resolution image of brain structure 1. constructed from measurements of waves emitted by hydrogen atoms that’ve been activated within a magnetic field A. fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging, provides structural and functional image 1. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) locates oxygenated blood based on its interference w/ the waves emitted by hydrogen ions II. Why do functional imaging techniques usually employ pairedimage subtraction, and what does this entail? A. Use pairedimage subtraction to isolate signal (activity related to simple cognitive process) from noise (other activity not of interest) Modulation of Motor Output I. What are the general roles of the cerebellum and basal ganglia in sensorimotor control? A. Coordinate and Modulate B. Cerebellum “little brain” 1. coordinating movement 2. learning practiced movements 3. some aspects of cognition A. Basal Ganglia 1. modulate motor output 2. cognitive functions a) motivation and reward b) habit learning II. What are symptoms of disrupted cerebellar function? A. uncoordinated and inaccurate movement III. Why is “basal ganglia” a misnomer? A. ganglia is a bundle of interconnected nuclei in the Peripheral nervous system IV. Know the basic connectivity of the basal ganglia with that thalamus and cortex, and why “disinihibition” is important. A. Basla ganglia disinhibit thalamus to allow movement B. inhibit unwanted movement V. What is the cause of Huntington’s disease, and its symptoms? A. Cause: 1. loss of neurons in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globes pallidus 2. too little inhibition on the thalamus B. Symptoms 1. jerking 2. uncontrollable movement of limbs, trunk, and face 3. twitches 4. tremors 5. disorder of personality
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